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Investigation of Sub-surface Geology through Integrated Approach of Geological and Geophysical Studies in the Part of South-eastern Maharashtra, India

Md. Babar , Muley R.B.
American Journal of Water Resources. 2018, 6(3), 123-136. DOI: 10.12691/ajwr-6-3-3
Published online: August 07, 2018

Abstract

Groundwater study is carried out in the Parbhani district using the field and geophysical investigations in order to understand the sub-surface geology and groundwater potential of the area. The area under investigation is characterised by the presence of basaltic lava flows of nearly horizontal nature. The basalt flows are classified in to two broad categories i.e. vesicular-amygdaloidal (compound pahoehoe type) flow and compact basalt (aa type) simple flow depending on their geomorphic expression and nature of the flow. In the present study an attempt is made to explore the groundwater bearing formations through the well inventory data of 147 wells from 15 different locatins and the geophysical exploration using the Schlumberger vertical electrical resistivity sounding at 12 different locations with AB/2 105 m and MN/2 10 to 15 m using inverse slope method. The hydrogeological interpretation based on resistivity models reveal the water horizons trap within the weathered/fractured basalt flows. The results of the resistivity models decipher potential aquifer lying between 30 m and 40 m depth, nevertheless, it corroborates with the static water level measurements in the area of study.

1. Introduction

Water is one of the vital resources for development of any region. For a country like India, which has 65% of its agriculture rain fed, water turns out to be the basic and most important resource for agricultural production as well as sustenance of human and animal life. Water is crucial not only for the agricultural sector but also for realizing the full potential of national development. Optimum development and efficient utilization of water resources, therefore, assume great significance.

There is ever-increasing demand for freshwater resources to meet the requirement of domestic, agricultural and industrial sectors. The groundwater pollution and over-exploitation of sub-surface water posed a serious stress on the available resources in the nation. In many parts of the country, groundwater development has already reached a critical stage, resulting in acute scarcity of the resource.

Geophysical survey found huge applications in hydrogeological studies. Electrical resistivity methods are successfully functioning to estimate the thickness of the rock formation and also the electrical character of the formation. Resistivity exploration provides valuable information regarding the groundwater potential 1. In the present study, an attempt has been made to identify the sub-surface geological formations and groundwater potential zones for appropriate management of the water resources. The geophysical investigation techniques have been applied successfully for interpreting the characteristics of substrata by using microprocessor based resistivity meter in order to evaluate the subsurface condition and depth of groundwater.

Parbhani district lies between 18° 45' and 20° 10' N latitude and between 76° 13' and 77° 39' E longitude (Figure 1). With an area of 6,511.58 sq. km. the district hold total population of 1835932. There is one municipal corporation, seven Municipal councils, 9 Panchayat Samities and 704 Gram Panchayats in the district with a total number of 848 villages.

As a part of the Deccan Plateau, the land of the district has a general elevation of about 457.50 metres above the sea level. Its highest and lowest levels being 579.73 metres in the Jintur range about 12.87 km north of Charthana village and 366.0 metres above sea level on the Godavari bank near the point where the river crosses over the district boundary. Pathri (except its northern part), Gangakhed and Parbhani tahsils are plain topographically. The tahsils lying to the south are also plain to gently sloping, but terrain in the parts of Jintur, Palam and Sonpeth tahsils are hilly and mountainous in nature. The area belongs to semi-arid and subtropical climate with average annual rainfall of 774.59 mm.

2. Material and Methods

The well inventory is carried out at 15 different locations through wells of the study area. The study of subsurface geology is helpful in understanding the jointing pattern, fractures and weathering of various kinds of basalt like compact basalt, amygdaloidal basalt and tachylitic basalt occurring below the surface. The data is collected from 147 existing dug wells through the well inventory.

The inverse slope vertical electrical resistivity (VES) method as suggested by 2 is used to investigate the nature of subsurface formation by studying the variations in their electrical properties. This method assumes considerable importance in the field of ground water exploration because of its ease of operation, low cost and its capability to distinguish between the saline and fresh water zone. This method was tested widely in India, using it in different geological situations. It was found to give good results correlating well with borehole data. This method is simple and gives resistivity values and depths directly from the plot of the field data on a linear graph. In the present study 12 VES data are collected using DDR3 Resistivity meter (Model – SSR MP-ATS) made by Integrated Geo Instruments & Services Private Limited, Hyderabad. Resistivity in the study area varies from 1.076 Ωm to 115.008 Ωm and this has been correlated by the borehole data.

3. Geology

The Parbhani district is occupied by the rocks belonging to the Deccan trap formation, (Figure 2) represented by almost horizontal lava flows of basaltic composition, which have been emplaced from fissures towards the close of the Mesozoic era (i.e. late Cretaceous), on to the lower Tertiary era (early Eocene). These are referred to a Deccan traps owing to their prevalent occurrence in the Deccan, and the step-like appearance of their exposures. They have a general tendency to form flat-topped hills giving rise to plateaus, comprising several lava flows, each ranging from a few meters 10 to 15 meters in thickness. The various lithological units forming a flow may be differentiated from one another from their physical characteristics, such as their texture, jointing development, and mineralogical peculiarities. The Deccan basalts in general exhibit typical spheroidal weathering, concentric layers simulating an onion being development in weathered boulders. Some of these flows are characterized by the presence of a unit comprising well-developed columnar joints.

The basalts give rise to either deep brown to rich red or black cotton soil (regur). The regur is rich in plant nutrients such as lime, magnesia, iron, variable amount of potash and low nitrogen and phosphorous. It is generally porous and swells considerably on addition of water and dries up with distinct cracks on losing the moisture.

In study area the Deccan Basalts are mainly of two types such as vesicular-amygdalodal basalt flows (pahoehoe type) and compact basalt flows (aa type) along with other associated features like bands and intrusions of Tachylytic basalt, volcanic breccias etc.

These two basalt flows have distinct field characters, important from the point of view of water bearing nature, which is described below:

3.1. Hydrogeological Characters of Basalt Flows

The availability and quantity of groundwater depend upon hydrological characters of basalt flows and associated features. As basalts are formed after cooling and solidification of lava, no pore spaces occur in them. Therefore, no pore water occurs in fresh, un-decomposed basalt. In basalt water occurs only in joint planes and fractures occurring in basalt. Amygdaloidal basalt containing gas cavities is always free from joints when they are fresh, whereas compact basalt, which is free from gas cavities is found to have joints. The hydrological characters of these rocks are explained below.

3.2. Hydrological Characters of Amygdalodial Basalt Flows

In amygdaloidal basalt original gas cavities are filled up with secondary minerals obliterating their original vesicular nature. In addition to this, they are unjointed therefore; they occur as homogeneous, watertight mass in fresh, unweathered conditions (Figure 3a & b). Therefore, no rain water percolates through fresh amygdaloidal basalt to form groundwater. It is observed that the vesicular – amygdaloidal basalt flow is more susceptible to weathering and exhibits deep weathering profile. It is characterized by the formation of sheet joints. Such weathered amygdaloidal basalt contains groundwater (Figure 4). However, quantity of groundwater depends upon the thickness and extent of weathered zone 3, 4.

3.3. Hydrological Characters of Compact Basalt Flows

Every compact basalt flow can broadly be demarcated into two parts according to their hydrological characters. The top portion of compact basalt flow is always vesicular, amygdaloidal, unjointed and watertight in fresh condition. Only in weathered condition groundwater occurs in it due to development of sheet jointing and secondary porosity. Therefore, if fresh amygdaloidal top portion of compact basalt flow is exposed at the surface no rain water percolates through it. If the weathered and sheet jointed amygdaloidal top portion of the flow is exposed at the surface, then only rain water enters through it forming groundwater.

When jointed middle and lower portions of compact basalt flow are exposed at the surface, rain water percolates through joints forming groundwater. However quantity of percolation of water depends upon joint spacing and pattern of jointing.

In closely spaced jointed basalt considerable quantity of rain water percolate through joints (Figure 5a &b). But if joints are broadly spaced limited quantity of water percolates through it. Basalt having inconsistent jointing occurs as watertight mass even though it is jointed. Joints generally open out at the surface but gradually, at the lower level, they become tight and occur as only weak planes.

Although water percolates through the joints of compact basalt, large percolation up to deeper level, cannot take place and therefore, compact basalt always holds limited quantity of groundwater.

4. Groundwater Characteristics of the Study Area

Water table in Deccan trap region generally varies with topography and the nature of aquifer 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10. The rainfall also plays an important role in the water level fluctuation.

The inherent low porosity and low hydraulic conductivity of basalts implies that the Deccan basalts possess low to moderate storativity and transmissivity 11. The potential of groundwater is more, when the transmissivity is enhanced i.e. if the basalts are transacted by fracture zones. Typical un-jointed compact basalts do not have the ability to store groundwater, whereas the vesicular-amygdaloidal basalts due to presence of vesicles (open gas cavities) and amygdales (gas cavities filled by secondary minerals) tend to be more deeply weathered and jointed. However, the presence of vesicles and amygdales is not only the deciding factor, but also a combination of weathering; jointing and fracture patterns over a particular lithology often enhance the potential of basalt aquifers on a local scale. The groundwater potential map of the study area is given in Figure 6.

It is also observed that in Jintur tahsil, wells are lined for deeper level by concrete lining method in which the voids are totally and it restrict the percolation of water from shallow level aquifer in to the well. In some part of Purna tahsil wells are lined for deeper level by masonry rubbles, through which percolation of water from shallow aquifer takes place in the wells.

The well inventory is carried out in the specific localities of the study area. The wells are studied with reference to location, altitude, diameter, depth, lining, depth of water level and thickness and type of lithounits. The subsurface lithology is illustrated with the help of lithologs and well inventory given in Figure 7 to Figure 21. The subsurface lithology identified at Katneshwar (Figure 7), Yerandeshwar (Figure 8), Parbhani (Figure 9) and Isad (Figure 16) illustrate the sequence of deep regolith (Soil and murum) followed by jointed compact basalt. It is observed the litho-sequence of top regolith (Murum) layer followed by weathered amygdaloidal basalt and bottom jointed compact basalt sequence is found at the areas of Ekrukha (Figure 10), Rudhi (Figure 12), Zari (Figure 13), Dudhgaon village (Figure 14), Takli Kumbhakaran (Figure 18) and Kolha (Figure 19). The litho-sequence of top regolith (Murum) layer followed by weathered amygdaloidal basalt at bottom is observed at the areas of Kerwadi (Figure 17). The litho-sequence of top regolith (Murum) layer followed by jointed compact basalt and unjointed compact basalt is found at the areas of Zari in Parbhani tahsil (Figure 11), Jogwada (Figure 15) and Pohe Takli (Figure 21). The litho-sequence of Deulgaon Awchar is quite different from the above litho-sequences in the form of Regolith (soil and murun) – weathered amygdaloidal basalt – jointed compact basalt – volcanic breccia in downward succession (Figure 20).

5. Geophysical Exploration

The role of geophysical methods in groundwater exploration is vital. Its chief aim is to understand the hidden subsurface hydrogeological conditions precisely and adequately. Geophysical explorations for groundwater are dependent on the facts that rock formations differ in their electrical behaviour. Geophysical explorations for groundwater includes both surface and sub surface techniques. It measures the variation in current flow, potential resistivity etc. Geophysical method provides indirect picture of sub-surface formation by measuring various physical parameter of the earth crust. The electrical resistivity survey by far is most suitable method for groundwater exploration. Resistivity is an important measure of the capacity of the rock to allow an electric current through it. Dry, dense, compact and pore-less rock offers a greater resistance to electric current compared to porous, wet and saturated rocks. The geoelectrical resistivity value of the surface to the depth in a rock mass, at a point is known as vertical electrical sounding (VES).

In order to understand the geophysical characteristics of Deccan basalt in the area, the study was carried out with an idea to delineate the potential aquifer zones that can be trapped within the basaltic rocks. The integrated geophysical survey includes the 1-D vertical electrical sounding (VES). The individual trappean flows in the area can be easily identified geologically at shallow depths with the help of 0.6–1.5 m (even more) thick marker horizons of red boles. However, to understand the basaltic layers and its geological set-up, the geophysical resistivity survey was carried out at 12 different sites by inverse slope method for which the graphs are directly obtained from the equipment using Schlumberger configuration (for 105 m AB/2). Due to large heterogeneity and variability in terms of resistivity of hard rock, it was planned and carried out in nearby bore wells in order to obtain the characteristic resistivity for different layers and to get more clearly realistic picture of the sub-surface lithology. Bose and Ramakrishna 12 had shown that a combination of resistivity sounding and profiling is more effective in tackling problems for the location of wells in the Deccan Trap area.

Depth of the occurrence of groundwater and location of well sites can be determined more precisely by electrical resistivity method. Hydraogeoelectric Characteristics of the Harsul area Aurangabad city has been carried out by 13. Senthil Kumar et al 14, 15 pointed out that the electrical resistivity studies help geologists for the determination of hydraulic characteristics of aquifers. The characterization of lineaments to locate groundwater potential zones 16, flow pattern of groundwater 17 and estimation of natural recharge 18 are also possible through electrical resistivity methods. Even the electrical resistivity studies have also been employed to swot up groundwater pollution 19, to achieve groundwater modelling and to estimate groundwater recharge 20, 21.

Twelve resistivity soundings were carried out throughout the study area. The general hydrological condition was obtained on the basis of geomorphology setting and lithological character of rock exposed in dug wells. Representative area of different hydrogeological environment was selected for resistivity survey. The Schlumberger configuration of spaced electrodes was used in the survey. The current electrodes were spaced 105 m apart.

The VES investigations revealed the presence of three prominent geo-electric layers under prevailing hydrodynamic conditions. They correspond to the upper soil layer, weathered mantle and the basement rock.

The geophysical studies indicate that the intermediate weathered zone and the fractured rocks constitute a single aquifer system of varied hydraulic conductivity under water table condition. Lithology and groundwater conditions, as inferred from the VES, as well as hydrological studies, are in agreement with the nearby wells. VES findings of these regions indicate that the occurrence and movement of groundwater take place mostly within the weathered and fractured rocks ``under unconfined condition.

Twelve resistivity soundings, which were carried out throughout the study area and obtained of the resistivity, compared with the standard value of different unit of basalt and then plotted for their curve. The apparent resistivity curves are shown in Figure 22 to Figure 23 and data is given in Table 1.

Interpretation was made by the method suggested by 2, 22. The data obtain is presented in Table 2. The generalized range of the resistivity value for different litho units in basaltic terrain is as given below (Table 2).

6. Conclusion

Based on the resistivity variations both depth wise and laterally, it is possible to estimate the depth and the lateral distribution of groundwater. The low resistivity values less than 40 Ωm are distributed around Parbhani, Rudhi, Zari 2, Dudhgaon 1 and 2, indicate the presence of weathered zones (first aquifer) which are favourable for groundwater accumulation. This is unconfined aquifer and sites are also suitable for surface artificial recharge structures. Thus it is concluded that processing and interpretation of electrical resistivity data yield apparent resistivity for different electrode separations which, in turn, correspond to lateral resistivity distribution at different depths. Higher resistivity i.e. resistivity from 30 Ωm to 115 Ωm is observed at Katneshwar 1 and 2, Yerandeshwar 3 and Zari 1. The resistivity data represented low and high resistivity zones. These are also correlated with local geological setting for a semi quantitative interpretation of potential groundwater zones. However, this is also useful for suggesting sites and depths for artificial recharge.

Based on the available information and the geophysical investigations it is concluded that the study area in Parbhani district is considered to have medium to good groundwater potential. Productive aquifers are expected within weathered/fractured basaltic lavas. Shallow aquifers are expected between 30 m and 40 m bgl.

References

[1]  Griffith D.H. and King R.L. (1965). Applied Geophysics for Engineers and Geologists. Pergamum Press London.
In article      
 
[2]  Sankar Naryan, P.V. & Ramanujachary, K.R. (1967). An Inverse slope method of determining absolute resistivity. Geophysics, Vol. 32, pp. 1036-1040.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Karmarkar B.M., Kulkarni S. R., Marathe S.S. and Gupte R. B. (1997). Occurrence of Groundwater in Deccan Trap rocks of Maharashtra. National seminar on Hydrology of Precambrian terrains and hard rock areas. Dept of Studies in Geology, Karnataka University, Dharwar.
In article      
 
[4]  Muley R.B., Babar, Md., Atkore S.M. and Ghute B.B. (2010). Impact of Geology on Groundwater and Water Harvesting Structures in Deccan Basalt Area: A Case Study of Jhari Percolation Tank in Parbhani District, Maharashtra. Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 13 (1), pp. 96-101.
In article      
 
[5]  Adyalkar, P.G., Ayyangar, R.S., Tikekar, S.S. and Khare, Y.D. (1996). Groundwater potential of Deccan Flood Basalt of Nagpur District in Maharashtra : An imprint derived from satellite imagery In Deccan basalt, Gondwana Geol. Soc. Sp. Vol. 2, pp. 485-492.
In article      
 
[6]  Agrwal, P.K. (1987). Groundwater resources and development potential of Parbhani district, Maharashtra CGWB Rep. No. 353/DR/9/87, pp. 1-19.
In article      
 
[7]  Agrwal, P.K. (1995). The Techno-economic aspect of groundwater potential and development in Deccan flood basalts, Maharashtra, Gondwana Geol. Mag. Vol. 10, pp.79-88.
In article      
 
[8]  Bhatt, M.K. and Salpekar, P.R. (1990). Artificial recharge through bore wells in proble village Kaij, District Beed. Proc. Vol. Of seminar on “Modern techniques of rainwater harvesting, water conservation and artificial recharge for drinking water, afforestation, horticulture and agriculture”, pp. 271-274.
In article      
 
[9]  Khadri. S.F.R., Subbarao, K.V., Hooper, P.R. and Walsh, J.N. (1988). Stratigraphy of Thakurwadi formation, Western Deccan basalt province. Geol.Soc.India, Mem. 10, pp. 281-304.
In article      
 
[10]  Patil, V.Y. (1990). Performance of bore wells in the Manjra basin in Beed Dist. Proc. Vol. Of seminar on “Modern techniques of rainwater harvesting, water conservation and artificial recharge for drinking water, afforestation, horticulture and agriculture”, pp. 146-149.
In article      
 
[11]  Kulkarni, H., Deolankar, S. B., Lalwani, A., Joseph, B., and Pawar, S. (2000). Hydrogeological framework for the Deccan basalt groundwater systems, westcentral India. Hydrogeology Journal, 8(4): 368-378.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Bose, R. N. and Ramakrishna, T. S., (1978). Electrical resistivity surveys for groundwater in the Deccan trap country of Sangli District, Maharashtra. J. Hydrol., 38, 209-221.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Deshpande S.M. and K. R. Aher (2012). Hydrogeoelectrical Studies in Harsul Area of Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India. Journal of Applied Geochemistry. pp 10-15.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Senthil Kumar M., Gnanasundar, D. & Elango, L., (2001). Geophysical Studies to Determine Hydraulic Characteristics of an alluvial aquifer, Jour.Environ. Hydrol. 9, 1-7.
In article      
 
[15]  Senthil Kumar M., Gowtham B., Vinodh K., Arulaprakasam V. and Sundarajam M. (2017). Delineation of sub-surface layers using resistivity imaging techniques in coastal block of Thiruvallur district Tamil Nadu, India. Indian Jour. Geomaraine Science, Vo. 46 (05), 986-994.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Subash Chandra, Ananda Rao, V., Krishnamurthy, N.S., Dutta, S., Shakeel Ahmed, (2006). Integrated studies for characterization of lineaments used to locate groundwater potential zones in a hard rock region of Karnataka, India, Hydrogeology, 14, 1042-1051.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Narayanpethkar, A.B., Vasanthi A. & Mallick, K., 2006. Electrical Resistivity Technique for Exploration and studies on flow pattern of Groundwater in Multiaquifer system in the Basaltic terrain of the Adila Basin, Maharashtra, Jour. Geol. Soc. India. 67. 69-82.
In article      
 
[18]  Chand, R., Chandra, S., Rao, V.S., Singh, V.S. & Jain, S.C., (2004). Estimation of Natural Recharge and its Dependency on subsurface Geoelectric Parameters. J. Hydrol., 299, 67-83.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Narayanpethkar, A.B., Gurunadha Rao, V.V.S.& Mallick, K., 1993. Evolution of regional transmissivity patterns in Adila Basin; a nested squares finite difference model, Jour. Geol. Soc. India, 41(1), 21-32.
In article      
 
[20]  Narayanpethkar, A.B., Gurunadha Rao, V.V.S. & Mallick K., 1994. Estimation of groundwater recharge in a basaltic aquifer, Hydrological Processes 8, 3, 211-220.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Natkar, P.C., Sabale S.M., Ghodake V,R. & Narayanpethkar A.B..2008. Integrated Investigation for groundwater pollution around Hotgi tank, Solapur District, Maharashtra, Proceedings of National Conference on “Emerging Technologies in Civil Engineering - 08”, 485 - 497.
In article      
 
[22]  Zambre M.K. (1987). Role of hydrogeology in urban planning: A case study from Solapur city, India. Geological Society of Hong Kong Bulletin No. 3, October 1987.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Md. Babar and Muley R.B.

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Normal Style
Md. Babar, Muley R.B.. Investigation of Sub-surface Geology through Integrated Approach of Geological and Geophysical Studies in the Part of South-eastern Maharashtra, India. American Journal of Water Resources. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2018, pp 123-136. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajwr/6/3/3
MLA Style
Babar, Md., and Muley R.B.. "Investigation of Sub-surface Geology through Integrated Approach of Geological and Geophysical Studies in the Part of South-eastern Maharashtra, India." American Journal of Water Resources 6.3 (2018): 123-136.
APA Style
Babar, M. , & R.B., M. (2018). Investigation of Sub-surface Geology through Integrated Approach of Geological and Geophysical Studies in the Part of South-eastern Maharashtra, India. American Journal of Water Resources, 6(3), 123-136.
Chicago Style
Babar, Md., and Muley R.B.. "Investigation of Sub-surface Geology through Integrated Approach of Geological and Geophysical Studies in the Part of South-eastern Maharashtra, India." American Journal of Water Resources 6, no. 3 (2018): 123-136.
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  • Figure 22. Resistivity Curves illustrating AB/2 in meters Vs Resistivity in Ohm-m of 6 sites (KAT1 – Katneshwar1, KAT2 – Katneshwar2, YER1 – Yerandeshwar1, YER2 – Yerandeshwar2, YER3 – Yerandeshwar3 and PBN – Parbhani)
  • Figure 23. Resistivity Curves illustrating AB/2 in meters Vs Resistivity in Ohm-m of 6 sites (EKR1 – Ekrukha1, ZAR1 – Zari1, ZAR2 – Zari2, RUD – Rudhi, DUD1 – Dudhgaon1 and DUD2 – Dudhgaon2)
[1]  Griffith D.H. and King R.L. (1965). Applied Geophysics for Engineers and Geologists. Pergamum Press London.
In article      
 
[2]  Sankar Naryan, P.V. & Ramanujachary, K.R. (1967). An Inverse slope method of determining absolute resistivity. Geophysics, Vol. 32, pp. 1036-1040.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Karmarkar B.M., Kulkarni S. R., Marathe S.S. and Gupte R. B. (1997). Occurrence of Groundwater in Deccan Trap rocks of Maharashtra. National seminar on Hydrology of Precambrian terrains and hard rock areas. Dept of Studies in Geology, Karnataka University, Dharwar.
In article      
 
[4]  Muley R.B., Babar, Md., Atkore S.M. and Ghute B.B. (2010). Impact of Geology on Groundwater and Water Harvesting Structures in Deccan Basalt Area: A Case Study of Jhari Percolation Tank in Parbhani District, Maharashtra. Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 13 (1), pp. 96-101.
In article      
 
[5]  Adyalkar, P.G., Ayyangar, R.S., Tikekar, S.S. and Khare, Y.D. (1996). Groundwater potential of Deccan Flood Basalt of Nagpur District in Maharashtra : An imprint derived from satellite imagery In Deccan basalt, Gondwana Geol. Soc. Sp. Vol. 2, pp. 485-492.
In article      
 
[6]  Agrwal, P.K. (1987). Groundwater resources and development potential of Parbhani district, Maharashtra CGWB Rep. No. 353/DR/9/87, pp. 1-19.
In article      
 
[7]  Agrwal, P.K. (1995). The Techno-economic aspect of groundwater potential and development in Deccan flood basalts, Maharashtra, Gondwana Geol. Mag. Vol. 10, pp.79-88.
In article      
 
[8]  Bhatt, M.K. and Salpekar, P.R. (1990). Artificial recharge through bore wells in proble village Kaij, District Beed. Proc. Vol. Of seminar on “Modern techniques of rainwater harvesting, water conservation and artificial recharge for drinking water, afforestation, horticulture and agriculture”, pp. 271-274.
In article      
 
[9]  Khadri. S.F.R., Subbarao, K.V., Hooper, P.R. and Walsh, J.N. (1988). Stratigraphy of Thakurwadi formation, Western Deccan basalt province. Geol.Soc.India, Mem. 10, pp. 281-304.
In article      
 
[10]  Patil, V.Y. (1990). Performance of bore wells in the Manjra basin in Beed Dist. Proc. Vol. Of seminar on “Modern techniques of rainwater harvesting, water conservation and artificial recharge for drinking water, afforestation, horticulture and agriculture”, pp. 146-149.
In article      
 
[11]  Kulkarni, H., Deolankar, S. B., Lalwani, A., Joseph, B., and Pawar, S. (2000). Hydrogeological framework for the Deccan basalt groundwater systems, westcentral India. Hydrogeology Journal, 8(4): 368-378.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Bose, R. N. and Ramakrishna, T. S., (1978). Electrical resistivity surveys for groundwater in the Deccan trap country of Sangli District, Maharashtra. J. Hydrol., 38, 209-221.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Deshpande S.M. and K. R. Aher (2012). Hydrogeoelectrical Studies in Harsul Area of Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India. Journal of Applied Geochemistry. pp 10-15.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Senthil Kumar M., Gnanasundar, D. & Elango, L., (2001). Geophysical Studies to Determine Hydraulic Characteristics of an alluvial aquifer, Jour.Environ. Hydrol. 9, 1-7.
In article      
 
[15]  Senthil Kumar M., Gowtham B., Vinodh K., Arulaprakasam V. and Sundarajam M. (2017). Delineation of sub-surface layers using resistivity imaging techniques in coastal block of Thiruvallur district Tamil Nadu, India. Indian Jour. Geomaraine Science, Vo. 46 (05), 986-994.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Subash Chandra, Ananda Rao, V., Krishnamurthy, N.S., Dutta, S., Shakeel Ahmed, (2006). Integrated studies for characterization of lineaments used to locate groundwater potential zones in a hard rock region of Karnataka, India, Hydrogeology, 14, 1042-1051.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Narayanpethkar, A.B., Vasanthi A. & Mallick, K., 2006. Electrical Resistivity Technique for Exploration and studies on flow pattern of Groundwater in Multiaquifer system in the Basaltic terrain of the Adila Basin, Maharashtra, Jour. Geol. Soc. India. 67. 69-82.
In article      
 
[18]  Chand, R., Chandra, S., Rao, V.S., Singh, V.S. & Jain, S.C., (2004). Estimation of Natural Recharge and its Dependency on subsurface Geoelectric Parameters. J. Hydrol., 299, 67-83.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Narayanpethkar, A.B., Gurunadha Rao, V.V.S.& Mallick, K., 1993. Evolution of regional transmissivity patterns in Adila Basin; a nested squares finite difference model, Jour. Geol. Soc. India, 41(1), 21-32.
In article      
 
[20]  Narayanpethkar, A.B., Gurunadha Rao, V.V.S. & Mallick K., 1994. Estimation of groundwater recharge in a basaltic aquifer, Hydrological Processes 8, 3, 211-220.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Natkar, P.C., Sabale S.M., Ghodake V,R. & Narayanpethkar A.B..2008. Integrated Investigation for groundwater pollution around Hotgi tank, Solapur District, Maharashtra, Proceedings of National Conference on “Emerging Technologies in Civil Engineering - 08”, 485 - 497.
In article      
 
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