The Determination of the Relationship between Levels of Narcissim and Motivational Trends in the Individual Sports Branches
2School of Physical Education and Sports, Marmara University, Stanbul, Turkey
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between levels of narcissim and motivational trends in the individual sports branches. The sample of the study includes a total of 350 young athletes in the branches of boxing, freestyle wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling, taekwondo and weightlifting, participated in Turkey Youth Champions in 2011. Sport-specific motive scales (SSMS) and Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) was utilized in order collect the datas in this study. SPSS 15 package software was used for the data analysis. The test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov to determine whether the data had a normal distribution, the test of Levene was applied to determine the homogeneity of variances and it was determined that the datas had an homogeneous and normal distribution. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis were used in the analysis of the data. In the result of data analysis, there was a statistically significant relationship between the motive to achieve success with exploitation dimension and the power motive with superior dimension. (p<0,05).
Keywords: athlete, narcissism, motivation, relation
American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 2013 1 (3),
Received July 19, 2013; Revised August 08, 2013; Accepted August 12, 2013Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing. All Rights Reserved.
Cite this article:
- Tazegül, Ünsal, and Aytekin Soykan. "The Determination of the Relationship between Levels of Narcissim and Motivational Trends in the Individual Sports Branches." American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 1.3 (2013): 37-41.
- Tazegül, Ü. , & Soykan, A. (2013). The Determination of the Relationship between Levels of Narcissim and Motivational Trends in the Individual Sports Branches. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 1(3), 37-41.
- Tazegül, Ünsal, and Aytekin Soykan. "The Determination of the Relationship between Levels of Narcissim and Motivational Trends in the Individual Sports Branches." American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 1, no. 3 (2013): 37-41.
|Import into BibTeX||Import into EndNote||Import into RefMan||Import into RefWorks|
At the time of being looked up the dictionary meaning of Narcissistic Personality, It is found out that it is described as person’s over level of admiration to his own physiological and psychological features and over self-love [1, 2].
Narcissist athletes reveal hostility and skepticism for human relations in their later relationships due to their negaitve experinces with their families in early childhood. As a result, pre-conditions of social feedback and self-implications, remain uncertain manner, so that doubts arise about the value of social feedback. Narcissistic athletes feel the need for testing whether the others bear appreciative thoughts or not and keep their relations under constant pressure in order to get the desired feedback. However, due to negative experinces in their early childhood not only they have distrust but also they can not really love and care the others, at the same time underestimate them .
Narcissistic athletes, reveal a calm and self-confident quality in their social behaviours. The fact that they seem to be trouble-free and saturated is thought to be related with their being graceful by the others. For others, this reveals immodesty, arrogance and complacence in the human relations, snobbish manners, much self-confidence and presumption. Narcissistic athletes generally use others for their own interests, exploit them, expect them for the fulfillment of their requests without beware of anything and giving anything in return. Therefore, they are seen as far from being humble, extremely self-centered and non-giver people .
Narcissistic athletes are the people who admire themselves physically and mentally, see themselves above, expect continuous appreciation, interest and approval, they will meet exclusive of interest wherever they go and think that they deserve the superior place. Such intense narcissistic injuries and disappointments in expectations is also often the inevitable reality. Narcissistic self-esteem of individuals are fed from outside interests, tastes, approvals. People in question can not stand criticisms and anticipate for constant praises. For this reason, their apperances and manners are formed to grasp all these. Since they make use of the others for glorifiying, seem to be superior and reveal themselves; their friendships are just to get benefit from the others in this way. Narcissistic athletes are known as selfish, egocentric since they do not show empathy towards emotions, thoughts and needs of others .
Narcissism may sometimes affect the performance of the athletes positively. Narcissistic athletes themselves feel valuable, and their admiration for others to gain advantage depends on the capabilities of reveal themselves. They reveal their superiority by exhibiting the best movements that they perform in the sports field and try to attract attention. They are less interested in being loved and cared when compared to other people. Therefore, narcissistic athletes behave combatant and self assertive during the competition in order to avoid the destruction of their self-esteem due to performance failure. The most important thing for a narcissistic athlete is to win. They also apply for unethical behaviors in order to acquire the targeted objective .
In case of a failure, they try to prove that it occured due to mischance. They never believe that they lost the match due to their own failure and they related the defeat to the rules of the refree, mistakes of the rules, viewers and the wrong tactic given by the coach. The athletes having narcissistic features are more successful in individual sports rather than the team sports. The most of the characteristics defining narcissism put forth the reality that narcissists can not be team players. Since they are deprive of the ability to empathize they can not understand, care the emotions and thoughts of their team mates and see their team mate as a mediator to display their performance. The important thing for the narcissistic athletes is being the center of interest by displaying their capabilities rather than victory of the team. For this reason, it is hard for a team consisting of narcissistic athletes to show their skills in a coherent and coordinated way .
The narcissism types seen in athletes are divided in to two as dangerless and pathological:
Dangerless narcissism: Athlete's own struggle, and the resulting object is something that at the end of occupation. For example, a movement is learned from working with athletes that have achieved success, or due to a narcissistically compliment. Emerged as a result of their efforts to object, his excessive interest in the success of their own works of non-stop throughout the study, his interest in the materials used is balanced. Wherefore the factors that create dangerless narcissism self evaluate itself .
Pathological narcissism: Its object is not created or produced by the athlete, it is the thing owned by him. For example, his body, appearance, wealth, beauty… sickly narcissistic athletes have achieved something of a feature, not because they have also boast .1.1. Extents of Narcissism Seen in Athletes
Extent of Superiority: It represents self-confidence, independence, the need to be ambitious and successful.
Extent of Exploitation: It represents rebelliousness, inadaptability, spitefulness, not to respect and show tolerance towards others.
Extent of Authority: It reflects dominance, be assertive, leadership, being critical and self-confidence.
Extent of Pretension: It decribes being ambitious, need for power, domination, spitefulness and recalcitrance.
Extent of Self-sufficiency: It is related with assertiveness, independence, self-confidence and need for success.
Extent of Exhibitionism: It is related with seeking for emotion, extroversion and not controlling of the impulses.
Extend of Self esteem: The person finds himself physically attractive and for this reason he thoughts that he is judged by the others .
Briefly, the motivation means ‘’to direct and mobilize and dispose working’’ for the people. The motivation can be identified in the form ‘’to act with one’s own desires and wishes’’ to perform a certain purpose .
The factors affecting to continuation of the sport or gaining continuity of the sport are called as the sport-motive. Thanks to these motives, the process causing to continue the sports activity is called the motivation in the sport. There are many different ways to motivate the individuals. In the context of sport and participation, it is also very important to undertstand what the motivation is. The motivation is the process to obtain and use the resources which is possible such as the ability, time and energy .
How to be perceived by individuals the external factors and effects on motivation is important. So, what motivate the Athletes to sport? Each individual has different the motives directing the participation in terms of the physical fitness sport and social relations. The extrinsic motive is one of them [11, 12]. The individuals are motivated with the extrinsic motives in terms of the rewarding and social appreciation .1.2. Types of Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation, briefly is that person's self-motivated. People who are intrinsically motivated in order to be competent (skillful) have an internal hunger. These people have the ability to manage themselves in order to be successful .
Extrinsic motivation is the strengthen or reinforce, which can be appeared in the negative and positive effects through other people, and based on the material and moral values reducing or increasing the possibility of behavior’s recurrence. Extrinsic rewards can be financial materials (for example: coupe, money, medals and so on extrinsic rewards). Extrinsic rewards can also come from immaterial sources. (For example, be appreciated, be praised and so on.) [15, 16].
Extrinsic motivation is not a situation which is directly related to the athlete. The simplest way to understanding the motivation of the external environment is to accept it as a process and to divide into (needs, motivations, goals,)the basic parts constituting it. The basic motivation process is usually expressed as follows .
The purpose of this study is to reveal the relationship between the levels of narcissism and motivation levels, by determining the levels of narcissism and motivational trends of young male athletes.
2. Materıal and Method2.1. Participants
The sample of this study constitutes a total of 350 athletes, including 70 male boxer, 70 male free-style wrestler, 70 greco-roman wrestler, 70 male weightlifters and 70 male kickboxer which is selected by random sampling method and participated in Youth championship Turkey 2011. Competition dates: Free-style wrestling is on 5-6 March in Antalya, Box is on 7-13 February in Bayburt, Kick boxing is on 27 June-2 July in Samsun, Weightlifting is on 4-6 March in Aydın, Greco-roman weightlifting is on 18-20 February in Corum.2.2. Research Data Collection
1. The validity and reliability study in Turkey developed by Willis (1982) and Sport-Specific Success Motivation Scale made by Tiryaki ve Gödelek have been used in. The scale of Willis constitues of two sub-dimensions. The first of these sub-dimensions is the demonstration of power motive (power motive, POW), latter the motivations regarding the success. The motives regarding success; are the motive to approach success, (MAS) and the motive to avoid failure (MAF). As a result of reliability analysis made by Tiryaki and Gödelek, it was determined as r=0.81 for the power demonstration sub-scale and r=0.82 for the approach failure sub-scale and r=0.80 for the Avoidance of failure sub-scale depending on the alpha reliability coefficients. The high of scores obtained from the dimension of ‘’Power Demonstration "and " Approach to Success’’; the motivation of athlete is high in related to motivational aspects and if score is low, it indicates the opposite situation. The high score from “Avoidance of failure’’ dimensions indicates the athlete’s fear of failure and having more stress .
2. Narcissistic Personality Inventory composed of 16 questions and translated into Turkish by Salim Atay in 2009 was used as a scale factor. NPI composed of 16 questions was arranged by Daniel R. Ames, Paul Rose ve Cameron P. Anderson in 2005 translated into Turkish by Salim Atay. After the pilot application by Atay Cronbach's Alpha value was determined as 0.57 in the first performed study. Reliability coefficient below the values expected due to the presence of each factor scale, the negative correlation is detected and evaluated and determined not provide additive scale of four, were revised statement. After the measurements performed this change Cronbach's Alpha value was raised to 0.652. The questions in 16 questions scale factor translated into Turkish by Atay also distributed in 6 factors as superiority, authority, pretension, self sufficiency and exploitation similar to the 16 questions NPI English version. The points that can be gained from NPI are: extent of authority 0-2, extent of exhibitionism 0-3, extent of explotation 0-3, extent of pretension 0-2, extent of self-sufficiency 0-3, extent of superiority 0-3, total narcissism is between 0-16 points. As the point increases the level of narcissism also increases [19, 20].2.3. Data Analyses
SPSS 15 package software was used for the data analysis. The test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov to determine whether the data had a normal distribution, the test of Levene was applied to determine the homogeneity of variances and it was determined that the datas had an homogeneous and normal distribution. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were used in the analysis of the datas.
In this section, the findings reached in a result of research are evaluated.
In the correlation analysis in Table 2, it was found a statistically significant relationship in between the motive to achieve success with exploitation dimension and the power motive with superiority dimension.
When descriptive statistics findings indicating the motivational trends and narcissism and its sub-dimension are examined, the values are as follows; the exploitation of athletes in the fisrt place (1.456±.811), self-sufficiency dimension (1.350 ± 1.003) in second place, exhibitionism dimension (1.327 ±.908) in third place, superiority dimension (1.083 ±.911) in fourth, authority dimension (0.968 ±.760) in fifth, the dimension of claim rights (0. 583 ±.705) in sixth place, total levels of narcissism (6.770 ± 2.637). The reason for being more developed of the sub-dimension of exploitation is to make the best way and they have an intensive study in order to achieve the necessary condition for the success. At the end of this intensive works, it causes to be different of people who are not athletes and they have a better physical appearance and who can make the movements difficult to obtain by people who are not athletes, depending on the development of the technical and physical characteristics of athletes. It is an important role in the development of exploitation properties in athletes. When these results are evaluated according to DSM-IV criteria, it can be said for athletes within the scope of work that they are a rebellious, have discordant relationships with their surroundings, not show any respectful and tolerant attitudes towards people and want to be superior in its relations with other people.
Tazegül, (2013a) in boxers has identified a positive relationship between narcissism and motivational orientations. This result is interpreted by the researcher according to the scale of the result is argued that the scale properties. Because the narcissist always be at the forefront athletes, want to prove themselves by demonstrating their ability, so the motivation is always high .
Tazegül et al. (2013b), the data wrestlers level of narcissism (6.707 ± 2.775) was set .
Tazegül (2013c) found that, there is a statistically significant relationship between weight lifting, and Greco-Roman wrestlers regarding age and levels of narcissism .
Tazegül (2011) found as follows; Weightlifters narcissism level (7.283 ± 2.786),boxers (7.216 ± 2.584) and the level of narcissism of Greco-Roman wrestlers (6.750±2.777). Tazegül (2012) found as follows; the level of narcissism of the athletes in kick boxing branch (6.533±2.849),the level of narcissism of the athlete in freestyle wrestling branch ( 6.333±3.578 ) .
When the descriptive statistics findings indicating the motives trends of the athletes under working are examined, they are determined as follows: ‘’power motive’’ of the athletes (39.211±6.629), reach to success (61.220±8.605), escape from success (33.365±7.202). The power motive of the athletes under the working is more advanced, It is considered that the most important reason is due to young athletes of the study sample and due to the sport ages of the athletes are early. Young athletes are an attempt more showing and proving themselves and more desiring the success in the early years of sports lives. Çekin, Tatar, & Afyon (2001) found that the motives of athletes in the age group 14-16 engaged in individual sports are to tprove himself, to obtain a good place in society and to be healthy. Moreover, the athletes’s social status to be achieved through the championship and awards are the important factors to be high of young athletes motivations(25). Rewarding is one of the most effective among the motivating factors .
Kuru & Abakay (2009), identified as follows in their studies; power motive of non-degree wrestlers is (38.40± 3.97), those with degree in Turkey (39.30±5.08), those with degree in the international tournament (37.42±4.59). it is identified as follows for non-degree wrestlers in the motive to escape from success ; the motive to escape from success (34.45± 5.99). Those with degree in Turkey (35.48 ±5.40). those with degree in the international tournament (35.37 ±4.57) .
Aktop (2002), in study, examined the sub-dimensions of success motivations and found as follows; Individual athletes’s sub-dimensions of power motive is (37.89), the sub-dimension of the approach motive to success is (62.50), the sub-dimension of the motive escape from success is (28.17) .
Tazegül, Kalkavan, & Ersoy (2012), in their study, determined as follows; the power motive of the wrestlers that are Turkey’s champion is (39.055±3.749), the power motive for the boxers that are Turkey’s champion in the branch of boxing is (37.900±5.258) .
Soyer, et al. (2010) haven’t found a significant relation between the ages and success motivations of the athletes, they found a significant relation in the gender factor .
In the research made by Engür (2002) for determining its effect on the success motivation in elite athletes state anxiety levels, found that the succes motivation of male athlete is higher than female athletes .
Aslan & Kuru (2002), in their study, found a relationship in the positive low level of significance between the motives to avoid failure and the sporting experiences of the first league footballers and also in the negatif low level of significance between the power motive and the sporting experiences in the second league footballers .
Turkmen (2005) found the requirement for success professional football players found higher than the requirements for success amateur soccer players .
As a result of the study determining the factors of the motivation influencing to the Ural (2008) ‘s team performance, it was determined that the motivation level of athletes engaged in sports for less than 5 years is lower than and athletes engaged in sport for less than 10 years .
In comparing the motivations of sport-specific success of female and male athletes made by Erman, Şahan, & Can (2004), it was not be found significant differences in terms of sub-parameters of achievement motivation between male and female athletes .
Karabulut, Kirazcı, & Aşçı (2000) determined the following values; the value of the power motive of experienced athletes (40.87), inexperienced athletes (39.49), and the motive approach to success of experienced athletes (64.23), inexperienced (64.41), the motive to avoid failure of experienced athletes (31,02), inexperienced (32.71). However, there was a significant difference between the two groups .
In correlation analysis, it was found a statistically significant correlation in a between the motive to reach success with the exploitation size and the power motive with superiority dimension. When these results are evaluated according to the scale of narcissism and motivational orientation, this result is thought as normal. The power motive and the motive to reach success represents high motivation and desire for success in athletes. The dimension of the superiority level in narcissism represents self-confidence, independence, be ambitious and the need for success. Thus, the motivation of athlete who is self-confident and successful will be high. Consequently, it was determined a relationship in between the superior dimesion of narcissism with the motivation and the athletes have a good the motivation trends levels. It was considered that the reason of the relation occurring between the superior dimesion with the motivation trends levels is to be the young of sports age and age of athletes in the study group.
|||Güney, S. (1998). Davranış Bilimler ve Yönetim Psikolojisi Terimler Sözlüğü: Ankara.|
|||Hançerlioğlu, O. (1993). Ruhbilim Sözlüğü, İstanbul: Remzi kitap evi.|
|||Morf, Carolyn,C. & Rhodewalt,F. (2001). “Unraveling the Paradoxes of Narcissism: A Dynamic Self-Regulatory Processing Model”, Psychological Inquiry, Vol.12, No.4, ss. 177-196.|
|||Köroğlu,E.,& Bayraktar, S. (2007). Kişilik Bozuklukları, Ankara: HYB Basım Yayın.|
|||Rozenbaltt,S. (2002). In Defence of Self: The Relationship of Self-Esteem and Narcissism to Agressive Behavior, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, New York Brookville :Long Island University, Psychology.|
|||Wallace, H. M, & Baumeister R, F. (2002). “The Performence of Narcissists Rises and Falls With Percieved OpportAunity For Glory”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 82,No.5, ss832.|
|||Fromm, E. (1994). Sevginin ve Şiddetin Kaynağı, İstanbul: ( Çev: Y.salman,N.İçten). Payel Yayınları.|
|||Gülmez, N. (2009). Narsistik Liderlik, Yayınlanmış yüksek lisans Tezi, Marmara Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.|
|||Koçel, T. (2003). İşletme Yöneticiliği, İstanbul: Beta Yayınları.|
|||Martin, J.J.,& Mushett, C. A. (1996). Social Support Mechanisms Among Athletes with Disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 13: 74-83.|
|||Brasile, F. M., Kleiber, D. A., & Harnisch, D. (1991). Analysis of Participation Incentives Among Athletes With and Without Disabilities. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 25 (1): 18-33.|
|||Hellandsig, E.T. (1998). Motivational Predictors of High Performance and Discontinuation in Different Types of Sports Among Talented Teenage Athletes. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 29: 27-44.|
|||Hatfield, K. L. (1998). A Study of Participation Incentives Among Collegiate Athletes With and Without a Disability. Master's thesis, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.|
|||Nicholls, J.G, & Robert G.C. (1992). The General and The Specific in the Devolopment and expression of Achievement Motivation; Motivationin Sport and Exercise, Human Kinetices Boks.|
|||Konter, E. (2004). Antrenörlük ve Takım Psikolojisi, Ankara: Palme Yayıncılık.|
|||Konter, E. (1995). Sporda Motivasyon, İzmir: Saray Tıp Kitapevi.|
|||Gülen, A. (1998). Başarı Motivasyonu ve İş Örgütlerinde Yönetim Üst ve Orta Kademe Yöneticiler Üzerinde Bir Çalışma, Yayınlanmış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İşletme Ana Bilim Dalı, Bolu.|
|||Tiryaki, Ş.,& Gödelek, E. (1997). Spora Özgü Başarı Motivasyonu Ölçeğinin Türk Sporcuları İçin Uyarlama Çalışması; 1. Uluslar arası Spor Psikolojisi Sempozyumu Bildirileri, Bağırgan Yayınevi.|
|||ATAY, S. (2009). Narsist Kişilik Envanterinin Türkçeye Standardizasyonu. Gazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi. 11/1, 181-196.|
|||Atay, S. ( 2010 ). Çalışan Narsist, İstanbul: Namar yayınları.|
|||Tazegül, Ü. (2013a). Investigating the Relationship Between Narcissism and Motivation Level of Boxings, The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, Volume 6 Issue 5, p. 679-691.|
|||Tazegül, Ü., Soykan, A., Sancaklı, H. (2013b). Investigating the relationship between narcissism and motivation level of wrestlers, Global Advanced Research Journal of History, Political Science and International Relations Vo 2(2), 027-033.|
|||Tazegül, Ü. (2013c). an examınatıon of the relatıonshıp between the level of narcıssısm and socıo-demographıc status of sportsmen from varıous sport branches, Journal of Sports and Performance Researches cilt 4, sayı 1, pp. 23-3.|
|||Tazegül Ü. (2011). Comparison of narcissims Level of athletes in some branches, International Journal of Sport Studies.Vol., 1 (4), 168-179.|
|||Çekin M. D., Tatar Y., & Afyon Y. A. (2001) 14-16 Yaş Grubunu Spora Teşvik Eden Unsurlar. Selçuk Ü., Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi., Sayı 7.|
|||Wampbell, E., & Jones, E. (1994). Psychological Well-being in Wheelchair Sport Participants and Nonparticipants. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 11: 404-15.|
|||Kuru, E., & Abakay, U. (2009). Güreş Grekorornen Genç Milli Takım Sporcularanın.Başarı motivlotivasyon Düzeylerinin, Sportif Tecrübe ve Antrenman Sıklığı Açısından İncelenmesi Beden Eğitimi Spor Bilimleri Derğisi cilt, 11 sayı 9, 41-50.|
|||Aktop, A. (2002). Spora Özgü Başarı Motivasyonu İle Psikolojik ve Yapısal Özellikler Arasındaki İlişkinin İncelenmesi, Yayınlanmamış,Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Akdeniz Üniverstesi, Antalya.|
|||Tazegül, Ü., Kalkavan, A., & Ersoy, A. (2012). Farklı Bireysel Sporlardaki Sporcuların Motivasyon Düzeylerinin Elde Ettikleri En Büyük Derece Değişkenine Göre Karşıtlaştırılması, 2ND Internatıonal Socıal Scıences ın Physıcal Educatıon and Sport Congress, May 31-June 2, Ankara /Turkey.|
|||Soyer, F., Can, y., Güven, H., Hergüner, G., Bayansalduz, M., & Tetik, B. (2010). Sporculardaki başarı motivasyonu ile takım birlikteliği arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi, ınternational journal of human sciencec, Vol:7 No:1, 226-239.|
|||Engür, M. (2002). Elit Sporcularda Başarı Motivasyonunun, Durumluk Kaygı Düzeyleri Üzerine Etkisi, Yayınlanmış, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ege Üniversitesi, İzmir.|
|||Aslan, A.,& Kuru, E. (2002). Profesyonel ve Amatör Futbolcuların Başarı Motivasyonu Farklılıkları ve Sportif Tecrübe ile İlişkisi, Gazi Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi. 2:29.|
|||Türkmen, M. (2005). Profesyonel Erkek Futbolcular İle Amatör Erkek Futbolcuların Başarı Motivasyon Düzeylerinin İncelenmesi (İzmir-Manisa Örneği), Yayınlanmış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Celal Bayar Üniversitesi, Manisa.|
|||Ural, O. (2008). Futbolda Takım Performansına Etki Eden Motivasyonel Faktörlerin Belirlenmesine Yönelik Bir Uygulama (Gençlerbirliği Spor Kulübü Örneği), Yayınlanmış Yüksel Lisan Tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Anabilim Dalı, Ankara.|
|||Erman, A. K., Şahan, A., & Can., S. (2004). Sporcu Bayan ve Erkeklerin Spora Özgü Başarı Motivasyonlarının Karşılaştırılması, 10th ICHPER Sd European Congress& TSSA 8th International Sport Science Congress, 17-20 November, Antalya.|
|||Karabulut, C., Kirazcı, S., & Aşçı H. F. (2000). Takım ve Bireysel Sporcuların Başarı Motivasyonu Düzeylerinin İncelenmesi; Hacettepe Üniversitesi 6. Spor Bilimleri Kongresi, 3-5 Kasım, Ankara.|