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Opinion Paper
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Globalization and Rural India: Aspects of Education, Technology and Culture

Navjot Kaur , Dr. Megha Dhiman
American Journal of Rural Development. 2018, 6(2), 38-44. DOI: 10.12691/ajrd-6-2-2
Published online: July 23, 2018


Rural development has assumed a global attention especially among developing counties like India where around more than half percent of people live in rural areas. Development can occur not only with technology and education but also with gaining and accepting ability of culture to adopt the new era so as to compete with the outer world. Based on observation reports, different articles and online sources this paper highlights the major and minor factors which are connected with globalization through culture. Technology as well as education is also helpful to eradicate stereotyped concepts present in any society or culture. The strategies, policies and planning for rural development specially concerned with Gram Panchyats, schools, higher educational institutes, industry and labor needs proper implementation and awareness of the people. Globalization is helping to increase the income level, to remove the rural urban disparity, rural to rural disparity, to bridge the gap between people and government, to remove mental barriers, to provide social protection, to provide equality to women in man dominated areas, innovative training programs for skill based jobs, proper training and auditable functioning of Gram Panchyats, financial freedom to women, credit assistance facility to farmers and to provide small business assistance to youth while study etc. Education and technology are the necessary part of development as also described by Kothari commission for education in year 1966. All the five yearly plans and cost effective technologies are bridging the gap between rural and urban India. As culture binds up the people to their roots but if we want to stand by the emerging world then our culture have to absorb and apply the technology as well as globally emerging trends to widen the mental blocks. When regional disparity occurs then culture changes but education and technology remains same. In this way culture is basic factor while considering development. As rural India have different perspectives than urban so a major objective of this paper in the ways of rural development is to understand the ground level basic cultural issues, to resolve them according to the situations present and to find the approaches to step up the rural India towards Globalized world and this is the need of the hour.

1. Introduction

Whether cities are immensely grown today with the effect of globalization and technology yet India lives in villages and rural transformation is necessary for the development of India as India is not too far from being the top 10 countries in Asia. As we know the term transformation denotes replacement of one stage by another in a time span and denotes the successive changes both in positive and negative directions. It encompasses agriculture as well as non agriculture sectors. Although globalization affects the region, area or society itself with the effective use of new technologies and emerging trends in daily life yet some parts of region remained untouched because of stereotyped concepts and neutral ability of culture.

To define Globalization, here are views of some writers as: Political economist, Robert J. Samuelson (2012) says, “globalization is a double-edged sword: A powerful vehicle that raises economic growth, spreads new technology and increases living standards in rich and poor countries alike but also an immensely controversial process that assaults national sovereignty, erodes local culture and tradition, and threatens economic and social stability.”

According to Stiglitz (2002) Globalization means “the removal of barriers to free trade and the closer integration of national economies.”

According to Kofi Annan, Globalization is perhaps the most profound source of international transformation since the industrial revolution. The adjective ‘global’ refers less to a place than to a space defined by electronic flows and a state of mind”

Rural areas are behind the cities in decades even that they are just a mile kilometers away from developed urban areas. India is the land of great diversity, which is our strength but there are some barriers in the development and to adopt globalization completely. This had led to the brain drain and migration of the aware people to urban areas and to other developed countries. For globalization and transformations in rural areas governments have to provide proper rural urban road links. Mental development can be done not by education only but also with some psychological measures so as to fill the gap of thinking in between the old age rural people and new age rural people. Adult education, moral/social values and female equality is need today not even in papers only but even in our minds. Most poverty in world is rural. Poverty index is also different in each rural area. Its removal depends upon participation of rural people in non farming sector including female participation and to break the social barriers to stand with the growing world.

Its two sections of this paper describe the challenges in the way of adopting globalization and rural transformation and what are the opportunities available in every field of life for development of rural India and to compete with the developed nations to become the part of the globalized world because we know that cultural differences removal is must to spread new vision of common culture.

In this paper we also describe the absorbing and adopting ability of culture, the culture with neutral ability and its negative effects on society. In last section the strategies and suggestions for the society to be a part of gaining culture to become helpful for the up gradation of rural India and according to the basic requirements of ground level conditions and how education can play a vital role.

2. Aims and Objectives of Study

A major objective of this study is to understand the ground level basic issues related with reasons of cultural restrictions and to find the approaches towards globalization with education because adoption of globalization and technology is not only an economic process. It is not only to implement some suggestions and technology and hardware but also to break that social barriers or taboos which are restricting our development and are still residing in our minds passing by generation to generations.

This paper is based on secondary data collected from various sources like interactions with people of different communities and cultures, Census Survey, National Sample Survey data, online discussion platforms, newspapers, websites, journals and books etc. The findings were discussed according to the actual conditions of rural India. The study is thus divided into three major parts as:

To understand the key dimensions of rural development it need to identify the various challenges due to lack of education, neutral factor of culture and social restrictions like rural to rural changing disparity, Dependency of Youth, To Improve Rural livelihood conditions, Interaction gap between public and government representatives, Disparity in Rural Urban education and educational Institutes, Absence of Sound mental level of Rural people, Gender disparity etc.

To determine factors influencing Opportunities for Rural people to become the part of Globalized world with the gaining ability of culture and by accepting modern technology. Social Protection and breaking of Social taboos, To fill the Gap Between the rich and poor, proper education and Credit Assistance to Rural people and farmers, Compulsory Reservation of female to male dominated fields, Part time work facilities for youth during study, Financial freedom to women and youth.

To highlight some suggestions for rural India to become the part of globalized world with the help of education and how technology as well as Ethics based education it can improve our livelihood. Innovative training Programs, Replacing Old Structures with new Technologies, Planning for Rural Agriculture Risks and Land Reforms, Proper male/female participation and auditable Functioning of Gram Panchyats, Implementation of Self, Social and financial Security schemes, Adequate Rural Infrastructure according to requirement statics etc.

In the conclusion section we discuss the role of Education and Technology for globalization and how education can combine with technology to change the static conditions of society. This all we can achieve with only the acceptance power of culture because India is religious country and people of our country are deeply concerned with culture.

3. Methodology of the Paper

The paper is prepared using both quantitative and qualitative methods which is basically based on secondary sources. Through a heuristic document search methods lots of journal articles, workshop and seminar papers were analyzed in this article. The impacts of globalization on development have many positive and negative aspects in India. This article thus composed of various quantitative information and data. We try to focus on major issues and hurdles on the ways of adopting globalization.

There are many internal and external factors which we will study to find the increased differences between the present conditions of rural India and urban India. Based on the findings, some broad observation and conclusions are made in this paper that why globalization have different impact.

4. Challenges for Rural India on the Way of Globalization

According to Smt. Pratiba Devi Singh Patil, who served as the 12th President of India from 2007 to 2012 is the only woman President of India, in a globalised world, where what happens in one part of the world gets transmitted to other parts rapidly. With a large workforce living in rural areas creating work opportunities including for youth and women acquires great significance. Therefore the challenges on the way of globalization to which we have to understand are as

4.1. Rural To Rural Disparity

Rural areas are more integrated into world economy. Although globalization provided us new trends like global village yet transformation of rural is main factor according to disparities present in conditions as: Firstly rural people who are living near to the cities and their earnings are depends upon urban areas. Secondly those rural people who are aware of technology, educated and having much land and whose wages depends upon land either sticks to villages or they themselves move to the urban area but their land was cultivated by others with contract. Thirdly Landless rural people which are involved with land owners to cultivate land, they stick to the villages and which have less land (below 10 acres) they don’t have other income source and lastly rural people who depend upon farming don’t have fixed and monthly income instead of this non farming sector has daily or monthly income this also creates disparity.

4.2. Dependency of Youth on Family

Students or youth in our society have to depend upon on the other earning hand up to their degree level education. This is the social practice that we Indian always prefer only study for their wards and will always consider it as insult to work while study. Parents always spend their whole life earning on the higher study of their ward and then to marriage due to the costlier marriage tradition of India.

4.3. To Improve Rural Livelihood Conditions

Globalization in Agrarian culture means better wages for agriculture labor and surplus labor should be derived towards NON FARM employment. Rural labor plays an important role so we have to encourage the rural labor to non farming long term sector also. Although the growth is seen in non-farm employment sector in rural India yet Agriculture sector continues to be the largest employer of rural work force and it provides employment to about 84% of the male workers and about 79% of the female workers in 2009-10. It is clearly visible from chart that rural employment is primarily employed in the farm sector. Society have to adopt some of the non farming sectors like Dairy sector, manufacturing sector, trade, hotel and restaurant, construction, transport, mining etc which can decrease the dependency on farm sector and to improve livelihood conditions of rural areas as shown in Figure 1:

4.4. Interaction Gap between People, Politicians and Bureaucracy

Modern technology is changing very fast but rural India today even not having proper infrastructure facilities, sanitation, higher education institutions, hospitals and much more. Every district have IAS, IPS and state level highly intelligent bureaucracy from top to bottom level, how many of the officers (Commissioners to Block Development Officers) have even visited the villages even under his district and how many of the villagers have seen or even taken advantage of their with self efforts intelligence and politicians who are bridges between the development and people. If this happens this will make Gram Panchayat more responsible regarding work this can be done only by spreading awareness through technology and media which is also the part of globalization.

4.5. Disproportion in Rural, Urban Education and Educational Institutes

In India although it has enough universities, schools and colleges but one thing is to check that all the Institutions are opened nearby to each other in one city or other of every state. Sometimes this is inspired by party politics and they even ignore some of the districts of that state continually hence that district then began to known as backward. So some districts are developing at higher rate side by side some areas whether they are even some km away from that district they lagging behind. According to Census of India 14.6% females and 17.4% male are literate without any formal education. Rural parents don’t want to send their girls to far off institutions for study. Below in Figure 2 is representation of rural urban difference of literacy in India.

4.6. Absence of Sound Mental Level of Rural Poor People

Every villager of rural area is not poor as we know, due to absence of definite agenda of life in illiterate poor rural people and due to lack of education they left behind in globalized world and this become barrier in development of rural India. Many social, cultural restrictions are blocking our minds. Sometimes due to poverty people send their children for earning instead of school. Although Government has announced mid day meal schemes, scholarships schemes, free books and free uniform to attract poor people to school yet their mental level up gradation is the need of the time so that our illiterate old generations can understand the value of education. We have to adopt good values from every culture stress should be on to remove wrong.

4.7. Gender Disparity

Rural India is lagging behind than urban in gender disparity. Because of lack of higher educational institutions in rural areas, poverty, feminine factor, lower mental level of thinking on behalf of culture becomes the barrier women literacy. Women in India continue to face numerous problems including inequality, social mental block, orthodoxy about women, dependency on others, violent victimization, domestic violence and dowry etc and if see in the early Vedic period women enjoyed equal status with men in all aspects of life. Women in India continue to face numerous problems including inequality, social mental block, orthodoxy about women, dependency on others, violent victimization, domestic violence and dowry etc and if see in the early Vedic period women enjoyed equal status with men in all aspects of life. Social barriers, taboos, cultural values, religious restrictions, family behavior and stereotyped concepts of our society are still binding women in a civilized country like India. Ironically we are mute spectators to these types of acts which are going on right in front of us.

It is generally misconception that only uneducated people do this sort of things but is done by those whether men or women who behaves like animals because when greed exceeds it turns our behavior into animal behavior and we cannot even differentiate between right and wrong. Globalization can’t bring social changes if we do not have positive attitude towards women, so education is only content that can bring overall social and economic change. According to National Family Health Survey –III (200506) in the rural sector currently married women take 26% decisions regarding obtaining health care for herself and 7.6% in case of purchasing major household items. 10% decisions are taken by females in respect of visiting their family or relatives. For urban areas, these figures are 29.7%, 10.4% and 12.2% respectively and 59.6% only have access to money.

5. Opportunities Present for Rural India towards Globalization

Thinking about rural development has evolved over the years. Rural producers, including small scale producers are increasingly involved in global commodity chains. Kydd and Dorward explained basic objective of globalization not only to remove poverty, generation of income and employment, to reduce inequality of both assets and incomes but also to find practical ways of making administrative institutions more responsible and accountable to poor people to develop their positive attitude.

5.1. Part Time Work Policies for Youth to Bear Education Expenses

Education and technology sector is now available globally for everyone. Income imbalance of either rural or urban people who prefer Government jobs only to secure future. They are not interested in self business activities because they don’t have any skill based education and have only formal education. There is no scheme from Government of India to make youth independent so there should be contractual employment schemes for youth to bear their educational expenses. We have to adopt this globalized formula up to rural level. Developed countries in world prefer to work regardless of level of work but if youth only want to work with status factor otherwise they will prefer to sit at home and depend upon parents until a long term secured job. They are least interested in agriculture because of higher status and wages of government jobs.

5.2. Social Protection and Breaking of Social Taboos

Rural people are usually more exposed to risk than urban people. Taboo is anything banned by social customs for one group or another and often referred to as religious objections. In Menstrual taboo women is treated according to the religious practices. Sex taboos infusing various bases like sex is sacred, sex is secret, sex is sin and shame. Caste taboo where caste refers to a hereditary group inherited by the virtue of birth and extended by endogamous marriage. Other taboos like inter-caste/religious marriage, widow remarriage, pregnancy related are present in our society but the concluding factor is that women have always been more restrictive taboos than men. So impact of globalization, mass media and education directly or indirectly encourage the current generation to abandon traditional social norms and taboos. 1 Women are heading one‐third of the Panchayats and are gradually learning to use their new prerogatives, have transformed local governance by sensitizing the State to the issues of poverty, inequality and gender injustice. Indian culture is changing as the country becomes more urban and less traditional. We are accepting modernization only in clothes and industrialization but not accepting equality, not accepting to clear our dirty minds. It’s a transformation that many traditionalists bitterly oppose. What is bad in wearing western dress, going to a party, using mobile, higher education, playing outdoor games?. It is a matter of conflict in some states between the traditionalists and progressive class. Society have to stop this type of discouraging emotional appealing behavior because it will restrict their lives to private sphere and only socialize according to their families directions. Women also have to fight against the emotional barriers. Culture of developed societies can provide fast wellness message for narrow mental blocks to change for women.

5.3. Objective on to Fill the Gap between Rich and Poor

For rural transformation the main objective should be on the poverty alleviation. Suggestions should be focused on the improvement in overall quality of livelihood so as to fill the gap between rich and poor like various schemes as: MNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi national rural employment Guarantee scheme) to provide 100 days employment to rural unemployed people, BNM (Bharat Nirman Yojana) for rural housing, irrigation, drinking water, electrification and rural telephony, NRHM (National Rural Livelihood Mission) to eradicate poverty by 2014-15, NFSC (National Food Security Scheme) guarantee for food to the poor people.

Although these schemes are available for poor rural development yet awareness is must to for easy access to these schemes. Governments have to focus on the proper planning and execution of all schemes and to remove the loopholes. A Recent study done on MGNREGA in PUNJAB showed us that during 2014-15 about 50% of Gram Panchyats of Punjab (State of India) have not opted MGNREGA and job Cards issued to 17.49% people only because Government cannot provide proper information and awareness to the public and to the Panchyats 2.

5.4. Proper Credit Assistance to Rural Farming

More households consist of part time farmers, work smaller plots and are headed by the elderly, young and women, so face severe credit and input constraints; access to subsidies and extension services has diminished; market changes increase the need for specialist techniques, quality control, information-intensive technologies and marketing involving high transaction costs, Targeted assistance is needed where small-scale farming can be competitive.

5.5. Compulsory Reservation of Female to Male Dominated Field

Some of the fields have male dominance era due to our society and culture. This may be right previously because at that time no technology was present there do hard and heavy work but today even such technologies and machinery are available with which male and female can do work easily and with equal opportunity. This will also reduce social taboo of male dominance. Women need not to be dominated. The need of the hour is to change the mind set of man dominance, the old age rules, myths associated with a women and her freedom. The irrational logics of traditionalists to put restrictions on women on the name of religion are unfair but still some sections in the society live in dark ages and are struggling in their own web. Indian culture is mostly dominated male culture so male population and traditionalists have to adopt a change because it is a widespread view among many traditional minded Indians that women must adhere to certain conservative social norms. Only women are accountable for India’s heritage. The violation of women’s fundamental rights through physical, mental, emotional and sexual violence against women has become almost common place in Indian context. 3 Discrimination against women by denying from justice and dispossessing from shares in land and property is unfair social conduct. Growing rigidity in social conduct and structures are needed to be abolished not only by making laws but also by make them accessible to all.

The need of the hour is to analyze the difference between: how man treats his sister, how man treats his wife, how man treats his daughter and how man treats a woman in social relations 3. There should be a progressive mental environment and a developmental framework of socio economic life. Some of the fields have male dominance due to our society and culture. With the advent of technology now male and female are equal capable of doing the same work. Thus technology is removing the male dominance taboo.

6. Suggestions and Strategies for What Globalization Meant for Rural India

Rural circumstances and development thinking is also changing so rural development policy needs to keep up. Different governments and donor agencies have different perspectives and pursue different combinations of rural development policies. Support to the non-farm rural economy and to migration is as important as agricultural. Globalization is changing the diverse world into single one so the global changes in trade, environment and social conditions are affecting every society. The developed targets achieved today are impossible without proper education and technology.

6.1. Replacing Old Structures with New Technologies

Social system provides a medium through cultural boundaries within which innovation is adopted. In housing sector, agriculture and non farming sector new technologies can affect the income of owner and can lowest the cost. Replacing the old housing (brick and mortar) with readymade kitchen, bathrooms, doors, windows etc. Replacing the old agriculture ways with new modified improved seed sowing techniques, testing of soils, irrigation according to the requirement, use of solar panels, use of kisans (farmer) help line facilities and specially organic farming techniques to reduce the bad impacts of pesticides on life.

6.2. Planning for Rural, Agriculture Risks and Land Reforms

The rural people face new risks due to increasing natural disasters and rapid economic changes and agricultures risks are decreasing fertility of soil, excess consumption of fertilizers and pesticides, double cropping and falling water level, tenancy of land etc. Public intervention is particularly required in developing policies for land. Subsidies should be available according to Small farmers, marginal and large land division. More focus should be on land reforms. Land policy had been one of the important components of Planning Commission since 1951. 4 Caroline Ashley explained that Land associated Caste groups who are traditional cultivators are not to be taken advantage of their political relations. Small and marginal farmers should have more access to subsidies than large farmers. The challenge for technology to avoid the pitfalls of data-hungry, administratively complex models which undermined the viability of integrated rural development approaches in the 1970s.

6.3. Proper Training and Auditable Functioning of Gram (Village) Panchyats

It is local self Government of India of Panchayati Raj System at the village level. The main sources of income of Gram Panchyats or Gram Sabhas are Property tax levied on buildings and open spaces with in the village, Professional Tax, Grants from Central or State Governments in proportion of land Revenue and grants received from District Councils of India. Auditable functioning of Gram Panchyats is also necessary because some of Panchayats are unable to utilize the funds and grants for various rural development techniques due to lack of awareness. Training facilities should be through the technical media available in schools to inspire them for development and to adopt new models and formulas.

6.4. Implementation of Self, Social and financial Security Schemes

Women are leading higher administrative posts and many of the Gram (village) Panchyats yet some parts of rural areas have worse conditions. This lead to migration of educated to urban areas. The migration percentage in different streams for females as per the Census 2001 is rural to rural‐ 71%; rural to urban‐ 13.6%; urban to urban‐ 9.7% and urban to rural‐ 5.6%. The Ministry of Rural Development runs various programs having special components for women and funds are earmarked as ‘Women Component’. The various schemes benefiting women are:

Sampoorna Gramin Rozgar Yojana (SGRY),

Swarnjawanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY),

Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY),

Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP),

And Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme (ARWSP) etc.

The statistics of Department of Rural Development states that in 2008‐09, 18.61 lakh Swarojgaris were employed out of which 64.80% were female beneficiaries. Some social security programmes like NSAP (National social assistance programme) having the old age pension component, national family benefit scheme (NFBS) and national maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS). This provided the minimum standard of social assistance to women.

6.5. Adequate Rural infrastructure as Per Requirement Statics

With 73rd Amendment Act (1992) of Constitution of India, the three tier system is created to make Panchyats more responsible. Panchyats have more powers and are running schools, dispensaries and group farming. Fund, functions and functionaries provision by state Government will be successful only if these local bodies are active and dedicated for development, far from party politics and fair to every residents of that area because mostly facilities are provided only according to the voters of ruling party. Similarly some states are deprived of funds due to less Lok Sabha seats and opposite party ruling mismatching of states and center. Government have to prefer infrastructures to rural areas particularly road link with urban areas, electricity, communication, skilled labor, access to credit, information and training facilities to illiterate farmers in their areas without any discrimination. There is good Example given by Haryana State to implement the minimum qualification for the Sarpanch (village head) election People should also be aware to these facilities and they should also have the ability to accept the modern technology and every rural person have to demand these facilities from his ruling party for proper planning and reducing poverty.

6.6. Financial Freedom to Women and Youth

Financial freedom is poor for women and youth due to social old ethics and traditions in India .They cannot take any entrepreneurial decisions without the consent of family. Women always dependent on somebody male member of society as father, brother, husband and son and she is sometimes forced to withdraw from public life is also a form an oppression. Rural India is lagging behind than urban in gender disparities because of lack of education and awareness and it increases lower mental level of thinking between women from decades. They have adopted this tradition firmly. So urbanization and positive attitude towards women can bring social changes.

According to the National Family Health Survey-III (2005-2006) in the rural sector currently:

• Married women take 26% decisions regarding obtaining health care for self in rural areas and 29.7% in urban areas.

• 7.6% in case of purchasing major households in rural areas and 10.4% in urban.

• 10% decisions are taken by females in respect of visiting their family or relatives in rural areas and 12.2 in urban areas.

Finally 59.6% of Indian women have access to money out of salaries and housewives.

Women’s are heading one third of the Panchyats and rural women is more exposed to risk than urban women. Mobility constraints, lack of professional education has given rise to dependency of women on family for whole life. Equal property division according to law is there but our social trend is to deprive daughter from property right who have brothers in family. Every Daughter has to enjoy its property right to remove the dowry taboo from our society. Youth people while studying must be aware regarding their capacities so that parents and family can rely on their decisions. Social globalized media can play a vital role to spread this message of equality in community.

6.7. Innovative Training Programs

Low potential areas have different needs to high potential areas where modernization is already underway. They generally still need agriculture-based development, are least likely to gain from globalization opportunities, and will generate lower returns because of their inherent disadvantages. Hence awareness by the Government to the rural people through the receive only terminals and satellite interaction terminals provided by Sarav Shiksha Abhyaan to every secondary school in India and by the colleges of that local areas. Lectures should be in mother language to gram Panchyats. Some Panchyats are the driven by one or two financially and politically strong candidate of that village. This trend is common in villages of Punjab. So these training programs will support to end this trend.

6.8. Literacy and Education for all

Education is responsibility of state and center; hence the child has to undergo education whether or not he wants it. To achieve the desired goal of universalization of education, this requires not only qualification, proper infrastructure, deep subject proficiency of teachers, government and NGO initiatives but it also requires good working conditions for teachers full of mental piece and especially with secure future. Hence we need to analyze that why the same difficulties still exists from nearly sixty years. When voices against policies are ignored then this results in the failure of policies. So there is need to provide attractive environment for male as well as female. Unemployment rate in India is still high and higher fee structures of private institutions are out of reach of people. Government is therefore responsible to provide better environment and better future. Although there have been several good efforts made by the governments to enhance the quality of education. Major public education initiatives have been taken by governments from time to time like Sarava Sikhsha Abhyan (SSA), Rashtrya Madayamic Siksha Abahyan (RMSA), Mid Day Meal (MDM), Computer Education(I.C.T.) and Para teacher Schemes etc. So Education should be priority on the development agenda but should not be based on experiments strategy to save financial sources.

7. Concluded Role of Education, Technology and Globalization towards Rural Indian Society

When a culture closes its arms then that culture or society remained far behind from the outer world and conceives backwardness in the form of mental blocks. Right justification of self by showing negativity to the outer developed society and to technology is not a right decision but we need to stress on to use the technology as wisely as according to the needs of our culture. If we want to be on the atlas then we have to participate in the growing globalized world with wise steps because new trends and technology remain continue with new perspectives. To increase the rural people living standard here is need to change the traditional mind set of the society according to the changing conditions of world. It will represent how a gaining culture can develop its people and society as well as remove social taboos. Negligence of States depending upon voting criteria is biggest interrupt in the globalization and transformation therefore need of the hour is to aware against these type of pitfalls.

Education is the most important way to break web of social taboos to social malpractices and is the only way to maintain knowledge and culture for generations. An emphasis is needed on the development of Rural area is needed but side by side emphasis on prevention of misuse of funds. With technology and education people becomes more aware towards their rights, they will participate and interact with Bureaucracy and can reduce mass corruption and the way going through intermediaries of politicians. An ideal approach for globalization of Rural India includes Government, youth, women, administration and their dedication towards development so as to compete with the outer world. Hence awareness is must to break rural unwanted barriers of narrow mental position. Freedom of women depends upon the strong economic condition so women have to be a devoted wife, devoted mother and a devoted financial assistance to her family. Women have to reject the stereotyped concepts hence education is the best way to remove are the barriers because an educated women’s influence is much greater than a dependent woman.

In some total after all reforms we have to adopt the uniform code form men and women in our behavior, society and in our minds. So according to globalization villages need to grow in adjacent to cities and living standards have to improve for growth to happen. Every rural area in India is not having similar conditions according to its location, culture, heritage and its distance too counts. Every society and culture has to accept new measures with positive ways. Hence culture is the basic building block to accept education as well as globalization.


This research was not supported/partially supported by any foundation, grant maker, and donor. I thank my colleagues from RIMT University, Punjab, India, who provided insight and expertise that greatly assisted the research. They agree with all of the interpretations /conclusions of this paper.

I thank Dr. Megha Dhiman Assistant Professor RIMT University, Punjab, India, for her assistance and RIMT University for her comments and Guidelines that greatly improved the manuscript.

I would also like to show our gratitude to the “anonymous” reviewers for their so-called insights. I am also immensely grateful to my class for their comments on an earlier version of the manuscript, although any errors are my own and should not tarnish the reputations of these esteemed persons.


[1]  Dr S.T. Janetius & Dr. Mini T.C.: Taboo (Sex Taboo & the Changing Indian Society, 2009, Tamil Nadu .available at: http://janatius.pagetl/social-taboos-in-india.htm.
In article      View Article
[2]  Balwinder Singh Tiwana, Newspaper report: Punjabi Tribune, Punjabi University Patiala, presented at conference in GENEVA (IOL).
In article      
[3]  Dr. Prem Chaudary: To make Girls capable for Earning. Source: Punjabi Tribune, 22 August 2015, page 6.
In article      
[4]  R.S.Deshpande: Current land policy issues in India: by Economic and social development department.
In article      

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Navjot Kaur and Dr. Megha Dhiman

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Cite this article:

Normal Style
Navjot Kaur, Dr. Megha Dhiman. Globalization and Rural India: Aspects of Education, Technology and Culture. American Journal of Rural Development. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2018, pp 38-44.
MLA Style
Kaur, Navjot, and Dr. Megha Dhiman. "Globalization and Rural India: Aspects of Education, Technology and Culture." American Journal of Rural Development 6.2 (2018): 38-44.
APA Style
Kaur, N. , & Dhiman, D. M. (2018). Globalization and Rural India: Aspects of Education, Technology and Culture. American Journal of Rural Development, 6(2), 38-44.
Chicago Style
Kaur, Navjot, and Dr. Megha Dhiman. "Globalization and Rural India: Aspects of Education, Technology and Culture." American Journal of Rural Development 6, no. 2 (2018): 38-44.
[1]  Dr S.T. Janetius & Dr. Mini T.C.: Taboo (Sex Taboo & the Changing Indian Society, 2009, Tamil Nadu .available at: http://janatius.pagetl/social-taboos-in-india.htm.
In article      View Article
[2]  Balwinder Singh Tiwana, Newspaper report: Punjabi Tribune, Punjabi University Patiala, presented at conference in GENEVA (IOL).
In article      
[3]  Dr. Prem Chaudary: To make Girls capable for Earning. Source: Punjabi Tribune, 22 August 2015, page 6.
In article      
[4]  R.S.Deshpande: Current land policy issues in India: by Economic and social development department.
In article