Identity Crisis in Rural Peasant: A Study of Villages around Aurangabad City of Maharashtra State, I...

Dilip R Khairnar

American Journal of Rural Development

Identity Crisis in Rural Peasant: A Study of Villages around Aurangabad City of Maharashtra State, India

Dilip R Khairnar

Department of Sociology, Deogiri College, Aurangabad, India

Abstract

Industrialization is the changing factor for rural and urban region of India. Due to rapid urbanization, economic growth, rural development and globalization, marked structural changes in cities and villages in India are observed. Due to extension of some cities in size, that results in demographic, physical, economic, technological and environmental imbalances. This specific study is an attempt to find out the fundamental changes in the villages around the city. The study has been conducted in Marathwada region of Maharashtra state to analyze economical changes among the villages near the industrialized Aurangabad. This was also extended to the social changes in the rural peasant along with the city environment. We also analyzed the ‘Identity Crisis among villagers in post LPG period.

Cite this article:

  • Dilip R Khairnar. Identity Crisis in Rural Peasant: A Study of Villages around Aurangabad City of Maharashtra State, India. American Journal of Rural Development. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2017, pp 1-4. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajrd/5/1/1
  • Khairnar, Dilip R. "Identity Crisis in Rural Peasant: A Study of Villages around Aurangabad City of Maharashtra State, India." American Journal of Rural Development 5.1 (2017): 1-4.
  • Khairnar, D. R. (2017). Identity Crisis in Rural Peasant: A Study of Villages around Aurangabad City of Maharashtra State, India. American Journal of Rural Development, 5(1), 1-4.
  • Khairnar, Dilip R. "Identity Crisis in Rural Peasant: A Study of Villages around Aurangabad City of Maharashtra State, India." American Journal of Rural Development 5, no. 1 (2017): 1-4.

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At a glance: Figures

1. Introduction

India is changing with extraordinary pace. Post 1991 period is a transformation period in India. Industrialization became the major economy changing factor in both rural and urban region of India. Rapid changes in market growth, sequential flow of funds , increase in production, takeover of small scale industries, new product and production facilities, placements of students, retail market, special economic zone developments and state governments are offering maximum facilities to the companies to explore their business. These are the regular features of modern India. Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization (LPG) is the rule of the game [1, 2, 3, 4]. Globalization has far-reaching economic, social, political, cultural, environmental and technological consequences. It is the process which is neither irreversible nor can be changed. Apparently, this is economic change but moreover its social happening as it intervenes in the social system in other way. In fact, while "integrating with the world economy is a powerful vehicle for growth and poverty reduction in developing countries, it would be still more powerful if the rich countries further increased the openness of their own economies” [2, 3].

Modern technology and increasing economic integration have been a positive force in eradicating poverty and development throughout times" [3, 4]. Due to rapid urbanization, economic growth, rural development and globalization, marked structural changes in cities and villages India are observed. Some cities are extended in size that results in demographic, physical, economic, technological and environmental imbalances within such mega cities. Conflict between conservation and modernization can be vividly seen. According to some observers economic globalization leads to a “race to the bottom” characterized “by the progressive movement of capital and technology from countries with relatively high levels of wages, taxation and regulation to countries with relatively lower levels” [4, 5, 6]. The urban transformation with disappearing character and flavor, real estate boom and rising informal sector are presenting new urban landscapes. A big city is an oasis for rural poverty. People from rural area attracted towards cities. The cities are extending to small villages and acquiring more areas. The villages near or around the cities are influenced. There is structural transformation in villages, too. An understanding of the nature of functional relationship between the villages and cities is necessary villages that are near or around cities have been changed and changing rapidly. [5, 6, 7, 8, 9] In this changing scenario, culture values and whole picture is changing. The characteristics of village are missing in terms of traditions, ritual, type of family, primary relationship, and the living standard etc. Unique culture of rural urban societies is being created. [10, 11, 12] This specific study is an attempt to find out what fundamental changes has been found in the villages around big city. The study has been conducted in Marathwada region of Maharashtra state to analyze following objectives. The first objective was to find out economical changes among the villages near the industrialized cities. This was also extended to analyze the social changes in the rural peasant along with the city environment. We also analyzed the ‘Identity Crisis’ among villagers in post LPG period.

Concept identity crisis

Survival of any society depends on regular transitions of organization and values from one generation to next generation [13]. The identity, attitudes, perceptions and behavior are the parts of social culture that can be changed, amended or revised to next generation. Identity is a position, with relative tension, oriented to change and transformation and identity crisis is insecurity in identity [14].

As per Cambridge Advance learner’s dictionary ‘ Identity Crisis’ is a feeling of being uncertain about who or what you are:

• As per dictionary of social science identity crisis can be used in a psychological way or in a sociological way. For psychology, it refers to the tendency for people in crisis to dissociate their experiences from aspects of their personality or identity. This can lead to multiple personality. For the sociologist it refers more to social isolation from others for a variety of reasons.

Identity Crisis?

According to Erikson a famous psychologist, an identity crisis is a time of intensive analysis and exploration of different ways of looking at one self. This term was used by Erikson for the child to adolescent transformation of human-being. In this paper, we used this term for the first time for farmers affected by industrialization. The main objectives of this study were transformations of farmers and their families due to huge money flow after selling their lands. The rural community is forced to play two roles at the same time they are not urban when they are leaving in the rural areas or villages around the cities [5]. In contrast, the characteristic of urbanization is easily seen in the rural areas.

2. Methodology

2.1. Sample Size

A survey was conducted in the four villages near to Aurangabad city in the state of Maharashtra. These villages are Chikalthana, Shendra, Waluj and Chite Pimpalgaon. Twenty-five families from each village have been selected by purposive random sampling method. Interview method is used for data collection.

3. Results and Discussion

Economists have dedicated a significant effort on understanding the process of human capital accumulation. Specifically, they have focused on analyzing the socio-economic determinants of school performance. For their part, psychologists and sociologists have connected school performance with other variables in addition to socio-economic elements. In this context, some economists have integrated concepts from other social sciences into economic studies thus reducing the gap between the disciplines. This article seeks to contribute to narrowing the gap between the disciplines by analyzing the relationship between bullying, student identity, and school performance in 8th grade students in the Metropolitan Region of Chile. One expression of the identity of individuals studied in the field of sociology is subcultures [15, 16, 17]. Belonging to some subcultures has been associated with dissimilar patterns of consumption [18, 19], differences in physical and mental health [20, 21, 22, 23], and differences in commitment to the learning process [24].

Villages around Aurangabad city Chikalthana, Shendra, Waluj and Chite Pimpalgaon were chosen for the study and twentyfive families have been studied for the data analysis. City Aurangabad is the one of the fastest growing city of Asia. As per provisional reports of Census India, population of Aurangabad in 2011 is 1,175,116; of which male and female are 609,206 and 565,910 respectively. Although Aurangabad city has population of 1,175,116; its urban/metropolitan population is 1,193,167 of which 618,845 are males and 574,322 are females. And the area is 10,107 Sq. Km. The city is surrounded by the world famous Ajanta & Elora caves and the paradise for the tourist worldwide.

Recently, the international Airport is in the construction progress to encourage tourism. The city is divisional capital of Marathwada region and the divisional headquarters situated in the city. The well-known companies Bajaj, Videocon, Crompton Greaves, Skoda, are based in the industrial area of city. Five star graded Special economic zones are declared in the area.

Out of 25 sample families, 78% possesses the communication tools like TV or Radio and they remain in touch with the update of current affairs in the field of political and social and economic events. Two families also had the DTH facility. The city cable connection has reached in the village waluj and the people are now habitual to see the digital TV. 79% families constructed the house with the RCC pattern and with modern facilities.

Figure 2. Percentage of farmers engaged in farming and education before industrialization
Figure 3. Percentage of farmers engaged in farming and education after industrialization

Most of them can afford the architecture advice for the planned construction. Very surprisingly, 39 % families brought the SUV cars and 23 % families owned their sedan type car (Figure 1). 43% families have enrolled their children in the heavy fees charging private schools adjacent to the city boundaries and claimed that now they realize the importance of education (Figure 2 and Figure 3).

Farmers from Shendra villages are getting the highest returns for their land sale and they are not hesitating to sale some part of their land. There are phenomenal changes among the four villages, which are adjacent to the Aurangabad city. Farmers are turned as workers at the factories. Some of them are now skilled in specific work required for industry. Sobhanijou (2004, p 38) has posed in which on the one hand, what factors can be preeminent in increasing sustainable social cohesion, collective conscious, sustainable relationships between people and government and on the other hand, in decreasing social abnormalities and in improvm.g. social identity.

A large number of youths want to response to questions such as "what is my status", "what is my future job", "what is my future major", who is one I will get married" and "what are my ethic and philosophical values", "who select and theses values'' whose responsibility to declare right way of life" that response to these question indicating mission of parents, educators, consultants and cultural obligators [26]. The umbrages emerged for youths are questions pertained to identity, in which according to their attitude "how are they" and "how they interpret others' feeling about themselves" [26]. In affected families, 39 % of the youth population has the smart phones with internet facilities. 10 % teenagers have the motorcycles or bikes for the travel. The social environment in these villages has been changing. It has an impact on the social structure, values, social institutions and attitudes. The existence of crowded city around villages has affected noticeably on cultural identity and social harmony among various social groups in those villages.

The way of living style, construction pattern of houses, clothing and language is also infected and inspired by the city atmosphere. But the dilemma in this transformation are the villagers that are equally traditional and at the same time they adopted changes under impression of city. In this process they are standing in between. They are part of rural peasant but urban characteristics are simply visible among them. They are losing their identity as rural peasant and they are not entirely the part of urban civilization.

With the improvement in communication and transportation, the social and economic opportunities of the city become more accessible to rural residents. Their level of living rises and the urban impact radiates rapidly. Settlements having better transport facilities are more urbanized than those are located far away from the transport line. The rural areas being primarily agricultural areas, the land use pattern is also basically agricultural in nature. However, the proximity to city affects the land use pattern in two ways. Firstly, the conversion of land for industrial and commercial purposes and secondly, change in the pattern of land use within agricultural sector under the impact of the demand from the urban core. Though the expansion of urban area is a threat to the rural periphery in terms of losing their agricultural character at times, they are found to be strengthened in agricultural activities due to urban demand for agricultural goods.

Table 1. Study variables in identity crisis

The above analysis suggests that perhaps India is already on the phase of rapid urban growth. Sobhanijou (2004, p 38) has posed in which on the one hand, what factors can be preeminent in increasing sustainable social cohesion, collective conscious, sustainable relationships between people and government and on the other hand, in decreasing social abnormalities and in improvm.g. social identity. The size of cities is extended to the nearby villages and therefore villagers are realizing the value of their land. Rural economy is shifting to the complex economy. Farmers who got their earlier income from land, spend those money, and now want to stick to their traditional occupation. The temptation of the land sale is no more from them.

The identity crisis was found in these farmers including money from lands. They are not ready to do farming nor do they have enough farms to work. The farmers and their families are not investing their money wisely and not even spending it on luxurious things. The farmers are not even adjust with the city environment and the lifestyles of traders or shopkeepers. The educational efforts and the counseling of the farmers about their identity crisis are lacking in the region. This is one of the major reasons of the identity crisis in farmers of the region.

4. Conclusion

A survey was conducted in the four villages near the Aurangabad city in the state of Maharashtra. The villages are Chikalthana, Shendra, Waluj and Chite Pimpalgaon. We found that with the improvement in communication and transportation, the social and economic opportunities of the city become more accessible to rural residents. Their level of living rises and the urban impact radiates rapidly. The way of living style, affected and inspired by the city atmosphere. The transformations in villagers are equally traditional and the same time they adopted changes under impression of city. They are part of rural peasant but urban characteristics are simply visible among them. They are losing their identity as rural peasant and not entirely the part of urban civilization. They are farmers without the lands and not having any business strategies for their daily expenses. The social enrichment and the education to adapt the changes for the peaceful life suggested for the development of the human life in this transforming area. This will help the people for the betterment of the economy and the human values.

Acknowledgements

DK would like to thank Mr Mahadev Jadhav for the suggestions manuscript preparation.

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