Value and Price of Teaching-Learning Aids in Curricular Health Trainings in India

Pushpa Potaliya, Ranabir Pal, Surajit Ghatak

American Journal of Public Health Research

Value and Price of Teaching-Learning Aids in Curricular Health Trainings in India

Pushpa Potaliya1,, Ranabir Pal2, Surajit Ghatak1

1Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

2Department of Community Medicine and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

Abstract

Background: Teaching-learning (T-L) aids are being used for long time in medical education. With the technology and electronic revolution newer medical education aids are increasingly being applied that needs evaluation. Objective: To assess the overall impact of audio-visual aids in teaching-learning of medical students in India. Methods: Literature search for data sources were done through an extensive search in indexed literature and website based educational research reports. Altogether 92 studies were identified from 300 potentially pertinent articles. A broad criterion to define both physical instruments and educational instruments has been used for searching the comments. Moreover, we have utilized personal resources and from individual collections. Results: Outcomes of use of teaching-learning aids in undergraduate medical education varied largely with conventional and innovative methods, with few studies using different parameters and learning (unspecified) aids, innovative technology, and amalgamation of them. The researchers noted that in general the learning experience was not significantly dependent on the aids used during sharing knowledge and expertise, though some of the studies showed marginal and tangential benefits while the capacity of the facilitator matters most. Conclusions: In the last place it is the man behind the machine that imparts communication in health care scenario.

Cite this article:

  • Pushpa Potaliya, Ranabir Pal, Surajit Ghatak. Value and Price of Teaching-Learning Aids in Curricular Health Trainings in India. American Journal of Public Health Research. Vol. 3, No. 5A, 2015, pp 160-173. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajphr/3/5A/35
  • Potaliya, Pushpa, Ranabir Pal, and Surajit Ghatak. "Value and Price of Teaching-Learning Aids in Curricular Health Trainings in India." American Journal of Public Health Research 3.5A (2015): 160-173.
  • Potaliya, P. , Pal, R. , & Ghatak, S. (2015). Value and Price of Teaching-Learning Aids in Curricular Health Trainings in India. American Journal of Public Health Research, 3(5A), 160-173.
  • Potaliya, Pushpa, Ranabir Pal, and Surajit Ghatak. "Value and Price of Teaching-Learning Aids in Curricular Health Trainings in India." American Journal of Public Health Research 3, no. 5A (2015): 160-173.

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1. Introduction

A teaching-learning method is a planned way of providing a teaching-learning experience. Extensive use of medical educational technologies is observed in India in this modern arena of information outburst with an urge for alternative medium to reduce dissatisfaction from conventional mode of education. Although basic educational principles include learning, engagement, feedback and assessments remain same with conventional and innovative methods, delivery can be more effective to learners by technological means. Teaching-learning aids are used at various levels of medical education worldwide since time immemorial for better communication. [1] With the technological revolution more and more innovative aids like E-learning, Online Learning, Web-based Learning, or Distance Learning are being introduced by various institutes. These are extensively used as many are freely available for wider knowledge dissemination. Even recorded lectures are uploaded in freely available public domain; webinar and live lecture demonstration are also available through v-sat virtual learning, virtual workshop, virtual classrooms; virtual conferences have become reality. [2] Some educationists have become proactive in the field of medical education to share their experiences with others to help learn optimal use of gadgets. [3] Flexibility and cost-effectiveness are vital in selection of medical educational technology and continuing professional development programs. We are yet to find studies and meta-analyses regarding utility of aids in Indian medical undergraduates. The researchers of this systematic review have tried to find out the outcome of various TL aids. As integral component of medical education from reported studies in India various teaching-learning methodologies have been tried historically with the technological innovations having their distinct merits and demerits. So an attempt was made to explore feasibility and utility of use of technology to deliver academic contents to learners across undergraduate disciplines.

2. Methods

We attempted an extensive collection of different published studies in which effectiveness of teaching-learning aids were appraised in learning experience of medical and dental undergraduates, including meeting presentations and personal communications. Through an extensive website-scanned search in indexed literatures and study reports, we identified 92 studies on various teaching-learning aids on Indian medical undergraduates from 300 potentially relevant articles from 2001 to 2015. All indexed journal publications available from various institutional libraries of India, and websites on related studies in medical education among medical undergraduate students published since 2001, were included in this study. The studies were identified by searching Pubmed-Entrez and other search engines and proceedings of scientific meetings, conferences, workshops, forums, homepages of different important institutes and universities and medical education programs (2001-2015) also. Reviews of citations and cross-reference lists were followed to identify additional eligible studies. Search terms included teaching-learning aids, audio-visual aids, medical education, teaching technologies, undergraduates etc. Wherever possible, sources and resource persons were contacted for further information on research data not readily available in the public domains. Manual searches were conducted for review article. The researcher also used their own publications and manuscripts communicated for publications in this review. We also contacted authors for additional information or for translations from languages other than English.

2.1. Selection Criteria

We developed few criteria to select studies from among peer-reviewed articles. First we used broad criteria to have teaching-learning aids in Indian medical undergraduate studies. Second, we sought to include all studies under various aids used in pre-clinical and clinical subjects separately. Thirdly, this study included the outcome of various studies with most preferred aid by the experimental group (single aid) and its comparison with other commonly used aids. Finally in the absence of universally accepted criteria of most accepted aid in teaching-learning, in the midst of several confounders and scope of subjective assessments of spectrum of learning experiences by the learner of most preferred aid, we discussed in depth the distinctive effects irrespective of the criteria of use of aids in undergraduate medical and dental teaching-learning.

2.2. Main Outcome Variable

Assessment of learning experience using various audiovisual aids.

2.3. Data Abstraction and Analysis

Main interest of this analysis was subjective learning experience of undergraduate students wherein we observed remarkable differences in teaching-learning aids, participants and primary outcome variables. To be more precise, heterogeneity varied in sample size, study instruments, disciplines among courses, topics or subject chosen, institution and its faculty and also criteria and/or protocol for use of teaching-learning aid and assessment module also. Thereby, outcome varied to a large extent with regard to the overall use and utility of various conventional and innovative teaching-learning aids in a majority of studies. Few studies also used different parameters, namely computer assisted learning (unspecified) aids, innovative technology, audio- visual aids and amalgamation of them in various permutations and combinations.

2.4. Literature Reporting Outcomes of Single Teaching-learning Aid
2.4.1. Chalk and Talk or Blackboard (BB) Teaching

Historical cost-effective way to display and deliver information to a large group uses writing on Boards (Black, Green etc.) with chalk (White and colored). With the turn of century, white board and pens with colored delible inks replaced age-old boards with reincarnation of chalk and talk.


2.4.2. Over-head Projector (OHP)

Over-head projectors get inroads to circumvent the problems of chalk-talk presentations i.e. time-consuming, lacking eye-contact, larger images etc [4]. This provides advantage of daytime use, note-taking along etc. to make it a popular medium in pre-computer era. In a recent study on 200 medical undergraduates at a tertiary care teaching medical institute at Maharashtra, majority opined for use of Over-head projectors in pre-clinical classes [5].


2.4.3. PowerPoint (PPT) Presentations

‘PowerPoint’ software, as an inbuilt component of Office software package combines signs, colors, fonts and typescripts, illustrations and animatronics in auto running or interactive displays required for innovative and dynamic presentation; demonstrate pathway and mechanism, diagrams; and in charts, animated text, sweeps, and other types of effects are easily implemented. Ppt put forward diverse and elaborate animations and sound effects; use of hyperlinks to plot a route to desired internet sites. Two recent studies, one on medical entomology from Puducherry [6] and the other on embryology from Bangalore favored computer assisted innovative tools [7]. In Gujarat study, majority (85.8%) in Pathology class preferred PPT for better comprehension [8].


2.4.4. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Panel

Computer generated images can be projected using a LCD panel and kept on the plate of an OHP. The effect is somewhat similar to video projector with slightly less quality in terms of sharpness of image and smoothness of animation. In Coimbatore learners supported Computer assisted learning with LCD as an effective method especially for practical of pharmacology [9].


2.4.5. Video Presentation

A video recorded session displayed live modus operandi and depicts with clarity. It is exceedingly valuable in elucidating surgical procedures and best for far-flung, unreachable and delicate demonstrations. Out of 162 of the first year students in a south-Indian study, majority (73%) reflected that the video assisted teaching-learning sessions made them understand three-fourths of the topics discussed in their Problem based learning (PBL) approach [10].


2.4.6. Slide Projector

Sequential presentation of written or printed matter, figures etc. on slides are shown through passing light on transparent slides in this device. This was considered as an inexpensive and effective tool in a study at Kolkata, for projecting magnified images of histopathology and hematology [11]. The popularity of this media faded away with the introduction of easily available and cheaper resources of digital imaging techniques and supportive software to this aid eventually shelved in the museum of medical educational technology.


2.4.7. E-resources

In the simplest form, a facilitator can upload a presentation, or writer or editor uploads a book or journal on the institutional library set up or some other webpages - for audience access it’s termed as e-learning – narrations are taken care of by audio settings provisions too. Use of hypertext which are non-linear pages further linked to other links on different pages are also a mode of such e-learning. In a south Indian institute the students perceived that biochemistry e-learning resources made a positive impact on various aspects of their learning [12].


2.4.8. Computer Assisted Learning (CAL)

This assist, augment or deliver part or whole of instruction even along with their evaluation with various modes as learning through multimedia and internet. With the help of multimedia text, sound, illustrations, still or videos are stored to use as offline material; hybrid model is also used where core material on disc is provided with external links for leisure reading and references even with apps available on handsets with each day adding more to it. A literature reported that even Pharmacy students of Maharashtra advocated the sensible use of CAL and found this attractive and satisfying [13]. Other researchers also supported that CAL served as a valuable alternative, innovative tool for better understanding [6, 7, 9].


2.4.9. Animations

Animations overcomes the major drawbacks of static projections appreciated in disciplines as embryology, biochemistry etc. makes interesting, attention grabbing concept of communication of 3-D images. However technical expertise on software as Flash, Author ware, Macromedia is expected with necessary knowledge and operational skills of latest software in field are needed. Animations combined with chalk and talk was preferred by undergraduate medical students studying Physiology at Delhi instead of using animation standalone; also emphasized it should be used together to bring about maximum pedagogical benefits as compared to single aid [14].

2.4.10. Handouts

These simple write out ‘Take-away’ given prior, during or post-lecture, depend upon need of topic under discussion ranging from a simple outline of discussion as related titles and sub-titles, to complete notes or copy of presentation. This is a way to reach more people as audience other than who attended the presentation. Advanced readily used internet facility help facilitators upload the presentation on webpage’s so that the learners can go through it with their own ease of time and space. In a study, majority (89.67%) in Biochemistry classes preferred handouts during lecture as innovative, practical and helped them comprehending with abundant information [15].


2.4.11. Models

These 3-D representations range from static dummy, high end mannequins to even phantom models used for explaining structure and function in absence of specimen or object for demonstration varying in sizes. In the teaching-learning of laparoscopic surgery in New Delhi Phantom model for demonstration facilitated acquisition of laparoscopic skills in short-term focused program and improved their performance in real life [16]. Objective structured clinical examination using mannequins in Community Medicine was noted to be significantly better. [17].


2.4.12. Simulators

In imparting diverse clinical skills simulators replicates the case scenario that is not viable to directly perform subsequent procedures on patients. Such recreated medical realities in virtual space provide an ethically sound platform for learning varying from psychomotor to cognitive, affective, endoscopic and emergency skills. In present scenario, higher costs and non-accepting mindset are responsible for its lesser use. Computer simulation models were preferred by most of students at Ludhiana in Pharmacology practical. Students expressed that animals should not be sacrificed for experiments and computer simulation models may be used instead [18].


2.4.13. Other e-learning Tools

Using internet with search engines, video sharing, collaborative projects, Prezi for non-linear presentations, Moodle as course management system, Dropbox as a file syncing software, Kindle as e-book reader, Author stream for uploading and embedding presentations, Slide share for sharing presentations globally, Blogs which are diary type content sites, Edu blog as an educational blogging tools are examples of ample e-learning tools. In a multicenter study done to assess trends in computer and internet usage, students and faculty members across Kerala opined that computers and internet had remarkable range of application in the dental practice. Patient management software, video conferencing for case deliberations concerning specialists of various institutions and diverse specialties’, and online ongoing dental education programs could be some of the diverse possibilities with internet which could be included into dental education in near future [19]. In an another study in 2013 conducted among the students studying Pharmacology in a medical college in West Bengal, use of internet was found to be evolved as a modified medical teaching-learning approach incorporating lecture classes supplemented by interactive learning by project topics [20].


2.4.14. Digital Visualizers

Digital visualizer or Document camera provides high resolution magnified real time sharper images. These are used to display close up details of smaller objects to a larger audience in normal lighted room. Using computer or laptop with this digital visualizer, lecture and demonstration is possible in outreach sites also. In a study carried out most recently at AIIMS Jodhpur for assessment of impact of digital visualizer in teaching anatomy, Feedback analysis by students depicted aid to be only average for teaching-learning. In this study both conventional and aid-assisted teaching showed significant changes in knowledge of participants, though mean post-test score was higher with the use of digital visualizer [21].


2.4.15. Literature without Specifying single TL aids

Studies are also reported to emphasize importance of audio-visual aids in Pharmacology etc. for better learning [22]. Others noted use of various teaching methodologies for the lectures to be more interactive for enhanced gain of knowledge and acceptance [23].

3. Comparative Outcome of Teaching-Learning Using Two Aids

Literature reported relative experience of teaching-learning among undergraduate students using two different aids on same group of participants in their studies under our systematic review.

3.1. Power Point Presentation Versus Chalk and Talk

Many research groups have reported in the literature in medical education their observation regarding learning experience of the students using age old chalk and talk lecture/demonstration compared with Power Point presentations. In Andhra Pradesh, a study by Medical education unit was carried out aiming at faculty development program and educational research, focusing student centered teaching and learning methods. Eighty percent students in pharmacology preferred PowerPoint Presentation whereas, rest preferred didactic lectures with black board [24]. Another study in Mangalore to understand the preferred sensory modality (or modalities) of students for learning. Most of the participants were multimodal learners, which is fine from both teaching and also learning point of view. Aural and kinesthetic were the most chosen sensory modalities of education. Also, simple presentation of a PPT slide might not encourage and motivate the visual learners to understand if the slide content is structured in a manner that it can be conveniently read and implicit during the stipulated duration it is projected even if the student was not listening to the lecture. The study emphasized on active effort to determine that the combination of aids should adequately address the different types of learners [25]. In a study on Pharmacology at Goa, mostly (67.5%) of second year considered chalk and talk method as a preferred aid for better recall [26]. In a Pune study, more than two-third of the students in Anatomy lectures preferred chalk and talk over ppt. Almost similar preference was reported in post lecture test performance. They found that PPT lectures should not be substituted in any case by traditional chalk and talk, but it should be used as an add-on aid to augment the effectiveness of teaching. In the study mainstream of students favored incorporation of both the means, as per demand of the subject matter [27]. A collaborative study in Malaysia as well as India comprised of structured questionnaire and 2680 students from forty-three dental schools were approached via e-mail with a follow-up postal mailing. Out of 1980 responses, sixty-three percent preferred lectures with ppt and chalkboard, while twenty eight percent preferred lectures with clinical demonstration [28]. In another similar questionnaire based extensive study, done in Department of Anatomy at Bangalore, to know outlook and belief about the various aids used for lectures preference were Pre-clinical (54.2%), Para-clinical (59.6%) and in Clinical (57.3 chalk and talk method. At the same time the percentage was 45.8 percent, 40.4 percent and 42.7 percent respectively for the use of PPT for the illustrations [29]. In a Karnataka study in Physiology noted learners’ insight vis-à-vis pros and cons of note taking. PPT was found to provide adequate time span to inscribe and write up furnished information by facilitator in form of notes [30].

3.2. Chalk-Talk Versus Computer Assisted Teaching Using LCD

In an Uttaranchal study intended to unearth the approval and utilization of CAL using LCD in embryology in lecture classes besides chalk and talk, majority opined for computer aided teaching. Ninety-three percent of the student’s opined this valuable, whereas ninety-nine percent of them were in favor of; they required the facilitator’s direction for the use of the technological aid for depiction of a complex illustration in an easy and simplified way. Also eighty-six percent were interested in optimum mix, making it interesting and better for understanding [31].

3.3. Chalk-talk and Computers/Projectors

A Maharashtra study evaluated student’s stance, insight and feedback in pharmacology, using a pre-validated questionnaire among undergraduates - 39.13 percent recommended the use of audio-visual aids in lectures such as computers and projectors in place of didactic lectures [32].

3.4. Bedside Teaching and LCD with Bedside Teaching

In Pondicherry study students favored aids in clinical medicine like videos- downloaded and faculty made that were utilized with LCD projection whereby reproducibility was 85 percent in signs and symptoms of patients. Learners urged systematic incorporation of aids in clinics [33].

3.5. Dummy Organs and Accompanying Short Video

In a study in Karnataka on 60 students of Gynecology and Obstetrics demonstrations, fetal skull and pelvis dummy were used for demonstrating mechanism of labor to one group whereas other was taught by incorporating short video with previous. In this video assisted learning, 86.6 percent students performed good in OSCE analysis as compared to 53.4 percent without it, which was due to aids imparted noteworthy improvement in psychomotor skills [34].

3.6. Videos and Simulators

In another effort of making Psychiatry an interesting subject for undergraduates, a research was conducted in Bangalore. Using videos to portray clinical features improved the learning and withholding of the information provided in theory lectures. Simulated patients also helped a lot in gaining practical knowledge in clinical sessions [35].

4. Comparative OUTCOME of TEACHING-LEARNING USING MULTIPLE AIDS

Literature also reported comparable learning experience among undergraduate medical students when they were exposed to multiple teaching-learning aids in different permutations and combinations. Among studies using two or more aids, the commonest comparisons were among chalk-talk, Overhead projector (OHP), Power Points (PPT) in various combinations.

In Bihar in didactic lectures majority (90.1%) of three successive batches were inspired for additional reading in a blend of audiovisual aids during didactic lecture. While acuity of illustrations and note taking was considered finest with a ppt by first and second professional students, final professional students preferred OHP. Again majority of learners opined for collective use of aids rather than a single one [36]. Various technologies were assessed in Pharmacology in North India - forty five percent students preferred the traditional techniques while 51.7 percent liked PPT; only 3.4 percent liked OHP. It was concluded that learning was regardless of aid and rather depends on the facilitator [37]. In Tripura 81.6 percent preferred an optimum mix of aids during lectures; for understanding facts and clarity of concepts preferences were noted OHP (41,8%) for diagram, PPT (35.7%) for flow chart, Black board (46.9%) for stress on important points [38]. Other studies showed preference of optimum mix of aids - 87 percent in Anatomy in Karnataka [39], 54.9 percent in Karnataka [40], in second professional in Telangana [41], by majority in Gurgaon [42], 58 percent in pathology in Orissa [43]. Average outcome was high using combination of BB with either OHP or PPT in West Bengal [44]. In two Maharashtra medical colleges, 48.8 percent in Community Medicine [45] and as high as 90 percent favored mix of aids with chalk-talk in first and second professionals [46]. At Haryana, 95 percent students suggested judicious use of aids along with the conventional methods [47] whereas 60 percent preferentially liked a mix of PPT with BB in biochemistry in Uttar Pradesh [48]. In a Rajasthan study on physiology 67.1 percent preferred a mix of aid using both BB and OHP followed by BB (54%) as a reliable teaching aid [49]. Similar results were reported in Kolar, where students in biochemistry preferred combination [50]. Combination of aids as OHP in association with boards and chalk was preferred by 46.94 per cent in North Bengal [51]. Chalk and talk was preferred by 44.3 percent students in Uttar Pradesh [52], by 71 percent in Maharashtra [53], majority in Telangana [54], 82.83 percent at Chhattisgarh [55], in eastern India [56], in New Delhi [57], Bangalore [58] and in Maharashtra [59]. A study in Bangalore showed that BB teaching along with PPT, illustrations, and diagrams can increase awareness of pharmacovigilance [60]. Various technologies were assessed in medical students studying Pharmacology in their undergraduate course in North India. Forty five percent students preferred the traditional technique of teaching while 51.7 percent students liked the PPT while only 3.4 percent students liked OHP. It was concluded that learning depends on the facilitator [61]. Among first professional subjects, most preferred method of delivering lectures was chalk- board (87%) while combination of aids (98.8%) was preferred for Demonstration of clinical conditions in Karnataka [62]. In another study majority of the medical (66.05%) and dental students (61.2%) studying first professional preferred PPT [63]. It was also found to be favored by 32.03 percent but when required, mix of aids was preferred by students at Maharashtra [64]. Another study noted that maximum score was given to PPT in pharmacology [65]. Students preferred LCD with PPT in anatomy at Bangalore [66]. Judicious use of audiovisual aids along with the conventional methods was suggested by 95 percent [67] while OHP was favored in Punjab [68].

Students liked combination of aids (58.8%), but chose flowcharts (47%) and diagrams (63.5%) for ppt for first as well as for second year in Bihar [69]. Others noted that 65.33 percent favored PPT in medical and dental [70] and in pharmacology in Rajasthan [71]. Even in allied health sciences, ppt with chalk and board was the most effective A-V aid [72]. In a study in Community Medicine in West Bengal, 62 percent liked LCD among various aids whereas OHP was least preferred in theory classes [73]. LCD or PPT was considered most preferable in Bangalore [74]

Next common comparisons were among A-V aids as ppt with Computer assisted learning (CAL) aids, animations, video tapes etc. A study in Bangalore emphasized marked positive effects created by digital aids in Anatomy classes with added diagnostic and analytical skills [75]. In embryology 3- D effect was invariably valuable by use of simple animations, though it was time-consuming too [76]. Computer assisted aids and simulations were favored in pharmacology by 32 percent in Karnataka [77] and 44.74 percent students in Uttar Pradesh [78].

Other aids as mini videos were also of choice (94.67%) in pre-clinical subjects [79]. In anatomy, prior to dissection, procedure was explained and understood well by most of the students with use of 3-D models and videos [80]. Workers also advocated other innovative ways as e-learning in understanding from student’s prospective [81], use of audio-tapes, mobile tips, virtual teacher [82], video presentation [83] and CD-ROM’s etc. [84]. A study also found students to be equivocal about their preference of black-board-based and multimedia-based lectures [85]. None approved potentials of CAL in biochemistry at Kolkata [86] and pharmacology at Goa [87]. Optimum mix of CAL with other aids were chosen by majority students of seventh semester at New Delhi [88]. Outcomes were better with aids in Anatomy lectures than traditional group [89].

4.1. Unspecified Audio-visual Aids

In understanding novel teaching methods in undergraduate training in Pharmacology at Jammu, students preferred therapeutic teaching with audio-visual aids compared to theory classes without aids in self-assessment. Active learning with specific technology modalities were found to have better impact on students’ learning [90]. Others liked aids in pharmacology [83] whereas in all pre-clinical subjects by students at Belgaum [91] and Miraj [92].

5. Conclusion

To sum up in this debut study on the utility of teaching-learning aids we had a varied experience. A good number of studies could not find any major impact in switching over from one aid to other. Those studies reporting better learning experience by the stakeholders using any media also should be scanned well regarding quality of teacher, quality of the students, ambience of the venue including ‘non-threatening learning environment’ etc. All the preceding subjective components may not have been able to be evaluated properly in the classical Indian teacher-centric classroom scenario. In this debut study on the utility of teaching-learning aids we had a varied experience. A good number of studies could not find any major impact in switching over from one aid to other. Those studies reporting better learning experience by the stakeholders using any media also should be scanned well regarding quality of teacher, quality of the students, ambience of the venue including ‘non-threatening learning environment’ etc. All the preceding subjective components may not have been able to be evaluated properly in the classical Indian teacher-centric classroom scenario. In the health care courses and curriculum, learners necessitate remembering and memorizing innumerable facts; at the same time it is also extremely important to develop a concept about the topics. The progression of understanding a topic under discussion involves the skill and aptitude to incorporate and recollect the ideas, knowledge and data provided by the facilitator. While studying the broad umbrella term of Teaching-learning aids in literature, we came across aids ranging from various types of audio-visual devices, simple line figures using chalk and talk to highly sophisticated projectors as Digital visualizers.

The role of medical teacher is not only to impart communication of knowledge but also for holistic care in capacity building to improve the health care scenario in any country. Students build up concept and perceive facts through teaching-learning sessions and knowledge repositories like books and other virtual platforms.

Strengths of The Study

To the best of our horizon of knowledge we are yet to find any systematic review on the outcome experience of undergraduate students regarding the use of teaching-learning aid in the medical education in India.

Limitations of The Study

This novel attempt of the systematic review on the use of teaching-learning aids had several limitations. Firstly, we used published data of last 15 years. Secondly, in few years i.e. 2005, 2006 etc. we are yet to find any published articles. Thirdly, very few studies have been reported in literature in dental undergraduate education and none have been reported from AYUSH and other undergraduate teaching in health care. Fourthly, some studies could not been properly analyzed where we could not find full text. Lastly we were unable to find the role of confounding variables like English language as medium of teaching-learning in Indian medical education, in their learning experience as majority of them learners have vernacular other than English.

Future Directions of The Study

We wish to extend our study in postgraduate, teaching-learning of medical, dental and AYUSH also and on other self-learning aids.

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Table 1. Studies Using Single Teaching-Learning Aid To Improve Learning Experience

Table 2. Studies Comparing Usefulness of Two Different Teaching-Learning Aids in Improving Teaching-Learning Experience

Table 3. Studies Comparing Usefulness of More Than Two Different Teaching-Learning Aids In Improving Teaching-Learning Experience

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