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Applied Research of Nanofluids in MQL to Improve Hard Milling Performance of 60Si2Mn Steel Using Carbide Tools

Tran Minh Duc, Tran The Long , Pham Quang Dong, Tran Bao Ngoc
American Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 2017, 5(5), 228-233. DOI: 10.12691/ajme-5-5-6
Published online: December 05, 2017

Abstract

Recently, hard milling has attained much attention of researchers and manufacturers and increasingly applied in manufacturing engineering. In real-world manufacturing, there are a number of applications where hard milling is seen as the alternative to some of grinding operations, or these two processes complement each other. Due to enormous amount of heat generated from hard machining, the application of flood coolant could not be done or brings out little effectiveness. Therefore, the surface quality and productivity are much reduced because the early wear occurs on the carbide tools. MQL technique ultilizing Emulsion, vegetable oils, and so forth has been studied and applied to hard milling, and it reveals the promising results. To improve MQL effectiveness and hard milling performance, this paper aims to present the Nanofluid applied to MQL. The results obtained from experiments show that the maximum cutting speeds of carbide inserts are 110 -120 m/min when using Nanofluid Al2O3 0.5% for hard milling of 60Si2Mn steel (50-52HRC). Moreover, these cutting speeds increase about 157% - 170% compared to the manufacturer’s recommended guidelines with the ensureance of tool life (110.72 minutes) and surface roughness (Ra= 0.1 – 0.30 µm; Rz= 0.5 – 2.0 µm) equivalent to finish grinding. Improving the cooling and lubricating characteristics of the MQL based fluid and hard cutting performance has observed due to the presence of Al2O3 nanoparticles. Accordingly, hard milling technology using normal carbide inserts with low cost will be broadened, and the use of MQL with Nanofluids in real manufacturing will fulfill the technological and economic requirements.

1. Introduction

In its broad definition, hard machining is a machining process of parts with a hardness of 45-70 HRC with geometrically defined cutting edges 1, 2, 3. Hard milling and turning processes have been studied and widely applied in practice due to reach high dimensional accuracy and surface quality as well as high productivity. With higher productivity than hard turning and grinding, hard milling has attained much attention of manufacturers as the alternative or complement to some of grinding operations for fine cutting of hardened parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8.

Hard milling utilizes some types of cutting tools as carbide end mills, carbide inserts, and recently ceramic inserts. In case of ceramic inserts, hard milling can be applied for rough and fine cutting. Modern whisker-reinforced ceramics, with a melting point of more than 2000°C, can perform at cutting condition far beyond the point where carbide inserts fail. Unfortunately they are fragile and expensive, so, in milling, the continuous impact at each tooth entrance in the machined part implies a high risk of chipping and tool failure 3, 4, 8, 9. On the other hand, carbide inserts with reseasonable cost have been widely applied to machining processes. Numerous researches of carbide tools have been proposed to investigate the cutting performance, cutting forces, cutting temperature, surface quality, tool wear, coating materials, etc 10, 11, 12, 13. In case of hard cutting, the application of carbide inserts is limited due to the early tool wear 4, 14. In order to overcome these problems, with the use of appropriate cooling lubricant techniques, the carbide inserts can be effectively used and the cutting performance significantly enhances.

MQL technique, one of the most promised methods, has shown many positive results and utilized in machining practice 1, 3, 5, 14, 15, 16. Recently, Nanofluids containing nanoparticles (Al2O3, MoS2, SiO2, CuO, diamond, and so forth) used in MQL technique are up-to-date topics to increase the cutting performace and productivity 8, 9, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21. Due to the presence of nanoparticles, the MQL fluids improve the thermal conductivity and tribological characteristics. For these reasons, the friction coefficient in cutting zone reduces, and the cutting performance enhances 1, 8, 24. In order to develop hard milling technology using carbide tools in aspect of technological economic effectiveness, the investigation of the carbide inserts APMT 1604 PDTR LT30 made by LAMINA Technologies has been made for enhancing hard milling performance (in term of the cutting speed) of 60Si2Mn steel (50-52 HRC) with Nanofluid Al2O3. For the mentioned cutting condition and dry machnining, with the feed rate of 0.12 mm/tooth, the maximum cutting speed is 70 m/min, and the optimal cutting speed is 55 m/min according to the manufacturer’s recommended guidelines 23. Accordingly, the maximum cutting speed utilized in MQL hard milling with Nanofluid is necessarily found to improve the productivity while remaining technological economic characteristics. The cutting forces, tool life, surface roughness and productivity are the evaluating factors.

2. Material and Method

2.1. Experimental Devices

Machine tool: VMC 85S machining center

Cutting tool: The BAP 400R-80-27-6T face mill head with APMT 1604 PDTR LT30 cemented carbide inserts made by LAMINA Technologies (Sweden).

Experimental samples: Cubic workpiece samples of 60Si2Mn steel (50-52HRC) with dimensions 100 x 80 x 50.

MQL system:

- NOGA nozzle, pressure stabilization device, PT-0136 compressed air;

- Cutting fluids: Emulsion 5% (5 vol.% Oil in water); Nanofluid Al2O3 0.5% (Formulation: 0.5 wt.% Al2O3 nano particles with the grain size 30nm mixed in Emulsion 5%). The morphology of nanoparticles is shown in SEM images (Figure 1).

Measuring equipment: Kistler quartz three-component dynamometer (9257BA), SJ-210 Mitutoyo for surface roughness, data acquisition system A/D DQA N16210 (made by National instruments, USA), and DASYlab 10.0 software.

Experiment set up is illustrated in Figure 2.

2.2. Cutting Condition

Cutting condition: Cutting speed = 110-130 m/min; Feed rate Fz = 0.12 mm/tooth; Depth of cut= 0.2mm (according to the optimal cutting condition of LAMINA technologies 22).

Cutting fluid conditions: Dry machining; MQL machining with Emulsion 5%; MQL machining with Nanofluid Al2O3 0.5%.

- Air pressure: P = 6 bar; Flow rate Q = 0.23 – 0.25 ml/ph; MQL nozzle is oriented to flank face of carbide insert.

2.3. Cutting Condition

To determine the maximum cutting speed, there are two stages of conducting the experiments:

1. Experimental study of the effect of cutting fluid conditions:

Hard milling using cutting speed v =110 m/min 8, 9 with cutting fluid conditions: Dry machining; MQL machining with Emulsion 5%; MQL machining with Nanofluid Al2O3 0.5%. This aims to evaluate the effect of Nanofluid Al2O3 0.5% in MQL on hard milling.

2. Experimental study of the effect of cutting speeds:

Hard milling using cutting speeds v =110 m/min, v=120m/min and v=130m/min under MQL condition with Nanofluid Al2O3 0.5%. This aims to determine the maximum cutting speed of carbide insert APMT 1604 PDTR LT 30 in hard milling of 60Si2Mn steel.

Evaluating factors: Cutting forces Fx, Fy, Fz (directly measured during cutting) and Ra, Rz (cut-off length of 0.08mm).

The experimental data are processed after each four trials. The cutting length is 100 mm.

The tool life is evaluated by the accelerating wear rate obtained from directly measuring the cutting forces 2.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. The Influence of Cutting Fluid Conditions

The cutting fluid conditions (dry machining; MQL machining with Emunxi 5%; MQL machining with Nanofluid Al2O3 0.5%) affected on cutting forces Fx, Fy, Fz and surface roughness Ra, Rz in hard milling using cutting speed v =110 m/min are shown in Figure 3-Figure 7.

The tool life (the critical value of the flank wear (VB) is 0.3–0.5 mm 2 can be determined by

(1)

Where:

n – Number of trials

T0 – Cutting time of each trial

The effect of cutting fluid conditions on tool life with cutting speed v=110 m/min is given by Figure 8.

3.2. Discussion of the Influence of Cutting Fluid Conditions

For the same cutting condition, when the cutting speed reaches 110 m/min, the number of trials under dry machining is 02 with the tool life T=6.39 min. The mean values of cutting forces Fx, Fy, Fz are about 1.29, 1.60 and 2.25 times larger than those of MQL machining. The values of surface roughness rapidly increase, and the surface quality decreases and damages. It reveals that the cutting speed v=110 m/min is the maximum allowance of carbide inserts.

In case of MQL with Emulsion 5%, the cutting performance is improved. The reduction of cutting forces and the enhancement of surface quality are observed. The tool life is about 48.4 minutes which increase 757% compared to dry cutting. Due to the formation of oil mist in contact zones, the friction coefficient reduces, so the cutting temperature and forces decreases. The tool life significantly prolongs 1, 3, 8, 9. The effectiveness of MQL techniques in hard milling is proven.

Especially in case of MQL with Nanofluid Al2O3 0.5%, the obtained results reveal that the reduction of cutting forces and the improvement of surface roughness are observed when compared to dry cutting and MQL with Emulsion 5%. The tool life is 110.72 minutes (increasing about 228% and 1732% compared to dry cutting and MQL with Emulsion 5% respectively). The cooling lubricant characteristics of cutting fluid improve due to the presence of Al2O3 nanoparticles in oil mist in cutting zone, which plays an important role in creating ‘‘roller effect’’ instead of sliding one between flank face and machined surface, rake face and chip surface, and so forth. Hence, the friction, cutting forces, tool wear, and cutting temperature are reduced 1, 6, 8, 18, 19, 20, 23.

3.3. The Influence of Cutting Speeds

The tool life (the critical value of the flank wear (VB) is 0.3–0.5 mm 2 relates to cutting speeds shown in Figure 14.

3.4. Discussion of the Influence of Cutting Speeds

When rising the cutting speed from 110m/min to 120m/min, the cutting forces Fx, Fy, Fz and surface roughness Ra, Rz increase, and the tool life reduces to 88.76 minutes (about 20% compared to v=110m/min). The cutting temperature and forces generated from hard machining are very large at v=120m/min, because MQL with Nanofluid Al2O3 0.5% could not provide the sufficient cooling lubrication. On the other hand, the productivity is about 9% higher than that of cutting speed v=110m/min.

When the cutting speed reaches 130 m/min, the values of cutting forces Fx, Fy, Fz and surface roughness Ra, Rz are almost equal to those of 120m/min. However, the tool life much reduces to 22.44 minutes (about 80% compared to that of v=120m/min). It shows that the early wear occurs on the carbide tool due to large amount of heat generated from cutting zone and the reduction of effectiveness of MQL with Nanofluid Al2O3 0.5%. Therefore, the tool life and surface quality decrease, and the cutting speed v=130m/min exceeds the maximum allowance speed of the carbide insert.

4. Conclusion

The effect of MQL hard milling using Al2O3 Nanofluid on the friction in cutting zone is proven and leads to the improvement of cutting performance (in terms of cutting forces, tool wear, tool life and surface quality. The obtained results show that, for MQL with Nanofluid Al2O3 0.5%, the tool life increases about 228% and surface roughness reduces when compared to MQL without nanoparticles.

The cutting speed of the carbide insert APMT 1604 PDTR in MQL hard milling with Nanofluid 0.5% Al2O3 rises to 110-120m/min (157-170% higher than that of the manufacturer’s recommended guidelines). The tool life reaches 110.72 minutes, and the surface roughness Ra= 0.1 – 0.30 µm; Rz= 0.5 – 2.0 µm, which are equivalent to finish grinding. These results are very important to develop hard milling technology. It can be explained that Al2O3 nanoparticles in MQL fluid play an important role in converting sliding into rolling contact. That is the reason why the friction coefficient in cutting zone is much reduced, and the cutting temperature, cutting forces and tool wear decrease. From these, the surface quality and cutting performance significantly improve. Moreover, Al2O3 nanoparticles have superior tribological and antitoxic properties, they help to enhance lubrication effects of MQL fluid (Emulsion 5%).

With the novel proposed solution, the application of hard milling in manufacturing practice can be much broadened. The simple MQL system, low cost of cutting fluid (due to very small flow rate 0.23-0.25 ml/min), inexpensive cutting tools, and so forth are some of the advantages. It helps reduce manufacturing cost and enhance the productivity while ensuring the surface quality. Moreover, this novel technology will give a hand to environmental protection and counter climate change.

Acknowledgements

This research did not receive any specific grant from any funding agency.

References

[1]  Lee, P.H., Nam J. S., Li C. and Lee S. W., “An Experimental Study on Micro-Grinding Process with Nanofluid Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL)”, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 13, 331-338, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Davim, J. P., “Machining of Hard Materials”, Springer-Verlag London Limited, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Kang, M. C., Kim K. H., and Shin S. H., “Effect of the Minimum Quantity Lubrication in High-Speed End-Milling of AISI D2 Cold-Worked Die Steel (62 HRC) by Coated Carbide Tools”, Surf. Coat. Technol, 202, 5621-5631, 2008.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  C- alıskan, H., Kurbanoglu C., Panjan P., Cekada M., Kramar D., “Wear behavior and cutting performance of nanostructured hard coatings on cemented carbide cutting tools in hard milling”, Tribology International, 62, 215-222, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Dhar, N. R., Islam S., Kamruzzaman M., “Effect of minimum quantity lubrication(MQL) on Tool Wear, Surface Roughness and Dimennsional Deviation in Turning AISI – 4340 Steel”, G.U. Journal of Science, 20, 23-32, 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Elmunifi, M. H. S., Kurniawan D., Noordin M.Y., “Use of castor oil as cutting fluid in machining of hardened stainless steel with minimum quantity of lubricant”, Procedia CIRP, 20, 408-411, 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Hassanpour, H., Sadeghi M. H., Shajari A. R., Shaghayegh, “Investigation of Surface Roughness, Microhardness and White Layer Thickness in Hard Milling of AISI 4340 Using Minimum Quantity Lubrication”, Journal of Cleaner Production, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.12.091, 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Duc Tran Minh, Long Tran The and Ngoc Tran Bao, “Performance of Al2O3 Nanofuid in minimum quantity lubrication in hard milling of 60Si2Mn steel using cemented carbide tools”, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 9(7), 1-9, 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Tran Minh Duc and Tran The Long, “Investigation of MQL-Employed Hard-Milling Process of S60C Steel Using Coated-Cemented Carbide Tools”, Journal of Mechanics Engineering and Automation, 6, 128-132, 2016.
In article      
 
[10]  Fuat, K., Aslanta, K., Çiçek, A., “Prediction of cutting temperature in orthogonal machining of AISI316L using artificial neural network”. Applied Soft Computing, 38, 64-74, 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Gopalsamy B, Mondal B, Ghosh S, Arntz K, Klocke F. Investigations on hard machining of Impax Hi hard tool steel. International Journal of Material Forming, 2,145-165, 2009.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Fuat, K., “Taguchi optimization of surface roughness and flank wear during the turning of DIN 1.2344 tool steel”, Material Testing, 59(10), 903-908, 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Mustafa, K., Fuat, K., “Experimental optimization of surface roughness in hard turning of AISI D2 cold work tool steel”, Journal of Polytechnic, 19(3), 349-355, 2016.
In article      
 
[14]  Duong Xuan Truong and Tran Minh Duc, “Effect of Cutting Condition on Tool Wear and Surface Roughness during Machining of Inconel 718”, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology, 4, 108-112, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Le Thai Son, Tran Minh Duc, Nguyen Dang Binh, Nguyen Van Cuong, “An Investigation on Effect of Characteristics of the Made in Vietnam Peanut oil MQL on Tool life in Hard turning 9CrSi steel”, Machining and Machinability of Materials, 13, 428-438, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Park, K. H., Yang G. D., Suhaimi M. A., Lee D. Y., Kim T. G., Kim D. W and Lee S. W, “The effect of cryogenic cooling and minimum quantity lubrication on end milling of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V”, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 29 (12), 5121-5126, 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Ahmed, A. D. S., Sayuti M., Hamdi M., “Reduction of power and lubricant oil consumption in milling process using a new SiO2 nano lubrication system”, Int J Adv Manuf Technol, 63, 505-512, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Sayuti, M., Sarhan A. A. D., Hamdi M., “An investigation of optimum SiO2 nanolubrication parameters in end milling of aerospace Al6061-T6 alloy”, Int J Adv Manuf Technol, 67, 833-849, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Sayuti, M., Sarhan A. A. D., Tomohisa Tanaka T., Hamdi M., Saito Y., “Investigating the optimum molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanolubrication parameters in CNC milling of Al6061-T6 alloy”, Int J Adv Manuf Technol, 70, 1143-1155, 2014.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Sharma, A. K., Tiwari A. K., Dixit A. R. (2016), “Effects of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) in machining processes using conventional and nanofluid based cutting fluids: a review”, J Clean Prod, 127, 1-18, 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Sidik, N.A.C, Samion S., Ghaderian J., Yazid M. N. A. W. M., “Recent progress on the application of nanofluids in minimum quantity lubrication machining: A review”, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 108, 79–89, 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Zhang, X., Li C., Zhang Y., Jia D., Li B., Wang Y., Yang M., Hou Y., Zhang X., “Performances of Al2O3/SiC hybrid nanofluids in minimum-quantity lubrication grinding”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 86, 3427-3441, 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  https://wix.lamina tech.ch/img/catalog/1237.pdf.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  Qian, L., Hossan M.R., “Effect on cutting force in turning hardened tool steels with cubic boron nitride inserts”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 191, pp. 274-278, 2007.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2017 Tran Minh Duc, Tran The Long, Pham Quang Dong and Tran Bao Ngoc

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Tran Minh Duc, Tran The Long, Pham Quang Dong, Tran Bao Ngoc. Applied Research of Nanofluids in MQL to Improve Hard Milling Performance of 60Si2Mn Steel Using Carbide Tools. American Journal of Mechanical Engineering. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2017, pp 228-233. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajme/5/5/6
MLA Style
Duc, Tran Minh, et al. "Applied Research of Nanofluids in MQL to Improve Hard Milling Performance of 60Si2Mn Steel Using Carbide Tools." American Journal of Mechanical Engineering 5.5 (2017): 228-233.
APA Style
Duc, T. M. , Long, T. T. , Dong, P. Q. , & Ngoc, T. B. (2017). Applied Research of Nanofluids in MQL to Improve Hard Milling Performance of 60Si2Mn Steel Using Carbide Tools. American Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 5(5), 228-233.
Chicago Style
Duc, Tran Minh, Tran The Long, Pham Quang Dong, and Tran Bao Ngoc. "Applied Research of Nanofluids in MQL to Improve Hard Milling Performance of 60Si2Mn Steel Using Carbide Tools." American Journal of Mechanical Engineering 5, no. 5 (2017): 228-233.
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[1]  Lee, P.H., Nam J. S., Li C. and Lee S. W., “An Experimental Study on Micro-Grinding Process with Nanofluid Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL)”, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 13, 331-338, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Davim, J. P., “Machining of Hard Materials”, Springer-Verlag London Limited, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  Kang, M. C., Kim K. H., and Shin S. H., “Effect of the Minimum Quantity Lubrication in High-Speed End-Milling of AISI D2 Cold-Worked Die Steel (62 HRC) by Coated Carbide Tools”, Surf. Coat. Technol, 202, 5621-5631, 2008.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  C- alıskan, H., Kurbanoglu C., Panjan P., Cekada M., Kramar D., “Wear behavior and cutting performance of nanostructured hard coatings on cemented carbide cutting tools in hard milling”, Tribology International, 62, 215-222, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Dhar, N. R., Islam S., Kamruzzaman M., “Effect of minimum quantity lubrication(MQL) on Tool Wear, Surface Roughness and Dimennsional Deviation in Turning AISI – 4340 Steel”, G.U. Journal of Science, 20, 23-32, 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Elmunifi, M. H. S., Kurniawan D., Noordin M.Y., “Use of castor oil as cutting fluid in machining of hardened stainless steel with minimum quantity of lubricant”, Procedia CIRP, 20, 408-411, 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Hassanpour, H., Sadeghi M. H., Shajari A. R., Shaghayegh, “Investigation of Surface Roughness, Microhardness and White Layer Thickness in Hard Milling of AISI 4340 Using Minimum Quantity Lubrication”, Journal of Cleaner Production, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.12.091, 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Duc Tran Minh, Long Tran The and Ngoc Tran Bao, “Performance of Al2O3 Nanofuid in minimum quantity lubrication in hard milling of 60Si2Mn steel using cemented carbide tools”, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 9(7), 1-9, 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Tran Minh Duc and Tran The Long, “Investigation of MQL-Employed Hard-Milling Process of S60C Steel Using Coated-Cemented Carbide Tools”, Journal of Mechanics Engineering and Automation, 6, 128-132, 2016.
In article      
 
[10]  Fuat, K., Aslanta, K., Çiçek, A., “Prediction of cutting temperature in orthogonal machining of AISI316L using artificial neural network”. Applied Soft Computing, 38, 64-74, 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Gopalsamy B, Mondal B, Ghosh S, Arntz K, Klocke F. Investigations on hard machining of Impax Hi hard tool steel. International Journal of Material Forming, 2,145-165, 2009.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Fuat, K., “Taguchi optimization of surface roughness and flank wear during the turning of DIN 1.2344 tool steel”, Material Testing, 59(10), 903-908, 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Mustafa, K., Fuat, K., “Experimental optimization of surface roughness in hard turning of AISI D2 cold work tool steel”, Journal of Polytechnic, 19(3), 349-355, 2016.
In article      
 
[14]  Duong Xuan Truong and Tran Minh Duc, “Effect of Cutting Condition on Tool Wear and Surface Roughness during Machining of Inconel 718”, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology, 4, 108-112, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Le Thai Son, Tran Minh Duc, Nguyen Dang Binh, Nguyen Van Cuong, “An Investigation on Effect of Characteristics of the Made in Vietnam Peanut oil MQL on Tool life in Hard turning 9CrSi steel”, Machining and Machinability of Materials, 13, 428-438, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Park, K. H., Yang G. D., Suhaimi M. A., Lee D. Y., Kim T. G., Kim D. W and Lee S. W, “The effect of cryogenic cooling and minimum quantity lubrication on end milling of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V”, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 29 (12), 5121-5126, 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Ahmed, A. D. S., Sayuti M., Hamdi M., “Reduction of power and lubricant oil consumption in milling process using a new SiO2 nano lubrication system”, Int J Adv Manuf Technol, 63, 505-512, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  Sayuti, M., Sarhan A. A. D., Hamdi M., “An investigation of optimum SiO2 nanolubrication parameters in end milling of aerospace Al6061-T6 alloy”, Int J Adv Manuf Technol, 67, 833-849, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Sayuti, M., Sarhan A. A. D., Tomohisa Tanaka T., Hamdi M., Saito Y., “Investigating the optimum molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanolubrication parameters in CNC milling of Al6061-T6 alloy”, Int J Adv Manuf Technol, 70, 1143-1155, 2014.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Sharma, A. K., Tiwari A. K., Dixit A. R. (2016), “Effects of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) in machining processes using conventional and nanofluid based cutting fluids: a review”, J Clean Prod, 127, 1-18, 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Sidik, N.A.C, Samion S., Ghaderian J., Yazid M. N. A. W. M., “Recent progress on the application of nanofluids in minimum quantity lubrication machining: A review”, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 108, 79–89, 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Zhang, X., Li C., Zhang Y., Jia D., Li B., Wang Y., Yang M., Hou Y., Zhang X., “Performances of Al2O3/SiC hybrid nanofluids in minimum-quantity lubrication grinding”, The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 86, 3427-3441, 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  https://wix.lamina tech.ch/img/catalog/1237.pdf.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  Qian, L., Hossan M.R., “Effect on cutting force in turning hardened tool steels with cubic boron nitride inserts”, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 191, pp. 274-278, 2007.
In article      View Article