Thread-forming Equipment as Object for Innovation Process

Marek Vagaš

American Journal of Mechanical Engineering

Thread-forming Equipment as Object for Innovation Process

Marek Vagaš

Department of Robotics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Košice, Slovakia


The present development in the field of industrial automation demonstrates a clear need to address the issue of innovation-purpose machinery. Widely developed manufacturing electronic components mainly deals by shortening of production times, attempts to reduce of manufacturing cost for finished products and to further options how to upgrade your equipment based on increasing degree of automation. However, automated production provides possibility of mass conformity for production of new components, new production capacities to requirements of orders and responds to changing needs at the market. Production of electrical equipment has a bullish trend. The current state of production is based on manual production. Proposed solution innovates in terms of threading equipment an automatic feeding clamps, automatic control technology and operation of plant for operation itself.

Cite this article:

  • Marek Vagaš. Thread-forming Equipment as Object for Innovation Process. American Journal of Mechanical Engineering. Vol. 4, No. 7, 2016, pp 450-453.
  • Vagaš, Marek. "Thread-forming Equipment as Object for Innovation Process." American Journal of Mechanical Engineering 4.7 (2016): 450-453.
  • Vagaš, M. (2016). Thread-forming Equipment as Object for Innovation Process. American Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 4(7), 450-453.
  • Vagaš, Marek. "Thread-forming Equipment as Object for Innovation Process." American Journal of Mechanical Engineering 4, no. 7 (2016): 450-453.

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At a glance: Figures

1. Current State of Equipment

To a large extent is a dominated clamping element of the "complete clamp", which is part of metric thread size M2 to M4, in contrast to the engineering industry, is using even thread of M2.5 and M3.5 dimensions. In case of creating threads in individual components of finished product, it is possible to buy adjustable universal threading device or threading propose by a single device, allowing to create internal threads matching at size that we are able to create threads and in hard to reach places [1]. Thread-forming equipment (Figure 1) concerning to drive could be divided into:

• Hand equipment

• Machine equipment

Figure 1. Thread-forming equipment before innovation process

It is possible to thread roll an internal thread, but most are cut with a tap having a progression of sharp thread cutting sections surrounding its exterior [2]. This tap is driven into a previously drilled hole to cut a thread shape in the holes wall as the tap moves axially. Basic dimensions of clamp can be seen at Figure 2.

The main difference among taps is the amount of chamfer at the cutting edge. More chamfer results in a gradual cutting action [3]. Less chamfer provides more cutting power. The three commonly used tap forms are:

• Taper tap, which has the most chamfer and does the least cutting; used as a starting tap Machine equipment,

• The plug tap, which is a general purpose tap,

• The bottoming tap, which has the least chamfer and is often used for as a finishing tap.

Taps will have two, three, or four flutes which facilitate lubrication and help remove chips and cuttings. Flutes may be straight or spiral [4]. Spiral flutes are especially useful in lifting chips out of blind holes. Most taps are made of high speed steel, and sometimes carbide or carbon steel.

Taps are designed chiefly to cut steel, but special taps are available for working with aluminum, cast iron and other materials [5]. Threaded parts have commonly been used for critical safety-related purposes, so the control and quality of threading operations is particularly important. Critical thread dimensions must also meet specific tolerances [6]. The dimensions of threads can be inspected with different levels of verification. Detailed analyzing of object can be seen at Table 1.

If a threaded fastener is only required to assemble other parts together without specific load-carrying requirements, a basic “go/no-go” gage may be adequate for checking its threads. However, these gages only check whether the threads exceed their maximum allowable dimensions; they cannot clearly verify whether thread dimensions meet their minimum size tolerance, or whether the thread pitch diameter and thread shape are correct [7].

For threaded parts having specific strength requirements in service, a more complete inspection of critical thread dimensions is required. All maximum and minimum diameters and thread angles are checked and charted. This makes process variations due to tool wear visible over time [8]. At the highest level of inspection, characteristics such as roundness and taper are monitored, requiring even more sophisticated thread inspection gages.

2. Design of Innovation at Equipment

Mechanical testing, which is also known as destructive testing, is used to gather specific performance or property values of materials for design purposes and quality control. This is done by forcing materials to fail using various testing load applications [9]. Non-destructive testing is often utilized to locate flaws in threaded parts. Two commonly used nondestructive tests are:

• Magnetic particle inspection

• Ultrasonic testing.

In magnetic particle inspection, the magnetic particles are applied to a test surface area either dry or suspended in a liquid. When a magnetic field is created within a test part, a discontinuity, perpendicular to the induced magnetic field causes a leakage field to form on the parts surface and hold the rearranged particles in place at the flaw for inspection [10]. These particles are often coated with a fluorescent material for inspection using an ultraviolet or black light. In ultrasonic testing, high frequency sound waves are sent by a transducer into an object [11]. The energy of the ultrasonic waves is reflected back to the transducer by any discontinuities, indicating their presence and location. Requirements for solution:

• Plate type of vibratory tray,

• Weight of input mass: 4Kg / 1538 pieces,

• Diameter of vibratory tray: 350mm,

• Width of track at vibratory tray: 20mm

Proposed orientation for objects will be based on two passive orienting pieces with dimensions 4.5x11mm, sees Figure 3.

Theoretical production of work in 8-hour operation is proposed based on action on 2 pieces of clamps at same time [12]. The cycle of proposed workplace consists from tact 1 = 11.2s:

• Number of manufactured pieces per hour: 3600/11.2 = 321 pieces,

• Number of manufactured pieces per 8 hours: 8x321 = 2568 pieces

Another option is proposed tact 2 = 10s:

• Number of manufactured pieces per hour: 3600/10 = 360 pieces,

• Number of manufactured pieces per 8 hours: 8x360 = 2880 pieces

To demonstrate the implementation and usefulness of proposed algorithm is threading sequence illustrated and tested, see Table 2. A number of sequences were chosen based on working sequence of final product. It includes this experimental case study that are of particular importance, as they assess the performance of actual threading processes and allow for comparison with (and validation of) other theoretical approaches for the analysis and assessment of compliant threating processes [13].

It is split into sub sequences (frames) that determine basic threating processes at innovating workplace.

Table 2. Threating sequence of object - clamp

Base on this sequence was chosen four stages:

1. In the first stage is operator filled a vibratory tray by Ø 400 mm diameter undirected clamps with pre-drilled holes Ø 3.5 mm. In this stack will be no orientation of these clamps to desired position by establishing a rotation pathway around perimeter.

The container is placed on a separate structure, and in equivalent amount of thread cutting equipment is connected via a rotary pathway of gravity so as to maintain the condition of the gravitational drop of each clamp.

2. In second stage clamps are served by mass line in the input of tray. It is placed in front of threating head, which is equipped with a pair of machine taps of size M4. The input tray is treated to stop from falling clamps.

3. The third stage is always to threating head to even yet blank clamps, while taps are placed horizontally next to each other, allowing tapped at both clamps simultaneously. During threading is supplied cooling liquid to point of machining. The supply of the liquid is treated with a pump disposed in lower part of the tapping equipment.

Backward movement of threating head is solved with help of inductive sensors mounted on the side of thread-cutting equipment and with the help of electrical circuits providing reverse of electric motor. Movement of threating head is conveniently connected to the motor speed via suitable gearing. After cutting thread with the help of the system is treated with a stop separating machined components from no cropped and overflow into the container machined clamps.

4. In fourth stage the recruitment of machined clamps to output tray and to remove of debris arising during threading. Total chipping is led from even cooling liquid into a container at which they pump is placed. From there through filtering sieve receives back to point of actual machining.

Realized thread-forming equipment (Figure 4) is the place, where was verifying functionality, availability and accuracy at threating process for main part of electric clamps.

Figure 4. Realized threat-forming equipment after innovation

3. Conclusion

The innovative equipment allows threading manufacturing of these components in order to be able to apply the additional production methods and processes. The equipment is designed to production of components that takes place in highest possible quality and lowest possible cost. The proposed innovation significantly reduces technological operations for threading based on two components. It does not require constant human operation, and operates in an automated cycle of 2.5 to 3 hours.

The article deals with testing of innovation, functionality, availability and accuracy at threating process for main part of electric clamps specifically for installation into the switches. With regard to entry requirements imposed in the article are tested and verifying not only threating process but also realization of workplace with cooperation of other devices.

Research of threating workplace allows, without time limit, verification of methods and strategies such as testing of certain types of algorithms at randomly oriented objects. It also allows practical tests under laboratory conditions that simulate production facility. The workplace provides the threating of components in the highest possible quality and the lowest possible costs. Workplace does not require constant human attendance and works in an automatic cycle. Project is finished to realization state, design solution satisfies required requirements. Prediction of daily production in continuous operation is 5760 pieces.


This contribution is the result of the project implementation: ITMS 26220220182 “University scientific park TECHNICOM for innovating applications with knowledge technology support”.

This contribution is the result of the project implementation: KEGA 059TUKE-4-2014 Development of quality of life, creativity and motor skills for disabilities and older people with the support of robotic devices.


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