Experimental Verification of Thrust Model Blower
1Department of Applied Mechanics and Mechatronics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Košice, Košice, Slovakia
This article leads about the issue experimental verification of the thrust model blowers. In the framework of article were used the results of the Diploma thesis, which deals with design of mobile robot based on hovercraft . In the first part of the article is described the first method testing of the maximum thrust of blower via deformation of the spring and second part is analyzed the second method testing via wood beam in the shape letter L. The main aim this article is to compare thrust indicated by the manufacturer with thrust experimental verified.
At a glance: Figures
Keywords: blower, spring, wood beam, microcontroller, thrust
American Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 2013 1 (7),
Received October 22, 2013; Revised November 06, 2013; Accepted November 25, 2013Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing. All Rights Reserved.
Cite this article:
- Lipták, Tomáš, et al. "Experimental Verification of Thrust Model Blower." American Journal of Mechanical Engineering 1.7 (2013): 417-422.
- Lipták, T. , Miková, Ľ. , Kelemen, M. , & Prada, E. (2013). Experimental Verification of Thrust Model Blower. American Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 1(7), 417-422.
- Lipták, Tomáš, Ľubica Miková, Michal Kelemen, and Erik Prada. "Experimental Verification of Thrust Model Blower." American Journal of Mechanical Engineering 1, no. 7 (2013): 417-422.
|Import into BibTeX||Import into EndNote||Import into RefMan||Import into RefWorks|
In Diploma thesis were created designs of variant solutions of the chassis of hovercraft, also other parts of the construction. Using the method of pairwise comparison was selected the most suitable variant, which was in the next phase in detail elaborated using program SolidWorks2011. Optimal variant was simulated in SolidWorks2011 and on the basis of results obtained from the simulation were selected drives with appropriately dimensioned power, shown in Figure 1 [1, 5].
For lift and movement of hovercraft were selected blowers of type GWS 40B 6000KV, which have a built-in three-phase brushless motor with revolution KV=6000 (6000 revolutions per minute to 1V). The engine belongs between the inrunners, because the rotor spins inside. This brushless motor was preferred before DC motor and it's mainly due to the performance and service life. DC battery voltage is to be transformed into a three alternating voltage with phase displacement 120°, which will be fed into the blower. This transformation of the DC voltage to AC voltage allows us regulators of brushless engines. For our blowers were selected regulators Xcontroller XC22-L, we can see in Figure 2 .
2. Testing of the Maximum Thrust Via Deformation of the Spring
This procedure of testing consists of measurement deformation spring of constructed dynamometer, which deforms in dependence on size of the thrust blower and using relation is this deformation recalculated on the thrust.
The blower is stored in PVC coupling with a diameter 50 mm. This PVC coupling is anchored by two adducent tapes on thin-walled L profile. Profile with blower and dynamometer are anchored on laboratory stand with double clamps. Blower and dynamometer are connected each other by carbine, which is fixed to blower by three copper wires relabeling insulating tape, shown in Figure 3 .
In the testing of the maximum thrust via deformation of the spring, microcontroller BasicATOM Pro 28-M is powered from laboratory source SP 150 and communicating with the PC needed for programming is secured using the RS232 interface, we can see in Figure 4. Resistive track of the potentiometer is powered from a 5V source SP 150 and regulator Xcontroller XC22-L is powered from laboratory source DIAMETRAL V130R50D. By moving the runner of potentiometer varies the size of the analog voltage to pine P0 of the microcomputer and from pin P4 is transmitted a modulated periodic signal with different impulse width, which is dependent on analog voltage. This dependence can be formulated by relation:
where: timp[μs] – is impulse width
Uan[V] – analog voltage
This signal with different impulse width enters to regulator and causes a change revolution of the blower and subsequent deformation of the spring. During the measurement on oscilloscopes Voltcraft DSO-6250S was watched the changing pulse width from the microcomputer and the frequency of a one phase motor of the blower [1, 2, 3].
temp var word
a var sword
First, the maximum deflection of the spring was measured at the maximum of the pulse width, what we can see in Table 1. The biggest deformation caused the blower number 4, on which will be realized also further measurements .
The measured values pulse width and frequency of one phase of the motor were read from Oscilloscopes and written into prepared table Table 2, from which was constructed graph, which we can see in Figure 6 .
On the previous graph we can see that the frequency phase of motor has logarithmic course with equation of reliability R2=0,879. Uncertainty of the measured values created due to from problematic reading, because the values of the frequency and impulse width constantly varied.
From Table. 3 was constructed graph, shown in Figure 7, where the values of current obtained experimental varied according to the linear trend line with the equation of reliability R2=0,977. Displacements of values also are created due to the variation in frequency .
On determination the thrust of blowers is necessary to determine the stiffness spring of dynamometer. By means of double clamp, dynamometer is clamped to a laboratory stand and on its end are gradually added weights. With the increasing weight is watched size deformation of spring and these values are recorded in Table 4 together with the calculated gravity force according to the relation [4, 6]:
where: Fg[N] – is the gravity force acting on weights
m[kg] – the mass of weight
g[m.s-2] – the gravity acceleration
From the graph, shown in Figure 9, after application of the linear trend line we get the prescription of function-stiffness of the springs with the equation of reliability R2=0,9987.
After substituting the thrust force of blower:
acting force on the spring:
and the stiffness into equation (3) and its adjustment we get the relation to calculate the thrust of blower:
where: mt[g] – is the thrust of blower
k[N.m-1] – the stiffness of spring
Δ[m] – the deformation of spring
3. Testing of the Maximum Thrust Via Wood Beam in the Shape Letter L
The advantage of this method lies in the possibility of obtaining the values of the thrust blower directly without any calculations.
In this method of testing was used test bench consisting of wood beam in the shape of the letter L, which is stored in the bearings 6001 in wood supports, we can see in Figure 10. At the top of the beam is hole with a diameter 43 mm, which is created for mounting tested blower using insulation tape wrapped around a plastic cylindrical part of the blower, which prevents unwanted movement. At the bottom is the rubber foot attached using screw connection [1, 2, 3].
Distance between the axis of the hole for the blower and the joint must be the same as the distance between the joint and the axis of the rubber foot due to that thrust force of blower transfer through the rubber foot on digital weight SALTER 1066 in the ratio of 1: 1, shown in Figure 13. Calibration of digital weight has been confirmed by the manufacturer stated accuracy 1 g.
The scheme engagement and the program are the same as in the previous method of measurement. In this method of measurement is addition source Diametral in order to compare the values of the thrust also used Li-Polymer battery, we can see in Figure 14 .
On blowers was measured their maximum thrust. They were powered from source Diametral V130R50D and also from Li-polymer battery, shown in Table 6. Thrust of blowers, which were powered from laboratory source, is lower, because the entering current to the blower at voltages 11V is until 16A and power supply has a current limit to 10A. For blower number 4 again was the biggest thrust .
In the previous table, we can see, that until at the voltage 7.4 V, the propeller of blower started to spin.
The previous graphs show the dependences thrust of blower on frequency phase motor, electric current and voltage, which have linear course with the competent equations reliability R2=0,996, R2=0,999 and R2=0,997. In Figure 19 we can see how at the voltage 10,5 V has not already increased thrust of blower, what is caused by current limit of laboratory source .
In both cases testing of maximum thrust, we have obtained the values of thrust less than the value of thrust indicated by the manufacturer. The value of thrust indicated by the manufacturer at 11, 1V is 245g.
At the first method of testing, the values of thrust are smaller than at testing using L beam, what can be due to the fact that at moving the blower in a PVC coupling during measurement arises the friction between the contact surfaces. At testing with the using L beam are values of thrust larger, and it due to the fact that the beam together with clamped blower is stored in bearings, where arises less friction.
The blower number 2 and 4 due to higher thrust are used to lift and number 1 and 3 to move forward.
The authors would like to thank to Slovak Grant Agency – project VEGA 1/1205/12 “Numerical modeling of mechatronic systems”. This contribution is also result of the project VEGA MŠ SR for the support of this work under Project No. 1/0937/12. This contribution is also result of the project APVV-0091-11 “Using of methods of experimental and numerical modeling for increasing of competitiveness and innovation of mechanical and mechatronical systems”.
|||Lipták, T., Design of mobile robot based on hovercraft, Diploma Thesis, Technical University of Košice, Košice, 2013.|
|||Liu Jitang, Li Zhouhang, Li Jianfeng and Flanagan, J.L, “Air Flow Simulation in High-pressure Air Blower with Splitter Blade,” Electric Information and Control Engineering (ICEICE), 2011 International Conference on, pp.1969-1972, 8-19 July. 2002.|
|||Jin-Woo Ahn, Huynh Khac Minh Khoi, Dong-Hee Lee, “Design and Analysis of High Speed 4/2 SRMs for an Air-Blower,” Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2010 IEEE International Symposium on, pp. 1242-1246, 4-7 July. 2010.|
|||Jun-Young Lim, Yun-Chul Jung, Sang- Young Kim and Jung-Chul Kim, “High Efficiency and Low-Cost Switched Reluctance Motor for Air-conditioner Blower,” Power Conversion Conference, 2002. PCC-Osaka 2002. Proceedings of the (Volume: 3), pp. 1460 - 1467, 02 Apr.2002-05 Apr.2002.|
|||Soe Myat Hein, Hwee Choo Liaw, “Design and Development of a Compact Hovercraft Vehicle,” in 2013 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM).Wollongong. Australia, pp. 1516-1521.|
|||A. P. Aguiar, L. Cremean, J. P. Hespanha,“Position Tracking for io Nonlinear Underactuated Hovercraft: Controller Design and Experimental Results,” in Proceedings of the 42nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control. Maui, Hawaii USA, pp.3858-3863.|
|||Chun-Chieh, Wang, “Orientation Control of Hovercraft Systems via an SMFLC and Image-Guided Techniques,“ in 2011 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems. Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 1138-1142.|
|||F. L. Roubieu, J. Serres, N. Franceschini, and S. Viollet, “A fully-autonomous hovercraft inspired by bees: wall following and speed control in straight and tapered corridors, “in Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE, International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics. Guangzhou, China, pp. 1311-1318.|
|||R. Muñoz-Mansilla D. Chaos J. Aranda J.M. Díaz, “Application of quantitative feedback theory techniques for the control of a non-holonomic underactuated hovercraft, “in IET Control Theory and Applications. Madrid, Spain, pp. 2188-2197.|