Isolation and Characterization of Microbial Contamination from Computer Accessories used in Differen...

Zeba Gul Burki, Mukhtiar Hassan, Faiza Naseer, Sohail Ahmad, Samiullah Burki, Mohammad Saleem, Attiya Nazish, Shafiq -ur-Rehman

American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology OPEN ACCESSPEER-REVIEWED

Isolation and Characterization of Microbial Contamination from Computer Accessories used in Different Department of Hazara University and Diagnostic Laboratories of District Mansehra, Pakistan

Zeba Gul Burki1, Mukhtiar Hassan1, Faiza Naseer2,, Sohail Ahmad3, Samiullah Burki4, Mohammad Saleem5, Attiya Nazish2, Shafiq -ur-Rehman2

1Department of Microbiology, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan

2College of Pharmacy, Govt College, University, Faisalabad, Pakistan

3Department of Biochemistry, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan

4Department of pharmacology, faculty pharmacy, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Pakistan

5College of Pharmacy, Punjab University, Lahore, Pakistan

Abstract

150 samples were collected from computer accessories used in Hazara University and different diagnostic laboratories of Mansehra, examined for the total bacterial count and maximum growths were observed. Samples were analyzed for further identification of micro-organisms such as E.coli, Klebsiella, Staph. aureus and Staph. epidermidis. These organisms were detected in the percentage of 46.66 of E. coli, 20% of Klebsiella, 16.66% of S. aureus & 16.66% of S. Epidermidis and identified on selective media, i.e. EMB agar and Mannitol salt agar. Furthermore, biochemical tests, including IMVIC Test, Catalase Test and Coagulase Tests were performed to confirm the presence of micro-organisms and their susceptibility also checked against different standard antibiotics and their zone of inhibitions were measured and noticed. E.coli showed maximum resistance of 97.36% against Erythromycin, Klebsiella showed against Amoxil + Clavolunic acid about 83.83%, Staph aureus showed against Erythromycin about 64.64% and Staph. epidermidis resistance was 90.9% against Erythromycin and Gentamycin. E.coli and Klebsiella showed maximum sensitivity for Meropenem 67.22% and 72.72% respectively while Staph. aureus and Staph. epidermidis maximum sensitivity for Vancomycin about 82.82% and 72.72% respectively. These results indicate that the computer accessories might act as environmental vehicles for the transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria in our surroundings and also indicate the need for increasing awareness among computer users on cleaning of such surfaces or disinfection and adequate hand-washing hygiene.

Cite this article:

  • Zeba Gul Burki, Mukhtiar Hassan, Faiza Naseer, Sohail Ahmad, Samiullah Burki, Mohammad Saleem, Attiya Nazish, Shafiq -ur-Rehman. Isolation and Characterization of Microbial Contamination from Computer Accessories used in Different Department of Hazara University and Diagnostic Laboratories of District Mansehra, Pakistan. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology. Vol. 3, No. 3, 2015, pp 112-124. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajidm/3/3/4
  • Burki, Zeba Gul, et al. "Isolation and Characterization of Microbial Contamination from Computer Accessories used in Different Department of Hazara University and Diagnostic Laboratories of District Mansehra, Pakistan." American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology 3.3 (2015): 112-124.
  • Burki, Z. G. , Hassan, M. , Naseer, F. , Ahmad, S. , Burki, S. , Saleem, M. , Nazish, A. , & -ur-Rehman, S. (2015). Isolation and Characterization of Microbial Contamination from Computer Accessories used in Different Department of Hazara University and Diagnostic Laboratories of District Mansehra, Pakistan. American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, 3(3), 112-124.
  • Burki, Zeba Gul, Mukhtiar Hassan, Faiza Naseer, Sohail Ahmad, Samiullah Burki, Mohammad Saleem, Attiya Nazish, and Shafiq -ur-Rehman. "Isolation and Characterization of Microbial Contamination from Computer Accessories used in Different Department of Hazara University and Diagnostic Laboratories of District Mansehra, Pakistan." American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology 3, no. 3 (2015): 112-124.

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At a glance: Figures

1. Introduction

The skin floras include 1000 different species of bacteria belonging to 19 different phyla have been isolated from human skin, are usually non-pathogenic either commensal or mutualistic (Bhalla et al., 2007). Bacteria prevents pathogenic organisms from colonizing on the skin surface, either by competing for nutrients or secreting chemicals against them and by stimulating skin's immune system as well (Grice et al., 2009; Oluduro et al., 2011). However, microbes cause skin diseases via penetrating into the blood stream and fabricate life-threatening diseases, particularly in people with weak immune system (Cogen et al., 2008). E.g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a pathogenic mutualist bacterium, causes gastro, respiratory, osteo and skin infections via blood but it produces a substances that inhibits the growth of fungus species like Candida krusei, Candida albicans, Torulopsis glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae & Aspergillus fumigatus and bacteria like Helicobacter pylori (Krausse et al., 2005). The skin flora strengthens the person’s immunity.

Computers are widely used in every aspect of our occupational, recreational and residential environments. In the university setting, students have 100% access to computers, 92.1% regularly use the Internet and 73.3% regularly check e-mail (Ali et al., 2013). A research conducted in a hospital ICU revealed that computer keyboards and door knobs had higher rates of bacterial colonization with methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA) and other potential nosocomial pathogens. They become responsible for transmission of microbes in the ICU setting (Bures et al., 2000). In another study in 2006, it has been reported that potential pathogens, including Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Diphtheroids, Micrococcus species, Bacillus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species and non fermentative gram-negative rods were found in 25 computer keyboards in two intensive care units and six nursing units (Rutala et al., 2006). Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus aureus, usually found on the skin or in the nasal areas. It appears on keyboards while usage and responsible to cause infections in hospital community (David and Daum, 2010). So, the computer keyboards and mouse may act as a reservoir for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria.

That’s why; Computer accessories of multiple-user (student) and single-user (staff) in Hazara University, Mansehra campus was sampled to assess microbial contamination with potentially pathogenic microorganisms. This study was aimed to investigate the extent of microbial infection, which could affect human health through using computer accessories.

2. Materials and Methods

A one year study was conducted in the Microbiology Department of Hazara University, Mansehra, during January to December 2010. Total 150 samples were collected from computer keyboards and mouse by sterile swabs from different Departments, Digital libraries of Hazara University and different Diagnostic Laboratories of District Mansehra. In this study bacterial pathogens were isolated and their antimicrobial susceptibility was studied (Forbes et al., 2007).

a. Sampling Sites and their Collections: Samples were collected from the computer hardware’s of different location divided into three groups.

● Group A: 50 samples were taken from different departments and offices of Hazara University Mansehra.

● Group B: Another 50 samples were collected from computer labs of Hazara University, Mansehra.

● Group C: 50 other samples were collected from different diagnostic laboratories of Mansehra.

b. Sterilization of the Glassware: All the glassware and equipments such as test tubes, petri dishes, spreader, wire loops, beakers and flasks were sterilized in an autoclave at 121°C and 15psi pressure for 15 min. Before sterilization, glass wares were wrapped in the aluminum foil to prevent contamination.

c. Media Preparation: 500ml distilled water was taken in flask, for boiling placed on hot plate, then added 18.45gm of media in the flask (Table1). Shook the mixture until homogenization. That homogenized media was autoclaved to eliminate contamination. Now media were poured in sterile petri dishes inside the laminar flow hood.

d. Identification of bacterial isolates: The bacteria were isolated on autoclaved media. The media after cooling down were aseptically poured in the test tubes and petri dishes under laminar flow hood. The specimens were spread by using a sterilized wire loop on nutrient agar. After 24 hours incubation at 37°C in aerobic conditions, these plates were examined for any growth. Furthermore the positive growth plates were sub cultured on specific media such as EMB and MSA agar. Isolated colonies of bacteria were identified by morphological appearance and different biochemical tests (Koneman, 2006; Sahara et al., 2011). The following tests were performed for the identification of bacteria:

1. Indole Production Test

2. Methyl Red Voges-Proskauer (MRVP) Test

3. Citrate Utilization Test

4. Catalase Test

5. Coagulase Test

Table 1. Culture Medias and their Composition

1: Indole Test: Test organism inoculates into trypton broth, rich source of amino acid tryptophan. Indole positive bacteria such as E. coli produces tryptophans, an enzyme that cleaves tryptophan, produces Indole and other products. When Kovac’s reagent (P-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde) adds to a broth with Indole, a dark pink color develops. The Indole test must be read by 48hrs of incubation because the insole can be further degraded if prolong the incubation occurs. The acidic pH produced by E. coli limits its growth (Winn et al., 2006).

2: Methyl red and Voges-Proskauer Test: After 24-48hrs of incubation the MR-VP broth splits into two tubes. One tube is used for the MR test and the other for VP test. MR-VP media contain glucose and peptone. All enteric bacteria oxidize glucose for energy. E. coli is one of the bacteria that produce acids and causing the pH to drop below 4.4. When an acid indicator methyl red is added to this acidic broth it give cherry red color resulting in MR positive test. Klebsiella and Enterobacter produce more neutral products from glucose. In this neutral pH the growth of the bacteria does not inhibit. These bacteria begin to attack the peptone in the broth, causing the pH to rise above 6.2. At this pH, the methyl red indicator is a yellow color resulting in MR negative test. The reagents used for the VP test are Barrett’s reagents and when Barrett’s reagents are added to a broth it gives pink-burgundy color resulting in positive VP test. This color may take 20-30min to develop.

3: Citrate Test: This test utilizes Simon’s citrate media to determine if a bacterium can grow utilizing citrate as its sole carbon and energy source. Simon’s media contain bromothymol blue, a pH indicator with a range of 6.0 to 7.6. Bromothymol blue is yellow at acidic pH (around 6) and gradually changes to blue at more alkaline pH (around 7.6). Un inoculated Simon’s citrate agar has pH of 6.9. So it’s an intermediate green color. Growth of bacteria in the media leads to the development of a blue color (positive citrate). Enterobacter and Klebsiella are citrate positive while E.coli is negative. Thus E.coli + + - - results on the IMVIC tests, while Enterobacter and Klebsiella give the reverse - - + +.

4: Catalase Test: The presence of catalase enzyme in the test isolate is detected by using of H2O2. When a small amount of bacterial isolate is added to hydrogen peroxide, bubbles of oxygen or froth produce and show catalase positive result. This test is used to differentiate between different bacterial species in the lab. It is done by placing a drop of H2O2 on a microscope slide by using an applicator stick, touches the colony and smears a sample into H2O2. Staphylococci and Micrococcus are catalase-positive, but Streptococci and Enterococci are catalase- negative.

5: Coagulase Test: The enzyme coagulase causes plasma to clot by converting fibrinogen to fibrin and organisms to agglutinate in small quantities of plasma. The test is performed by adding some blood plasma to a drop of normal saline on a slide by using an applicator stick touch the colony and smears a sample into the diluted plasma. Agglutination indicates that the test is coagulase positive (Qian et al., 2007).

e. Antimicrobial susceptibility Test: The antimicrobial susceptibility test or disc diffusion method is used for each bacterial isolate on Mueller Hinton agar as a growth medium. 25 ml of media is poured in 90 mm sterile petri dishes and incubate at 37°C overnight to check sterility.

f. Inoculation preparation: Tryptic Soya broth is made for inoculum preparation. 5ml of broth medium is dispensed in test tubes and sterilized by autoclaving at 121°C for 15 mints. The test tubes are cooled and kept in an incubator for 24 hours at 35°C to check the sterility. Then each of identified clinical isolate is inoculated in sterilized test tubes containing media and placed in incubator for 2-6 hrs at 35°C.

3. Results

a. Sample collection:

It was observed that out of 50 samples from group “A” numerous, or uncountable bacterial colonies were found in most of the samples except sample No. 4,6-8, 10, 12, 15, 17, 19, 20, 23-25, 28, 30, 33, 34, 37-39, 41, 44, 46-47, 49-50 (Table 2). Out of 50 Samples collected from group “B”, uncountable bacterial colonies were found in most of the samples except sample No.1, 3, 6, 8, 11, 13, 16, 21, 27, 30, 34, 37, 39, 41, 43, 49, 50 (Table 3). Out of 50 samples collected from group “C”, numerous uncountable bacterial colonies were found in most of the samples except sample No. 1, 3, 6, 9-10, 12, 16, 21, 29, 32, 35, 37, 39, 43, 48 (Table 4).

Table 2. Bacterial counts in samples collected from different Departments of University (Group “A”)

Table 3. Bacterial counts in samples collected from digital libraries of university (Group “B”)

Table 4. Bacterial counts in samples collected from different diagnostic laboratories of Mansehra (Group “C”)

b. Samples Dilutions: To know the numbers of bacterial colonies in each sample serial dilutions were prepared for up to seven dilutions to give countable growth on nutrient agar (Figure 1).

c. Identification and characterization of Microorganisms found in the samples: Different samples were collected from computer accessories by sterile swabs and inoculated on nutrient agar by spreading method. The numbers of colonies were determined with the help of the colony counter (Figure 2).

d. Identification using selective media: The bacterial cultures grown on nutrient agar were further inoculated on selective media.

e. Growth on EMB Agar: The Eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar was used for isolation of enteric gram negative lactose ferments. In some of samples green metallic sheen was appeared on EMB media, which had shown the presence of E. coli (Figure 3).

f. Mannitol Salt Agar: For further confirmations another selective media Mannitol salt agar was used. The appearance of yellow colonies confirmed the presence of S. aurous (Figure 4).

Figure 3. E. Cole raised colonies with a green metallic sheen on EMB agar
Figure 4. Growth of Staphylococcal species on Mannitol salt agar

g. Catalase Test: The colonies from EMB medium and Mannitol salt agar medium were picked and placed on a slide. A drop of hydrogen peroxide was put with the help of the wire loop and formation of bubble indicated the positive result. E. Coli, Klebsiella, S. aureus and S. epidermidis showed catalase positive (Figure 5).

h. IMVIC Test: These biochemical tests were performed only for G -ve bacteria. These tests were conducted to confirm E.coli, Klebsiella etc. Details of these tests are as under;

●  Indole Test: Trypton broth was prepared, picked the colony from EMB media, put in the broth and incubated for 48hrs at 37°C. After 48hrs Kovac’s reagent was put in it which gave a dark pink ring resulting in a positive test (Figure 6).

●  Methyl red test: Methyl Red (MR) and Vogues proskaur (VP) were added to the Trypton Water broth for bacterial growth. The broth was separated into two different tubes, one for the addition of MR and other for VP. After 24hrs of incubation, 2-3 drops of Methyl red were put in one test tube. It gave cherry red color it indicates a positive result and yellow color in case of negative result. E coli showed methyl red positive and Klebsiella methyl red negative (Figure 7).

Figure 7. Methyl red Negative test and Methyl red Positive test

●  Vogues proskaur: After 24hrs of incubation Barrett’s reagent was added to a broth. It remained yellow in case of negative results and it changed into pink color for positive results. E.coli was found to be VP negative and Klebsiella VP positive (Figure 8).

●  Simmons’s citrate: media were prepared and put in test tubes. The colonies from EMB media were picked with the help of the wire loop and streaked. Blue color indicated the positive result and no color change for the negative result. E.coli was citrate negative and Klebsiella citrate was positive (Figure 9).

Figure 9. Simmon citrate blue positive test (Klebsiella) and negative test (E. coli)

●  Coagulase Test: Blood was centrifuged and one drop of plasma was placed on a slide. The colonies were picked from Mannitol salt agar and put on the slide. Agglutination indicated the positive result. S. aureus was coagulase positive (Figure 10).

Table 5. Biochemical tests for identification of E.coli

Out 0f 50 samples from group “A”, 28 samples were E.coli Negative except samples No.1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 13, 19, 22, 26, 27, 30, 31, 33, 34, 36, 37, 40, 45, 49 (Table 2). Out of 50 samples from group “B”, 25 samples were E.coli Negative except samples No.2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11-13, 15, 16, 19, 22, 24, 25, 27, 28, 31, 35, 37, 40, 44, 45, 48, 50 (Table 3). Out of 50 samples from group “C”, 23 samples were E.coli Negative except samples No.1, 3, 7, 8, 10,14-16, 19, 21, 25-27, 33, 35, 36, 38, 39, 41-44, 48 (Table 4).

Table 6. Biochemical tests for the occurrence of Klebsiella

Out of 50 samples from group “A” most of the samples are Klebsiella Negative except samples No.2, 6, 9, 11, 12, 21, 28, 29, 32, 35, 38, 42 (Table 2). Out of 50 samples from group “B” most of the samples are Klebsiella Negative except samples No. 1, 10, 14, 26, 29, 30, 32, 34, 42, 43 (Table 3). Out of 50 samples from group “C” most of the samples are Klebsiella Negative except samples No. 6, 22, 24, 28, 31, 32, 40, 49 (Table 4).

Table 7. Biochemical tests for the occurrence of S.aureus

Out of 50 samples from group “A” 42 samples were S. aureus Negative except samples No. 14, 16, 17, 25, 39, 43, 46, 50 (Table 2). Out of 50 samples 42 samples were S. aureus Negative except samples No. 17, 20, 23, 33, 36, 39, 41, 49 (Table 3). Out of 50 samples 41 samples were S. aureus Negative except samples No. 2, 4, 5, 9, 17, 20, 23, 29, 30 (Table 4).

Table 8. Biochemical tests for the occurrence of S. epidermidis

Out of 50 samples from group “A” most of the samples were S. epidermidis Negative except samples No.15, 18, 20, 23, 41, 44, 48 (Table 2). Out of 50 samples from group “B” most of the samples were S. epidermidis Negative except samples No. 4, 5, 18, 21, 38, 46, 47 (Table 3). Out of 50 samples from group “C” most of the samples were S. epidermidis Negative except samples No. 11-13, 18, 20, 34, 37, 45-47, 50 (Table 4).

Table 9. Number of samples isolated from different specimens

Table 10. Number of Bacteria isolated during the study (n=150)

Antibiotics Sentivity

4. Sensitivity of Antibiotics

Sensitivity of antibiotics against different microbes and the resistance of these microbes against antibiotic were used.

●  Escherichia coli:

The activity of Meropenem was maximal against E.coli. All other antibiotics have activity in the decreasing order of Sulbactum + Cefoperazone > Piperacillin + Tazobactam > Doxycycline, Gentamycin > Ciprofloxacin > Ceftizoxime > Amoxicillin > Amoxil + Clavulanic acid, Sulphamethizole + Trimethoprim > Vancomycin > Erythromycin, Cephradine. The resistance of E.coli showed against Erythromycin was maximal. The other drug resistance was in the decreasing order of Vancomycin, Amoxil + Clavulanic acid > Sulphamethizole + Trimethoprim > Cephradine > Ciprofloxacin > Gentamycin > Doxycycline > Ceftizoxime > Piperacillin + Tazobactam > Sulbactum + Cefoperazone > Meropenem shown in Table 11, Figure 12.

●  Klebsiella:

The activity of Meropenem was maximal against Klebsiella. All other antibiotics have activity in decreasing order of Piperacillin + Tazobactam > Ciprofloxacin, Sulbactum + Cefoperazone > Gentamycin, Doxycycline > Amoxil + Clavulanic acid, Amoxicillin > Sulphamethizole + Trimethoprim > Ceftizoxime > Vancomycin > Cephradine > Erythromycin. The resistance of Klebsiella showed against Amoxil + Clavulanic acid was maximal. Other drugs resistance was in the decreasing order of Amoxicillin, Sulphamethizole + Trimethoprim > Cephradine, Ceftizoxime > Gentamycin > Ciprofloxacin > Vancomycin, Doxycycline > Erythromycin > Sulbactum + Cefoperazone > Piperacillin + Tazobactam > Meropenem (Table 12, Figure 13).

Table 11. Antibiotics Sensitivity against E. coli strains in Percentage

Figure 12. Antibiotics Sensitivity of E. coli strains in Percentage

Table 12. Antibiotics Sensitivity against Klebsiella strains in Percentage

Figure 13. Antibiotics Sensitivity of Klebsiella strains in Percentage

●  Staph. Aureus

The activity of Vancomycin was maximal against Staph .aureus. All other antibiotics have activity in decreasing order of Doxycycline > Amoxicillin > Sulbactum + Cefoperazone > Gentamycin, Meropenem > Ciprofloxacin, Piperacillin + Tazobactam > Cephradine > Amoxil + Clavulanic acid > Erythromycin > Ceftizoxime > Sulphamethizole + Trimethoprim. The resistance of Staph. aureus against Gentamycin was maximal. The other drug resistance was in the decreasing order of Cephradine > Sulphamethizole + Trimethoprim > Erythromycin, Ceftizoxime, Ciprofloxacin >Amoxicillin > Piperacillin + Tazobactam > Meropenem > Sulbactum + Cefoperazone > Doxycycline > Vancomycin.

Table 13. Antibiotics Sensitivity against Staph. Aureus strains in percentage

●  Staph.epidermidis

The activity of Vancomycin was maximal against Staph.epidermidis. All other antibiotics have activity in decreasing order of Doxycycline > Amoxicillin, Amoxil + Clavulanic acid, Sulbactum + Cefoperazone, Piperacillin + Tazobactam > Sulphamethizole + Trimethoprim > Erythromycin, Meropenem, Cephradine > Ciprofloxacin, Ceftizoxime, Gentamycin. The resistance of Staph.epidermidis against both Erythromycin and Gentamycin is maximal. The other drug resistance was in the decreasing order of Sulphamethizole + Trimethoprim, Cilipenem, Ceftizoxime, Ciprofloxacin > Cephradine, Amoxicillin, Amoxil + Clavulanic acid >Sulbactum + Cefoperazone >Piperacillin + Tazobactam > Doxycycline > Vancomycin shown in Table 14, Figure 15.

Figure 14. Antibiotics Sensitivity of Staph. aureus strains in percentage
Figure 15. Antibiotics Sensitivity against Staph. Epidermidis strains in percentage

Table 14. Antibiotics Sensitivity against Staph. epidermidis strains in percentage

5. Discussion

The existing study was aimed to assess the bacteriological number and types of computer accessories used in Hazara University and different diagnostic laboratories of Mansehra. 150 samples were collected by sterilizing swabs from different PCs used in different departments and different diagnostic laboratories of Mansehra. These samples were arranged in 3 different groups named as group “A”, “B” and “C”. For each sample serial dilutions were prepared for up to seven dilutions and cultivated on nutrient agar for evaluating the total number of bacterial counts. Similarly, samples were isolated and further confirmed by performing different biochemical tests such as Indole test, Coagulase test, Catalase test and MRVP test.

Out of 150 samples 70 samples were E. coli positive, 30 were Klebsiella positive, 25 were S. aureus positive and 25 were S.epidermidis positive. The reasons for these results were unhygienic conditions and multiple users. Even samples collected from single user computer keyboards and mouse also gave uncountable microbes. Most enteric pathogenic bacteria, including E. coli, Klebsiella, S. Areas have a high prevalence as a contaminant because they shed from the body, clothing, beddings and nostrils to the nearby areas and easily discharge by several human activities including talking, sneezing and physical contact with moist skin (Itah and Ben, 2004). That’s why associated with numerous diseases like urinary tract, gastrointestinal (diarrhea) and nosocomial infections. Along with these, organisms carried by the wind can be moved from users to the surroundings (Oluduro et al., 2011). While S.epidemidis infrequently presupposes an opportunistic pathogen, has a role in causing human infections like endocarditis (Anastasiades et al., 2009). So, places like offices, laboratories, internet café, customer service departments, etc. surrounded by a lot of people moving in and out, are likely to have a large number of people sick due to skin dermatitis, seasonal infections, allergies, sneezing and hypersensitivities (Tagoe and Kumi-Ansah, 2011).

Antibiotic sensitivity was also performed to check their activity against specific antibiotics. The activity of Meropenem against E.coli was maximum 67.22% and showed maximum resistance about 97.36% against Erythromycin shown in Table 11, quite similar to the findings of early workers. They reported 77% resistance of Amoxil + Clavulanic acid, 76% Sulphamethaxazole + Trimethoprim and 68% for Ciprofloxacin while our readings were 81%, 77.5% and 66% respectively (Ejaz et al., 2011).

The activity of Meropenem was maximal about 72.72% against Klebsiella and resistance was maximal in Amoxil + Clavolunic acid about 83.83% as shown in Table 12, very near to the earlier findings i.e. 81.81% resistance (Kacmaz and Sultan, 2007). Staph aureus showed maximal activity against Vancomycin about 82.82% and maximal resistance against Erythromycin about 64.64% as shown in Table 13 while Mehdinejad et al., in 2008 had been reported that Staph. aureus has maximal activity against Vancomycin about 92.5% and maximal resistance against Erythromycin about 62.4%, very close to our results. Vancomycin had shown maximal activity of 72.72% against Staph. epidermidis and its resistance was 90.9% against both Erythromycin and Gentamycin (Table 14).

The resistance against antibiotic have many reasons such as incomplete or in sequence course of treatment, multiple use of antibiotics both for G +ve and G –ve bacteria, OTC drugs like antibiotics without any prescription, unethical approach of marketing, low trading potency (less than 100% results) and the most important cause is self medication (Tenover, 2006). So, it is recommended that proper diagnosis, clinical tests, starts from lower potency to higher potency and natural food therapy is required.

6. Conclusion

In conclusion, the isolation of the bacteria from computer accessories is a clear indication that the methods of sterilization or aseptic procedures adopted by the operators are less/not effective in significantly reducing the level of the pathogenic microbes on these surfaces to an acceptable level. It is also noticed that the level of knowledge among users in computer centers about the presence of microbes on computer accessories and their cleanliness is very poor.

So, it is strongly recommended that proper disinfectant like alcohol should be used on a regular basis for cleaning of computers and their surroundings to reduce the microbial load, especially for multiple-user sites. Hand hygiene before and after use of computers must be done by the students and public awareness programs should be encouraged (Rutala et al., 2006; Enemuor et al., 2012).

Acknowledgment

We would like to thank all staff members of different departments of Hazara University and different public Laboratories of Mansehra to cooperate in the collection of samples.

Conflict of Interest

There is no conflict of interest between Authors or any organization that sponsored the research.

References

Appendix 1. Antibiotic Disc Zone Diameter Interpretive Chart

Appendix 2. Antimicrobial Discs and their potencies used in this study

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