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Original Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

New Low Glycemic U.S. Rice, Its Nutritional Profile, Cooking, and Grain Quality

Herry S. Utomo , Ida Wenefrida, Bob Butcher
American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2021, 9(2), 76-81. DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-9-2-3
Received March 05, 2021; Revised April 09, 2021; Accepted April 20, 2021

Abstract

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is generally categorized as a high glycemic index (GI) food source. The cornerstone to manage and prevent diabetes heavily relies on dietary and nutrition management. Low glycemic rice can be used in the diets to minimize the spikes in blood sugar and insulin levels crucial in diabetes management and prevention. Low glycemic rice with a GI of 41±9 has been successfully developed for commercial applications in the United States (U.S.) rice industry. It is a non-GMO long grain rice with cereal chemistry, cooking, and grain characteristics of typical U.S. long grain rice. The low glycemic rice has an amylose (%), calorie (per 100 g white rice), and carbohydrates content (%) of 21.8 ± 1.1, 360 ± 3.2, 79 ± 2.1, respectively, and mills well with a % milling yield of 63 ± 2.1. Its nutritional profile is like that of typical long-grain rice with a total fat (%) of 0.8 ± 0.3, and a total dietary fiber (%) of 0.44 ± 0.12, having a higher protein content (10.5%) than rice in general (6-7%). It has a cooking and physical grain appearance of typical U.S. long grain rice. The overall grain quality specifications of the low glycemic rice are very similar to the grain quality standards recognized by the U.S. long-grain rice consumers and this will help in marketing and may assist rapid adoption of low glycemic rice into the diets of rice consumers who need it.

1. Introduction

Low GI diets can be used to manage and prevent diabetes and help control obesity. More than 463 million people (9.3% of world population) are affected by diabetes and the rate is estimated to rise to 10.2% (578 million) by 2030 1. Diabetes is among the top 10 causes of death in adults and have caused 4.2 million deaths globally. In the United States alone, over 34.2 million people have diabetes (10.5% of the U.S. population) 2.

Over 3.5 billion people depend on rice for at least of 20% of their daily calories 3. Asia accounts for 90% of global rice consumption. Both obesity and diabetes are a prevalent problem in these rice eating nations. Rice is generally considered as a high GI food with an averaged GI of 73 and a range of 48 - 93 4, 5, 6, 7. As compared, other high carbohydrate foods such as wheat, potato, sweet corn, and barley have a GI of 74 ± 2, 78 ± 4, 52 ± 5, 28 ± 2 respectively 8.

The total U.S. rice production in 2020 was 12 million metric tons (mt), of which 41% was exported to U.S. rice export destinations including Mexico, Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Northeast Asia, the Middle East, Canada, the European Union (EU), and Sub-Saharan Africa 9, 10. Domestic U.S. rice consumption in 2020 also increased by 0.1 million mt from the previous year reaching 7.1 million mt 9, 10. Low glycemic rice suitable for commercial applications have been developed for the U.S. rice industry. In addition to having a low glycemic index, it also has a protein content of approximately 10.5% (w/w), or about 50% additional protein.

The importance of low glycemic rice in association with mitigating diabetes and obesity has been studied and reviewed 5, 11, 12, 13, 14. The cornerstone to curb diabetes emphasizes on prevention, which heavily relies on dietary and nutrition management. The sole goal of prevention management is maintaining stable and safe levels of postprandial blood glucose concentration. Low glycemic rice can support this dietary management approach by minimizing spikes in blood sugar and insulin levels that is particularly important for type 2 diabetes or those at risk of developing it.

Rice with low and medium glycemic index has been reported, including experimental Thai rice lines PK+4#20A09 with a GI of 48.1 and PK+4#1_E06 with a GI of 54.6 14, Bangladeshi rice cultivars BR 14 with GI of 54.5 ± 16.1, BR 29 with a GI of 50.3 ± 19.3, and BR 44 with a GI of 43.1 ± 38.4 15. The low GI Basmati rice that is currently in the markets has a GI between 50 and 58 16, 17. Development of low GI rice varieties, however, remain slow and the availability of low GI rice is still limited, restricting its benefit. In addition, detailed grain and cooking quality on low glycemic rice needs to be sufficiently discussed to allow for the general public to make well-informed decisions in developing palatable low GI diets that can be tailored into individual preferences. The objective of this study is to discuss the low glycemic rice that has been developed, its nutritional profile, taste, cooking, and grain quality associated with consumer acceptability and its suitability in commercial applications in the U.S. rice industry.

2. Materials and Methods

Low glycemic long grain rice was developed through traditional cellular selection in the mutational breeding schemes using a parental material from the U.S. rice cultivar Cypress, known for its excellent milling quality. The selected line was advanced in head-row, followed by preliminary and multi-year, multi-location trials and later released as a cultivar ‘Frontiere’.

Glycemic Index: In vivo GI determination was conducted by Inquis Laboratory (OT, Canada) for white (polished) rice following the method in ISO 26642:2010 18. using 10 subjects (7 males and 3 females) from diverse ethnicity, age of 43 ± 13.4 years with a body mass index of 26.4 ± 3.8 kg/m2. Test meals consisted of 25 grams of available carbohydrates (total carbohydrate minus dietary fiber/non digestible carbohydrate). The dextrose control was 27.5 grams of monohydrous dextrose dissolved in 250 grams of water. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ingesting the meal. Studies were repeated twice. The blood samples of 300 μL each were subjected to plasma glucose analyses (Vitros 350 Analyzer, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics). The glucose incremental area under the curve (IAUC) was determined to calculate the GI.

Nutritional Quality: Protein content was analyzed using samples of ground white rice (0.15–0.20 g) in high temperature combustion analyses, using a protein analyzer (Leco) to determine their protein content based on at least 5 replications. Amylose content: The Apparent Amylose Content (AAC) of isolated rice starch was analyzed by using the iodine reagent method 19, using 25mg rice flour. Standard solutions were prepared as tests by dissolving pure amylose and amylopectin in distilled water 20. Total fat was determined from the white rice using Soxhlet analysis and acid/alkaline hydrolysis. Total Dietary Fiber (insoluble and soluble) content was estimated using the method described by Asp et al. 21 by a series of enzymatic digestion of defatted bran with heat stable α-amylase in boiling water, followed by pepsin and pancreatin treatments. Carbohydrates were determined by calculating the percent remaining after all the other components have been measured, as %carbohydrates = 100 − %moisture − %protein − %lipid − %ash. Calorie was calculated as the gross food energy estimated based on Osborn and Voogt 22 as Calorie (kCal/g) = (CP×4) + (F×9) + (CHO×4), where CP = crude protein (%); F = fat (%); and CHO = carbohydrate content (%). Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) extraction of fatty acid from rice was measured according to Appelqvist (1968). Extracted fatty acids were then subjected to gas liquid chromatography (Varian CP 3800, USA), equipped with a flame ionization detector and fused silica capillary column (50 mm x 0.25 mm), coated with CP-SIL 88 as the stationary phase. The oven temperature was programmed at 200°C for 13 minutes. The injector and FID were at 250°C. A reference standard FAME mix (Supelco Inc.) was analyzed under the same operating conditions to determine the peak identity. The FAMEs were expressed as relative area percentage.

Milling Yield and Quality was determined using samples of 125 g of paddy rice which were de-hulled using a bench-top husker (Satake, model no. THU-35, Hiroshima, Japan). Polishing the brown rice was then followed using a Satake rice polisher (Satake, model no. TM05, Hiroshima, Japan) for 60 seconds. Milling quality was determined using milled rice (%), hull (%), bran (%), head rice recovered (%) and broken rice (%) on a weight basis. Grain type was determined based on the length and width of the grain.

Cooking Quality: Alkali Spreading Value was determined using milled rice grains while incubated at room temperature for 23 hours in a Petri dish containing dilute aqueous KOH 24. The rice grain gelatinization was determined visually 24, 25. In addition, a digital photometry technique was applied for verification. The Gel Temp (GT) was measured using dehulled rice grains (Satake, Hiroshima, Japan), which were later milled (60 s Magill No. 2) and ground to flour (Cyclotec, particle size less than 0.5 mm; Cyclotec 1093, Tecator, Hoganas, Sweden). GT was measured on flour of all varieties using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (Mettler‐Toledo, Columbus, OH). The flour (4 mg) was then mixed with water (10 mg) and sealed in a pan and heated at a rate of 10 °C/min, heating from 25 to 120 °C. GT was reported at the maximum peak of the endotherm. The Endosperm type was determined visually. The Percentage of Chalk was calculated from three replicates of 50 g samples, and the amount of chalk in the milled rice was measured using a seed viewer flourescent to measure the transmission of light. Chalkiness is expressed as the proportion of opaque relative to translucent areas in rice grains. Endosperm translucency was determined visually, while the Scent was determined manually by smelling.

Statistical Analysis: Data represents means ± SE. The mean differences were analyzed statistically by paired t tests using SAS 26. The effects were assessed for the test and statistical significance was set at p<0.05.

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. Results

In vivo tests on cooked white rice indicated that the low glycemic rice Frontiere has a GI of 41 ± 9 (Figure 1 - inset). Its postprandial glucose responses from test subjects in the in-vivo clinical trials, after consuming cooked white rice of Frontiere (WRice), shows a lower spike, but prolonged postprandial glucose responses, when compared to the Dextrose control (Dex25), indicating its beneficial effects on managing blood glucose levels (Figure 1). Food GI rating is categorized into three groups, a low GI food group (55 or less), a medium GI food group (56-69), and a high GI food group (70 or more). With its GI of 41, the low glycemic rice falls into the low GI food group and is 14 points below the upper margin. It is one of the lowest GI values reported among economically viable rice varieties.

The low glycemic rice has a protein content (%, w/w) of 10.50 ± 0.8, which is about 50% more compared to Cocodrie (7.0 ± 0.4%), having a total fat (%, w/w) of 0.8 ± 0.3 which is slightly higher than that of Cocodrie (0.7 ± 0.2), and a total dietary fiber (%, w/w) of 0.44 ± 0.12 which is also higher than Cocodrie (0.35 ± 0.1) (Table 1). It has an amylose content (%, w/w) of 21.8 ± 1.1 that is slightly lower than Cocodrie’s 22.1 ± 1.1, and calories of 360 ± 3.2 per 100 g white rice which are also slightly lower than Cocodrie’s 367 ± 3.0 (Table 1). The low glycemic rice milled well with a milling yield (%) of 63 ± 2.1, which is slightly lower than that of Cocodrie (65 ± 1.9). They have a similar percentage of chalk, grain type, and 1000-grain weight (Table 2). Two important indicators of cooking quality include alkali spreading value (ASV) and gelatinization temperature. The low glycemic rice has ASV subjective rating of 3.5 ± 0.5, which is similar to Cocodrie (3.5 ± 07), with both having an intermediate gelatinization temperature, endosperm type, chalkiness, endosperm translucency, and scent (non-aromatic) (Table 3).

  • Table 3. Cooking quality, grain specification and appearance of low glycemic rice ‘Frontiere’, and long grain U.S. rice ‘Cocodrie’

3.2. Discussion

Postprandial glucose responses from the clinical trials of the low glycemic rice Frontiere, which show a lower spike with prolonged postprandial glucose responses compared to that of the Dextrose control (Dex25) (Figure 1), indicates its potential beneficial effects on managing blood glucose levels. The role of low glycemic food in managing and preventing diabetes has been well studied and recognized. In the recent studies using the low GI rice RNR 25048, which has a GI of 51.7 ± 3.4, it is effective in reducing postprandial glucose response in type 2 diabetes, therefore making it useful in the management of type 2 diabetes 13. In separate studies, it is also found that the low glycemic diets increased HDL levels can potentially help in the long-term management of cardiovascular diseases. Low GI foods further improve blood glucose control in diabetics 27, reduce serum lipids 28, increase insulin sensitivity 29 and improve B-cell functions 30. With its lower GI than the GI level in materials used in those studies, more prominent effects might be resulted from the use of this low glycemic rice. In addition, the low glycemic food can also potentially help regulate hunger compulsion and establish better eating habits to curb obesity. Consumption of low GI foods can help prevent unnecessary snacking and excess calorie consumption. The mutation event that led to the low GI index in this particular cultivar is currently being investigated.

Over 2,500 rice cultivars are being used in global rice production and great majority of these cultivars have a high GI 31. Only a very few rice cultivars released are with a low to medium GI. With diabetic prevalence on the rise, particularly among predominantly rice eating countries, developing low GI rice cultivars is in dire need to provide significant help in managing diabetes and reducing the incidence overall. The few low to medium GI rice reported include a low GI Basmati rice that is currently in the markets. It has GI between 50 and 58 and often categorized as a low to medium GI group 31. Another lower GI rice reported includes Doongara having a GI value of 54 32. Indica long grain IR42 was reported to have a GI of 61 33. Rice cultivars BR 14 from Bangladesh has a GI of 54.5 ± 16.1, BR 29 has a GI of 50.3 ± 19.3, and BR 44 has a GI of 43.1 ± 38.4 15. Indian RNR 15048 rice variety has a GI of 51.72 ± 3.39 13. In addition, an experimental Thai rice line PK+4#20A09 has been reported to have a GI of 48.1 and PK+4#1_E06 has a GI of 54.6 14. This low glycemic rice with a GI of 41 will be available in the U.S. market later this year 34, increasing the availability of a low glycemic rice for the customers who need it.

Brown rice or whole grain/un-milled rice is often recommended for diabetic persons. Though not always, brown rice has been reported to have a GI several points lower than white rice within the same cultivars 35. It is suggested that rice bran serves as a barrier that slows the digestion speed, resulting in lower GI values 6. However, brown rice remains un-popular because of its poor palatability, rancidity, and shorter storage or shelf life. The availability of true low GI white rice, such as the low glycemic rice Frontiere, will provide an option for the consumers who want to have low GI diets, but prefer a more palatable white rice over the brown rice. This low glycemic rice will overcome rancidity and shelf-life problem associated with brown rice to make it easier for retailers and traders to handle and store.

Many post-harvest processes have been used to decrease the GI including parboiling (soaking, heating, and drying of paddy prior to milling) and various cooking processes such as quick cooking, steaming, and cooking-longer cooling through refrigeration 4-24 hours at 4°C, as well handling processes. These techniques produced some effects on lowering the GI value 31, 36, 37, 38, 39. With the availability of this low glycemic rice, the extra step involving post-harvest processes and handling to lower the GI levels can be avoided, and therefore may provide some saving not to incur associated fixed and variable cost.

Except for its glycemic index and grain protein content, all other nutritional components, cooking and grain quality of the low glycemic rice Frontiere are very similar to that of Cocodrie. At the height of their popularity, both Cypress (the parental line of low glycemic rice Frontiere) and Cocodrie are the predominant long grain cultivars in the Southern U.S. rice growing regions. For many years, the milling quality of cultivar Cypress has been considered as the golden standard for milling quality for U.S. long grain rice 40. Data from this studies and previous ones 34 indicated that cooking quality, grain chemistry, appearance and taste of the low glycemic rice have no conspicuous differences with typical U.S. long grain rice cultivars such as Cypress and Cocodrie. With virtually the same cooking and grain quality specifications with typical U.S. long grain, this low glycemic rice changes the U.S. long grain white rice from a ‘bad’ source of carbohydrate to a ‘good’ source of carbohydrate 41. As a staple food for more than a half world’s population (2.4 billion), rice supports the livelihood of people with very diverse cultures and varying eating preferences 42. To provide a low glycemic rice that can reach into a great portion of 260 million people affected by diabetes, from diverse cultures, with different eating preferences, is truly monumental challenges. This long grain, low glycemic rice can particularly serve rice consumers in the U.S. as well as many countries of the U.S. rice export destinations including Mexico, Haiti, Japan, Canada, and South Korea. This newly developed low glycemic rice, Frontiere, proved that lowering the GI can be achieved with no adverse effects on taste, grain appearance and cooking quality of rice 34 and it can be used to support the efforts to systematically achieve this monumental goal.

4. Conclusion

The low glycemic rice developed has a better nutritional profile with its cooking and grain quality remaining similar to the typical qualities of U.S. long grain rice. These specific grain qualities are among important factors that can determine consumer acceptability. A high degree of acceptability is crucial for the adoption of a low glycemic rice into personalized palatable dietary plans that can be used to manage and prevent diabetes, as well as control obesity.

Abbreviations

GI: Glycemic Index

AAC: Apparent Amylose Content

GMO: Genetically Modified Organism

ASV: Alkali Spreading Value

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Herry S. Utomo, Ida Wenefrida and Bob Butcher

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Normal Style
Herry S. Utomo, Ida Wenefrida, Bob Butcher. New Low Glycemic U.S. Rice, Its Nutritional Profile, Cooking, and Grain Quality. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. Vol. 9, No. 2, 2021, pp 76-81. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfn/9/2/3
MLA Style
Utomo, Herry S., Ida Wenefrida, and Bob Butcher. "New Low Glycemic U.S. Rice, Its Nutritional Profile, Cooking, and Grain Quality." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 9.2 (2021): 76-81.
APA Style
Utomo, H. S. , Wenefrida, I. , & Butcher, B. (2021). New Low Glycemic U.S. Rice, Its Nutritional Profile, Cooking, and Grain Quality. American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 9(2), 76-81.
Chicago Style
Utomo, Herry S., Ida Wenefrida, and Bob Butcher. "New Low Glycemic U.S. Rice, Its Nutritional Profile, Cooking, and Grain Quality." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 9, no. 2 (2021): 76-81.
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  • Figure 1. Postprandial glucose responses to white rice of Frontiere (WRice) and the Dextrose control (Dex25) (mean of 2 meals), 10 subjects each, and all meals contained 25 g of available carbohydrate with glycemic index of WRice and Dextrose control (inset)
  • Table 1. Nutritional profiles of low glycemic rice ‘Frontiere’, and long grain U.S. rice ‘Cocodrie’
  • Table 2. Milling quality, grain type, grain dimension, and grain weight specification of low glycemic rice ‘Frontiere’, and long grain U.S. rice ‘Cocodrie’
  • Table 3. Cooking quality, grain specification and appearance of low glycemic rice ‘Frontiere’, and long grain U.S. rice ‘Cocodrie’
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