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Essentials Minerals in Coconut Water Sugars from Five Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.), Varieties Cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire

Akpro Lathro Anselme , Konan Brou Roger, Gbogouri Grodji Albarin, Lékadou Tacra Thierry, Konan Konan Jean-Louis
American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2019, 7(3), 88-93. DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-7-3-3
Received August 15, 2019; Revised September 24, 2019; Accepted October 13, 2019

Abstract

Food fortification is one approach for addressing anemia, but information and sources of iron on program effectiveness is limited. Micronutrients assessment in coconut water sugar is very important for people who work in health nutrition field. The main objective of this study was to analyze three category sugars from coconut water. There are syrup, brown and white sugars from coconut water. The results showed high content calcium, iron, zinc and phosphorus in all types’ sugars. The calcium and phosphorus content were highest in brown sugar than syrup and white sugar. These last sugar have statistically the same contents of calcium and phosphorus. Iron and zinc contents were respectively identical in the white and brown sugars and syrup, but highest than content in cane sugar. There are more iron in sugars from West African Tall (WAT) water (5.5 mg/100 g) compared to sugar of PB113+ water (1.2 to 1.8 mg/100 g) and Equatorial Green Dwarf (EGD) water (0.9 mg/100 g).The influence of heat on minerals is therefore dependent on the type of mineral. After heat used, Calcium content increased but phosphorus levels remains static. Also, iron and zinc contents remains static after heat used. On view of daily advice of iron (7 to 15 mg) according old, one can conclude that coconut water’s sugar can significantly improve condition of hemoglobin deficient male anemic patients. A plausible path of impact suggests that fortification of high-consumption foods with water sugar from WAT and MYD varieties, would improve iron status and reduce anemia in target populations.

1. Introduction

Today, more than 2 billion people around the world suffer from micronutrient deficiencies, mostly caused by a lack of dietary vitamin and mineral intake 1. The fight against micronutrient malnutrition is therefore a precondition for any prospect of rapid and appropriate national development. Sugar and refined foods made with sugar (sweets, cakes and ice cream) are poor in essential nutrients in case of stress, such as vitamin B and E and some minerals that make them up 2. In addition, these sugars and refined foods reduce the immune response by lowering the defenses. Minerals are essential for the proper functioning of the body in humans. These nutrients are most often from vegetables, legumes and meats (ref). The abundant consumption of sugar and refined sweets aggravates undernutrition and anorexia nervosa 2. However, sugar remains the most used sweetening substance to satisfy the organoleptic needs in several food preparations especially in pastry. Thus, finding a new source of sweetening substance that has nutrient constituents such as minerals seems to be an imperative. It could thus make it possible to remedy cases of deficiency in mineral and even vitamin micronutrients. This study therefore aims to evaluate some essentials minerals elements in the coconut water sugar which would be a dietary sugar 3.

2. Material and Methods

2.1. Material

The material in this study consists of coconut water sugar from the MYD, WAT, EGD PB121+ and PB113+ varieties. These sugars were developed according to production testing techniques in accordance with the work of Lathro et al. 4.

2.2. Methods

Eight minerals such as calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, manganese, iron and zinc were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after dissolving of 1 g of ash from sugar acidic environment. The ashes were treated with 10 mL of hydrochloric acid and then supplemented with 100 mL of water. The apparatus used is an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) 1100 (Perkin-Elmer, USA) powered by an air-acetylene flame. For extraction of calcium and magnesium, 10 mL of lanthanum chloride (18 g of lanthanum oxide + 250 mL of concentrated HCl in 100 mL of distilled water) was added before filling the vial until gauge with distilled water.

3. Results

3.1. Mineral Content of Coconut Water Sugars from WAT, MYD and EGD Varieties

The various contents of the eight minerals studied were recorded in Table 1. Nut water sugars from WAT, MYD and EGD cultivars. Whatever the category of sugars and the coconut cultivar studied, the most abundant minerals are, in order of importance, potassium, sodium and manganese, calcium and magnesium. The lowest levels were phosphorus (6.46 to 8.27), iron (0.78 to 5.74) and zinc (0.09 to 0.56) for all the cultivars studied. For all the minerals studied, the levels provided by the red sugars are statistically higher than those of the white sugars and syrups whatever the cultivar. Regardless of the mineral, white sugars and syrups have the same mineral content for EGD, MYD and WAT cultivars.

The potassium and calcium contents of the syrup, the brown and white sugars from WAT cultivar are higher than those of the brown cane sugar taken as a control. The values are 142.86 mg / 100 g (white sugar), 143.18 mg / 100 g (syrup) and 154.13 mg / 100 g (brown sugar) compared to 132.27 mg / 100 g (control) for potassium. For calcium, the values are 14.98 mg / 100 g for white sugar, 15.93 mg / 100 g for syrup and 18.55 mg / 100 g for brown sugar compared to 9.22 mg / 100 g for cane brown sugar (control) .Always for the WAT cultivar, the white sugars and the coconut water syrup have identical contents in Manganese (20,16 and 20,21), in Magnesium (12.61 and 13.51), in sodium (20.68 and 20.77), in phosphorus (6.80 and 7.18 mg / 100 g), in iron (5.30 and 5.26), in Zinc (0.56 and 0.56). Among these minerals, the magnesium, phosphorus and sodium contents of white sugar and the syrup of coconut water are statistically equal to those of cane sugar (control).

Regarding the MYD cultivar, it is always the brown sugar that contains the highest calcium content (21.75 mg / 100 g), potassium (150.90 mg / 100 g), magnesium (16.85 mg / 100 g), and sodium (28.19 mg / 100 g). However, the iron and manganese contents are statistically identical between the brown sugar and the syrup with respective values of 5.74 and 5.61 and 26.94 and 26.84. In addition, the mineral contents are statistically similar between white sugar and syrup with respective contents of 18.26 and 18.93 mg / 100 g for calcium, 140.90 and 139.24 mg / 100g for calcium, potassium, 13.85 and 13.55 mg / 100g for magnesium. This is the case for the sodium element, where the brown sugar and the syrup have 23.19 mg / 100 g each. White sugar and syrup have the same levels of iron (5.63 and 5.61) and zinc (0.09 and 0.09). Variance analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between white, syrup and red sugars in phosphorus content (p = 0.318).

The three trace elements have the same content in the red, white and syrup sugars on the one hand (manganese and iron) and in the syrup and white sugars on the other hand (zinc). Indeed, the white, brown sugars and syrups have the same levels of manganese (20.16, 21.24 and 20.21 respectively) and iron (5.30, 5.53 and 5.26 respectively). The same is true for MYD and EGD cultivars. Considering zinc alone, it is white sugar and syrups that have similar contents with values of 0.56 and 0.56 for WAT, 0.09 and 0.09 for MYD and 0.48 and 0.48 for EGD. For iron content, there is no significant difference between red, white and syrup sugars for MYD, WAT and EGD. Finally, coconut water sugars from EGD cultivars have significant zinc contents (p = 0.034). The most concentrated sugars in zinc are white sugar and syrup (0.48 mg / 100 g), followed by the brown sugar of coconut water (0.28 mg / 100 g) and the brown sugar cane control (0.22 mg / 100 g) that have the lowest values that are statistically identical to each other.

3.2. Mineral Content of Coconut Water Sugars from PB113+ and PB121+

The three categories of coconut water sugars are richer in minerals than cane brown sugar (BS-C) except in terms of potassium and magnesium content (Table 2). The magnesium content of the brown sugar cane control (13.93 mg / 100 g) is statistically similar to that of the white sugars and syrup of PB121+ (13.78 and 13.74 mg / 100 g) and PB113+ (13.53 and 13.83 mg / 100 g). In addition, for the PB121+ and PB113+ hybrids, and regardless of the mineral studied, the levels obtained in the white sugars are statistically identical to those found in the syrups. The brown sugar in coconut water remains the most concentrated category of calcium (20.50 mg / 100 g), potassium (144.17 mg / 100 g) and sodium (27.04 mg / 100 g) and magnesium (15.74 mg / 100 g) at PB121+. Same note at PB113+ with values of 25.26 mg / 100 g (calcium), 145.25 mg / 100 g (potassium), 26.95 mg / 100 g (sodium) and 16.83 mg / 100 g (magnesium). The brown sugar, syrup and white sugar from coconut water have identical levels of phosphorus (6.48, 6.91 and 7.50 mg / 100 g, respectively) and manganese (25.49; 25.53 and 25.83 mg / 100 g respectively) for PB121+. With regard to PB113+, the contents are respectively 7.16; 7.10 and 7.60 for phosphorus and 23.23; 23.23 and 23.23 mg / 100 g for manganese.

The iron contents (1.42 to 1.73 mg / 100 g) and zinc contents (0.58 to 0.98 mg / 100 g) of these sugars levels are statistically higher than those of cane brown sugar as a control (1.05 mg / 100 g) and 0.22 mg / 100 g respectively). The iron gathers the white sugar, syrup and brown of PB121+ in the same lot with respective values of 1.49; 1.42 and 1.45 mg / 100 g whereas those of PB113+ are grouped into 2 batches. As for zinc, the contents of white sugar (0.78) and syrup (0.78) are statistically identical, but higher than that of brown sugar (0.58) for the PB121 + cultivar. Similarly, the zinc content of the brown sugar (0.81 mg / 100 g) of the coconut water is significantly lower than that provided by the white sugar (0.98 mg / 100 g) and the syrup (0, 98 mg / 100 g) at the PB113+ level. Quantities of sodium are statistically identical in syrups of all cultivars (p = 0.087).

2.2. Impact of Production Method on Minerals

There are two types of extraction (production method): heat and cold. The type of extraction is function of type of sugar: the brown sugar and the syrup were extracted by thermal dehydration so by heat use. On the other hand, the white sugar was obtained by cold dehydration such as lyophilization under vacuum.


2.2.1. Effect on Macro Elements Calcium and Phosphorus

Heat extraction increases calcium levels from brown sugar while phosphorus remains static whichever the variety. The influence of heat on minerals is therefore dependent on the type of mineral (Figure 1).


2.2.2. On the trace Elements Iron and Zinc

The iron content in sugars remains stable for all varieties regardless of the type extraction. It is the same for the element zinc. Apart from the sugars of EGD, there are more than iron in the sugars of the coconut water than in the brown cane sugar. Also, zinc contents are they more important in sugars than coconut water compared to cane brown sugar (Figure 2).

4. Discussion

Since the ashes are mainly composed of several minerals, a few have been evaluated in this study. The coconut tree is a fruit tree whose nut is the fruit. Coconut water, like fruits, is a source of potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron. Other minerals such as manganese, phosphorus, sodium and zinc have also been found in the various sugars of coconut water. Whatever the category of sugar and the variety of coconut used, the minerals in order of importance are potassium, manganese with proportions close to sodium. The potassium mineral more represented in sugars from coconut water confirms the affirmation of Konan 5 and Naozuka et al. 6. Indeed, these authors support the idea that potassium is found in large proportions in different parts of the coconut tree. This justifies the fact that potassium is 5 to 6 times more abundant than sodium and manganese in sugars from coconut water. Also, the minimum levels of calcium and magnesium are close to each other. However, the maximum calcium content is higher than that of magnesium (25.16 mg / 100 g> 16.71 g / 100 g). This distribution is similar in some points to that of plant cells. Indeed, others studies reported that the potassium and magnesium contents, respectively higher than the sodium and calcium contents, are characteristic data of the sap of several plants. These differences may be justified by the fact that the respective plants of the studied cultivars would not absorb the minerals of the soil with the same efficiencies. In addition, there are some intrinsic variabilities in the different sugars of coconut water. When considering red sugars, PB113+ gives a richer calcium sugar than other varieties that have statistically identical levels at the 5% threshold. All brown sugars are richer in calcium than cane brown sugar considered as controls. The analysis of variance ANOVA 2 revealed differences between the levels, in mineral macro-elements for all coconut varieties studied (p < 0.05). Nevertheless, there are similarities as in the case of magnesium where the WAT, EGD and PB121+ brown sugars have statistically the same contents. It is the same for the potassium contents where the sugars of the coconut water of the two dwarfs are similar, as well as the sugars of the two hybrids PB121+ and PB113+. For phosphorus it is the red sugars of MYD and PB121+ which have the same values. Differences between grades could be justified by the fact that study at range on different cultivars conjugated to various edaphic conditions. Indeed, the mineral constitution of the soils could vary according to the regions and even according to the parcels. In addition, the hierarchy of mineral distribution is not absolutely static in all coconut palms. For example Debmalya and Mazundar 7 found less potassium than sodium in the raw sap of coconut trees grown on the Indian coasts of West Bengal.

The main trace elements that have been measured in coconut water sugars are iron, manganese and zinc. They are unequally distributed in the different categories and types of sugars in the coconut water. The availability of micronutrients in the soil where coconut trees are planted could impact their absorption and therefore their presence in plant organs such as nuts.

This idea is supported by the work of Bebmalya and Mazunda 7 who found 1.2 mg iron / 100 mL of coconut sap while Konan et al. (2013) found 0.12 to 0.39 mg / 100 g. In coconut sap, the first authors also obtained copper and zinc levels of 0.03 mg / 100 mL which are significantly lower than our results. The most abundant trace element, manganese, is distributed identically in the three categories of sugars of cultivars NVE, PB113+ and PB121+. The stability of this trace element to heat would justify its invariability in sugars obtained by cold (white sugars) and those obtained by heat (syrup and brown sugar). The iron is identically distributed in the sugars of all varieties studied except in the brown cane sugar witness. The varietal difference and the nutritional composition of soils that would not be identical. In addition, the lack of curling leading to the abandonment of some plots for the benefit of others, could influence the distribution of mineral elements in different parts of plants. Indeed, the cutting down of cutting the herbs and leaving them on the site allows the decomposition of these constituting natural fertilizer that would bring humus and minerals to the soil.

The levels of iron and zinc from our work are higher than those determined by Trinidad et al. 8 in brown sugar and coconut sap syrup (0.5 mg / 100 g and 0.6 mg / 100 g, respectively). In addition, most of the zinc contents of coconut water sugars are greater than those found by 2 in cane sugars (0.18 mg / 100 g), molasses (0.290 mg / 100 g) in honey (0.22 mg / 100 g) and in white sugar (0.03 mg / 100 g). Nevertheless, these values are 10 times lower than the zinc content determined by Pamplona-Roger (2011) in maple sugar (6.06 mg / 100 g). In view of these results, honey, molasses, brown sugar cane and maple sugar are more zinc-filled than the red, white and syrup sugars made with the coconut water of the variety MYD. The amount of zinc in raffia sap evaluated at 1.68 mg / 100 g by Ibegbulem et al. 9 and Akpabio et al. 10 in their research is significantly higher than sugars from our study. However, according to Chaney 11, sugar consumption of coconut water could provide the human body with Fe2+ and Zn2+ ions involved in the synthesis of red blood cells. Although it is iron and zinc from a plant (non-heme iron), the association of lemon juice (vitamin C) with the meal would facilitate their absorption by the body. In addition, the iron provided by the WAT and MYD coconut water sugars could fill more than 7 to 8% of the recommended daily ration (RQR) of iron for children and adolescents. Sugars made with water from the NJM and WAT varieties are therefore essential to ensure health and vitality because of their high iron content. Indeed, the consumption of coconut water sugar could allow a better transport of oxygen in hemoglobin. Aside from hematological functions, coconut water sugars could play an important role in the use of oxygen by the enzymes of the respiratory chain in mitochondria and thus in the production of energy. Coconut water sugar should to relieve the weariness cases. For example, iron deficiency (anemia) causes intense physical tiredness 12. Iron is also the central atom of regulatory enzymes for the production of neurotransmitters and the transcription of certain messenger RNAs. Several authors have reported that iron deficiency can influence the metabolism of dividing tissues, compromising the cognitive functions as well as the growth of children and adolescents. In this context, prior to in vivo testing, the sugar consumption of coconut water could ensure the cognitive functions and growth of children and adolescents 13. In effect, the World Health Organization has identified iron deficiency without anemia as a nutrition-related health problem commonly encountered worldwide 14, 15. In addition, researchers have confirmed that dietary supplements rich in vitamins alone or in vitamins and minerals can be beneficial for type 2 diabetics 16. It is therefore ideal to eat foods rich in micronutrients such as minerals as such coconut water’s sugars.

At 110°C., the heat treatment generally leads to an increase in the mineral contents. Unlike stabilizing iron and zinc, which decreases in the red sugar stage, all other minerals are in large quantities in the red sugars compared to the white sugars. These results, related to the increase in mineral content, are in agreement with the observations of Antoine et al. 17 who showed that cooking increases the content of the majority of minerals in food.

The hybrid variety (PB113+) has more calcium and phosphorus than the tall (WAT+) and the dwarf (EGD) which possess them similar. This difference could explained by the varietal difference, the mineral constitution of the parcels and the non-static mineral distribution of coconut palms 7.

In all coconut palm varieties studied, there are more calcium and phosphorus for brown sugar than in the white sugar and the syrup that are almost similar. Thermal dehydration leads to an increase of minerals in food 17, 18.

The highest iron content at the level of WAT sugars compared to those of EGD and PB113+ is related to the availability of trace elements in the soil or are implanted coconut palms and the varietal effect. The tree WAT would be more able to capture the mineral iron to store it in the fruit in the water of the walnut. The method of treatment used to produce the sugar does not have impact on the iron content. On the other hand, for all varieties, zinc content decreased in the brown sugars while it remains static in the white sugar and syrup of coconut water.

5. Conclusion

In total, eight essential minerals were determined in the water sugars of the immature nuts of the coconut palms Nain Vert of Equatorial Guinea (EGD), Yellow Dwarf of Malaysia (NJM), Greater West Africa (WAT), Port-Bouet 121+ and 113+ improved (PB121+ and PB113+). These are five macro elements that are potassium, calcium, phosphorus, sodium and magnesium and three trace elements namely iron, zinc and manganese. It appears that the contents of the different minerals are a function of the variety of coconut used and the category of sugar used. Thus, white sugars and syrups have the same levels of minerals that are different from those of red sugars, but in greater quantity. Cooking has therefore contributed to the increase in the levels of most minerals except those of iron which have remained stable and those of zinc which tend to fall. The sugars derived from the water of WAT and MYD varieties have very high iron levels and can be used for the enrichment of staple foods. Whatever the variety, all coconut water sugars contain higher mineral element levels than cane sugar except for zinc.

Acknowledgements

Authors would like to thank the Pedology Laboratory of National polytechnical institute Houphouët Boigny (INPHB), Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire for its technical support to analyses. Also, this study was financed by CRDI-CANADA and the CNRA, Côte d’Ivoire.

References

[1]  WHO, 2017. Magnésium, fer, vitamine C: les carences courantes chez les seniors.
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[2]  Pamplona-Roger G.D. 2011. Guide des aliments et leur pouvoir curatif. Bibliothèque Education et Santé, 1: 159-179.
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[5]  Konan B.R. 2011. Etude comparative des caractéristiques physicochimiques de l’amande, de l’eau et de l’haustorium des noix de trois cultivars de cocotier (Cocos nucifera L.) selon le stade de germination. Thèse de Doctorat unique, Université Nangui Abrogoua, Côte d’Ivoire, 146 p.
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[9]  Ibegbulem C.O., Eyong E.U. et Essien E.U. 2011. Polymerization inhibition activity of Raphia hookeri palm sap and its effects on osmotic fragility of sickle cell red blood cells. Journal of Medicinal. Plants Research, 5 (17): 4212-4217.
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[10]  Akpabio U.D., Akpakpan A.E., Udo U.E. and Essien U.C. 2012. Physicochemical characterization of exudates from Rafia Palm (Rafia hookeri). Advances in Applied Science Research, 3 (2): 838-843.
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[11]  Chaney S.G., 2006. Principles of nutrition of nutrition II. Micronutrients. In (Devlin T.M, Ed) Texbook of biochemistry with clinical correlations, 6th Edition. Wiley-liss, New Jersey. pp. 1091-1120.
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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2019 Akpro Lathro Anselme, Konan Brou Roger, Gbogouri Grodji Albarin, Lékadou Tacra Thierry and Konan Konan Jean-Louis

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Cite this article:

Normal Style
Akpro Lathro Anselme, Konan Brou Roger, Gbogouri Grodji Albarin, Lékadou Tacra Thierry, Konan Konan Jean-Louis. Essentials Minerals in Coconut Water Sugars from Five Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.), Varieties Cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. Vol. 7, No. 3, 2019, pp 88-93. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfn/7/3/3
MLA Style
Anselme, Akpro Lathro, et al. "Essentials Minerals in Coconut Water Sugars from Five Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.), Varieties Cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 7.3 (2019): 88-93.
APA Style
Anselme, A. L. , Roger, K. B. , Albarin, G. G. , Thierry, L. T. , & Jean-Louis, K. K. (2019). Essentials Minerals in Coconut Water Sugars from Five Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.), Varieties Cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire. American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 7(3), 88-93.
Chicago Style
Anselme, Akpro Lathro, Konan Brou Roger, Gbogouri Grodji Albarin, Lékadou Tacra Thierry, and Konan Konan Jean-Louis. "Essentials Minerals in Coconut Water Sugars from Five Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.), Varieties Cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 7, no. 3 (2019): 88-93.
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[1]  WHO, 2017. Magnésium, fer, vitamine C: les carences courantes chez les seniors.
In article      
 
[2]  Pamplona-Roger G.D. 2011. Guide des aliments et leur pouvoir curatif. Bibliothèque Education et Santé, 1: 159-179.
In article      
 
[3]  Anselme A.L., Albarin G.G., Jean-Louis K.K., Brice G.J. and Jean N.G. (2018) Glycemic Index of Sugars Extracted from Immature Coconut Water: Case of Coconut Palms (Cocos nucifera L.) WAT, MYD and PB121+. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 6, 99-110.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Lathro Akpro Anselme, Konan Jean-Louis Konan, Grodji Gbogouri Albarin, Auguste Issali Emmanuel, N’klo Hala François and Koffi Ban Louis. 2018. Physico-chemical and sensorial characterization of coconut water sugars from coconut palms (Cocos nucifera L.) varieties in Côte d’Ivoire. International journal of Current Adanced Research, 7 (8): 14725-14730.
In article      
 
[5]  Konan B.R. 2011. Etude comparative des caractéristiques physicochimiques de l’amande, de l’eau et de l’haustorium des noix de trois cultivars de cocotier (Cocos nucifera L.) selon le stade de germination. Thèse de Doctorat unique, Université Nangui Abrogoua, Côte d’Ivoire, 146 p.
In article      
 
[6]  Naozuka J., Da Veiga M.A.M.S., Richter E.M., Paixẵo T.R.L.C., Angnes L. & Oliveira P.V. 2011. Use of metals and anion species with chemometrics tools for classification of unprocessed and processed coconut waters. Food Analytical Methods, 4: 49-56.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Debmalya B. and Mazumdar B.C.2008. Comparative nutritive values of palm saps before and after their partial fermentation and effective use of Will Date (phoenix sylvestris roxb) sap in treatment of anemia. Research Journal and Medical Sciences 3 (2): 173-176.
In article      
 
[8]  Trinidad P.T., Aida C.M., Rosario S.S. and Rosario R.E. 2010. Glycemic index of commonly consumed carbohydrate foods in the Philippines. Journal of functional foods, 2: 271-274.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Ibegbulem C.O., Eyong E.U. et Essien E.U. 2011. Polymerization inhibition activity of Raphia hookeri palm sap and its effects on osmotic fragility of sickle cell red blood cells. Journal of Medicinal. Plants Research, 5 (17): 4212-4217.
In article      
 
[10]  Akpabio U.D., Akpakpan A.E., Udo U.E. and Essien U.C. 2012. Physicochemical characterization of exudates from Rafia Palm (Rafia hookeri). Advances in Applied Science Research, 3 (2): 838-843.
In article      
 
[11]  Chaney S.G., 2006. Principles of nutrition of nutrition II. Micronutrients. In (Devlin T.M, Ed) Texbook of biochemistry with clinical correlations, 6th Edition. Wiley-liss, New Jersey. pp. 1091-1120.
In article      
 
[12]  Reynaldo Martorell, Melany Ascencio, Luis Tacsan, Thelma Alfaro, Melissa F Young, O Yaw Addo, Omar Dary and Rafael Flores-Ayala. 2014. Effectiveness evaluation of the food fortification program of Costa Rica: impact on anemia prevalence and hemoglobin concentrations in women and children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 101, Issue 1, January 2015, Pages 210-217.
In article      View Article  PubMed  PubMed
 
[13]  UCL, 2011. Université Catholique de Louvain, Manger-bouger. L’équilibre alimentaire. www.uclouvain.be/bouger-manger (consulté le 28/01/2019).
In article      
 
[14]  WHO-CDC. 2004. Assessing the iron status of populations: Including literature reviews: Report of a Joint World Health Organization/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Technical Consultation on the Assessment of Iron Status at the Population Level, Geneva, Switzerland, 6-8 April 2004. 2nd edition.
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