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Chemical Composition, Amino Acid, Fatty Acid and Mineral in Callappa Lophos: Ecological and Human Health Implications

Foysal Kabir Tareq, Mst. Fayzunnesa , Md. Shahariar Kabir, Musrat Nuzat
American Journal of Food and Nutrition. 2017, 5(2), 77-82. DOI: 10.12691/ajfn-5-2-5
Published online: June 21, 2017

Abstract

The present study demonstrate the nutritional values of C. Lophos in terms of proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids and minerals composition in edible part. The C. Lophos was separated into two part one body which contain shell and muscles and other appendages which contain claws and lags. The C. Lophos body and appendages has the suitable quantity of protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash, and moisture in the percentages of (1.117%, 1.203%), (0.301%, 0.436%), (3.247%, 2.723%), (0.145%, 0.175%) and (4.215%, 3.701%) respectively. Entirely seventeen amino acid were found where nine essential amino acids (EAA) and eight non-essential amino acids (NEAA). The maximum concentration of EAA Lysine was detected in both of body (0.0451%) and appendages (0.0407%) part and in minimum of EAA Valine was found in body (0.0163%) and EAA Tryptophan (0.0092%) in appendages. The NEAA Glutamic acid was observed in maximum concentration in both of body (0.0491%) and appendages (0.0512%) and NEAA Asparagine observed in minimum concentration in both of body (0.0059%) and appendages (0.0057%). The quantity of saturated fatty, mono saturated, poly saturated , and trans fatty acid in body and appendages were found in the percentages of (.701%, 0.821%), (0.634%, 0.742%), (0.686%, 0.798%) and (0.042%, 0.1321%) respectively. Entirely six mineral were detected in C. Lophos body and appendages where Calcium (11.67%, 12.35%) observed in maximum concentration. The result revels that the C. Lophos are one of the nutritionist food and aim of this study to encourage people to increase the utilization of these C. Lophos in large scale.

1. Introduction

The marine food for human consumption has tumid rapidly through worldwide day by day. The marine food is an essential sources of valuable nutrients such as protein, carbohydrate, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids 1, 2 which are considered as healthy, safe, nutritious and balanced diet (WHO 2003).

Crab are one of the most popular marine food throughout the world. The nutritional value of crab has been widely studied in various region of world. Crab gain much interest among the world due to its nutritional values 4, 5, 6, 7. Crab are having the sufficient sources of nutrient such as protein, carbohydrate, amino acids, fatty acids and minerals 8, 9, 10, 11. Protein is an important nutrients for human body and essential amino acid composition is one of the most valuable nutritional qualities of protein. To evaluate protein quality, amino acid score method is used where a tested protein amino acid patterns compared with that of reference protein. The driven amino acid compared with the requirements of amino acid for preschool-aged children. If the protein score effectively support with a young children growth and development, it will meet the requirements of older children and adults (FAO/WHO/UNO 1985). Pathogenesis of many diseases occurs due to high level of amino acid 13, 14. The balanced composition of fatty acid in human diet is good for good health 15.The unsaturated fatty acids have been shown to be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease, cancer, and to improve the response to inflammatory diseases, like eczema, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis 14, 16, 17. The minerals like Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, K, and Na are compulsory for human health. Minerals of Calcium (Ca) and Irons (Fe) are basic components for bone development, more of both minerals being required during childhood and growing stages to prevent Rickets and Osteomalacia disorder. Zinc (Zn) act as a constituent for proper function of various enzymes. Zn has essential effect for the metabolism and structural stability of nucleic acid 18, 19, 20.

In this manuscript, we evaluate the composition of protein, carbohydrate, fat, fatty acid, amino acids, minerals, ash and moisture of C. Lophos body and appendages part. The result revels that the C. Lophos is one of the nutritionist food for human diet. The main objective of this study is to encourage people to increase the utilization of these C. Lophos in large scale.

2. Materials and Methodology

2.1. Source of the Crabs and Sampling Procedure

Mature C. Lophos were collected from local market which thoroughly washed with de-ionized water and dissected to obtain shell, muscles (body) legs, claws (appendages) part. The body and appendages part from each C. Lophos were subsequently stored separately at -70°C for later analysis.

2.2. Estimation of Protein

Total protein content in C. Lophos body and appendages were analyzed with the Folin-Ciocaltue Phenol method of Lowry et al (1951). Approximately 50gm for both body meat and appendages part of C. Lophos were taken to extracted protein.

2.3. Estimation of Carbohydrates

The phenol sulfuric acid method of Dubois et al. was used to estimate the total carbohydrate of C. Lophos.

2.4. Estimation of Amino Acid

Amino acids in C. Lophos was estimated by using the method of Baker et al. in the high performance liquid chromatography.

2.5. Fatty Acid Analysis

For fatty acid analysis, fat was extracted using the method of Bligh et al. from 50gm of body and appendages part meat of C. Lophos. The identification and quantification of fatty acids were done using Gas Chromatography.

2.6. Estimation of Minerals

The described method of Guzman and Jimenez (1992) was used to determine the composition of protein in C. Lophos body and appendages part.

3. Result and Discussion

3.1. Chemical Proximate Analysis

In this investigation, the proximate composition containing protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash and moisture contents of C. Lophos were estimated according to appendages which contain claw and legs and body contain shell and muscles. The composition of proximate analysis is shown in Table 1. It was revealed that the value of protein (12.03 mg/50gm) carbohydrate (4.36 mg/50gm) and ash (1.75mg/50gm) in appendages are higher than body. On the other hand fat (32.47 mg/50gm) and moisture (42.15 mg/50gm) in body are higher than appendages. Figure 1 shows the percentage of proximate composition in C. Lophos body and appendages part. The protein content in this work almost similar to previous work 21. E.I. Adeyeye et al. 21 reported that 22.1mg/100gm and 18.6mg/100gm protein content were found in male and female Sudananautes africanus africanus. There are a little variation between protein content in this investigation and previous work 21 due to geographical location 22. In this present investigation, the carbohydrate content was found in body (0.301%) and appendages (0.436%). This result revealed that the percentage of carbohydrate in appendages is higher than body part. Xugen Wu et al. 23 reported that the carbohydrate content were found in blue swimmer crab in percentage of 0.20%, 0.14% in female and male meat, 0.62%, 0.53% in female and male hepatropancreas and 0.78% in female gonads. The carbohydrate concentration are vary due to food and feeding pattern of carbs from different region. The level of carbohydrate content in C. Lophos is in optimum level. The concentration of ash content in body part and appendages were found 0.145% and 0.175% which indicate the mineral concentration in species 24, 25. Moronkola et al. 26 reported the concentration of ash in crunchy chest, walking legs and tissues sample were 1.04%, 1.30%, and 1.041 % which are higher than C. Lophos ash content. The moisture content were found in C. Lophos body 42.15mg/50gm and 37.01mg/50gm. Sudhakar M et al. 27 was found 77.8 mg/100gm (female), 77.4 mg/100gm (female), 74.6 mg/100gm (male), 77.3mg/100gm (male) moisture content in Cancer pagurus which collected from Scottish coast and English Channe. The variation of ash and moisture content in C. Lpohos might be most probably depend on the size of the species investigated for the separate studies or seasonal conditions at the time of investigation conducted.

3.2. Estimation of Essential and Non-essential Amino Acid

In this investigation, we found totally seven-tine amino acid in C. Lophos. In total amino acid, there are nine essential and eight non-essential amino acid were detected. The content of essential and non-essential amino acid are shown in Table 2 and Table 3. In EAA Lysine (0.451 and 0.407 mg) were detected in maximum concentration in body and appendages and minimum value of Valine and Tryptophan (0.163 and .092 mg) were detected in body and appendages of C. Lophus. Important EAA of Taurine was found in both parts of C. Lophos. In NEAA Glutamic (0.491 and 0.512 mg) was the maximum concentration in body and appendages of C. Lophus and Glycine (0.103 and 0.152 mg) was the minimum concentration in body and appendages part of C. Lophos. The result of EAA and NEAA revealed that the C. Lophos has potential source for food value due to presence of essentials amino acids. Figure 2 and Figure 3 shows the percentage of essentials and non-essentials amino acids in C. Lophos body and appendages part.

3.3. Estimation of Fatty Acid

In this study, saturated, mono unsaturated, poly unsaturated and tran’s fatty acid were found in body and appendages part of C. Lophos. Composition of fatty acid are shown in Table 4. Saturated fatty acid (8.21 mg) was high quality in appendages than body and maximum values then other fatty acids. On the other hand tran’s fatty acid has minimum values in both appendages and body part of C. Lophos. The percentages of fatty acids in C. Lophus body and appendages part shown in Figure 4. In this investigation, the total fatty acid composition were found in values of 1.522% of saturated fatty acid, 1.376% of mono unsaturated fatty acid, 1.484% of poly unsaturated fatty acid and 0.163% of Tran’s fatty acid. Sudhakar et al. 28 reported that saturated fatty acid (palmitic acid 0.81% and stearic acid 0.29%), mono saturated fatty acid (oleic acid 0.99%) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid 1.11% and alpha linoleic acid 0.70%) were found.

3.4. Estimation of Minerals

In this study we have traced six minerals (Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium, Zinc and Iron) in body and appendages of C. Lophos. The concentration of traced minerals are shown in Table 5. The concentration of minerals are in percentage of Calcium 240.2mg/ 50gm, Magnesium 78.34mg/50gm, Potassium 158.44 mg/50gm, Sodium 131.25 mg/50gm, Iron 7.84mg/50gm and Zinc 12.55mg/50gm respectively. Calcium was observed as major elements of appendages and body part. Iron 3.83 mg was traced in low level in the body part of C. Lophos. The percentages of minerals in C. Lophos are shown in Figure 5. Similar investigation were conducted in various species. Marques et al. 29 were observed the mineral quantity of Maja brachydactyla was shows 1350 µg/1gm of Calcium, 90.9 µg/1gm of Magnesium, 10000 µg/1gm of Potassium, 8346 µg/1gm of Sodium, 210 µg/1gm of Iron, and 830 µg/1gm of Zinc. Our investigation result has variation to Marques et al. 29 investigation. This variation might be connected to the size of the species investigated for the separate studies or geographical locations or seasonal conditions at the time of investigation conducted.

4. Conclusion

In summary, this investigation highlighted that the nutritional quality of C. Lophos body and appendages part. The body and appendages part were valuable sources of protein, carbohydrate, fatty acid, amino acid, and minerals for human diet. Additionally appendages are richer in protein, minerals, fatty acid, and non-essential amino acids. On the other hand body part are richer in essential amino acids. In generally, the C. Lophos are not consuming as nutritional food by the all group of community and C. Lophos are also considered as a low cost crab. This investigation revealed that the C. lophos crab are capable to compete with more economically consumed species for human in terms of nutritional values.

References

[1]  Kris-Etherton, Penny M., William S. Harris, and Lawrence J. Appel. “Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease.” circulation 106.21 (2002): 2747-2757.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Naeemi, Esmaeel D., et al. “Rapid and simple method for determination of cholesterol in processed food.” Journal of AoAC international 78.6 (1994): 1522-1525.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  WHO, 2003. Food based dietary guidelines in the World Health Organization European Region. Report EUR/03/5045414. Available at http://www.who.org. Accessed on the 18th of February 2009.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Gökoðlu, Nalan, and Pýnar Yerlikaya. “Determinaton of proximate composition and mineral contents of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and swim crab (Portunus pelagicus) caught off the Gulf of Antalya.” Food Chemistry 80.4 (2003): 495-498.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Küçükgülmez, Aygül, et al. “Proximate composition and mineral contents of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) breast meat, claw meat and hepatopancreas.” International journal of food science & technology 41.9 (2006): 1023-1026.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Adeyeye, E. I. “Determination of the chemical composition of the nutritionally valuable parts of male and female common West African fresh water crab Sudananautes africanus africanus.” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 53.3 (2002): 189-196.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[7]  Skonberg, Denise I., and Brian L. Perkins. “Nutrient composition of green crab (Carcinus maenus) leg meat and claw meat.” Food Chemistry 77.4 (2002): 401-404.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Catacutan, Mae R. “Growth and body composition of juvenile mud crab, Scylla serrate, fed different dietary protein and lipid levels and protein to energy ratios.” Aquaculture, 208.1 (2002): 113-123.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Gökoðlu, Nalan, and Pýnar Yerlikaya. “Determinaton of proximate composition and mineral contents of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and swim crab (Portunus pelagicus) caught off the Gulf of Antalya.” Food Chemistry 80.4 (2003): 495-498.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Çelik, Mehmet, et al. “Fatty acid composition of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896) in the north eastern Mediterranean.” Food Chemistry 88.2 (2004): 271-273.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Naczk, Marian, et al. “Compositional characteristics of green crab (Carcinus maenas).” Food Chemistry 88.3 (2004): 429-434.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  FAO/WHO/UNU, Energy and protein requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation, World Health Organization Technical Report Series 724, WHO, Geneva (1985):121–123.
In article      
 
[13]  Shoda, Ryosuke, et al. “Epidemiologic analysis of Crohn disease in Japan: increased dietary intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and animal protein relates to the increased incidence of Crohn disease in Japan.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 63.5 (1996): 741-745.
In article      PubMed
 
[14]  Gil, A. “Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory diseases.” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 56.8 (2002): 388-396.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  FAO/WHO, Fats and oils in human nutrition. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation, 19-26 October 1993, Rome, (1994):168
In article      
 
[16]  Harper, Charles R., and Terry A. Jacobson. “Usefulness of omega-3 fatty acids and the prevention of coronary heart disease.” The American journal of cardiology 96.11 (2005): 1521-1529.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[17]  Roynette, Catherine E., et al. “n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and colon cancer prevention.” Clinical nutrition 23.2 (2004): 139-151.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[18]  Martı́nez-Valverde, Isabel, et al. “The content and nutritional significance of minerals on fish flesh in the presence and absence of bone.” Food Chemistry 71.4 (2000): 503-509.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Erkan, Nuray, and Özkan Özden. “Proximate composition and mineral contents in aqua cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), sea bream (Sparus aurata) analyzed by ICP-MS.” Food Chemistry 102.3 (2007): 721-725.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Council, Nath Res. “Recommended dietary allowances.” Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. Washington: National Academic (1989).
In article      
 
[21]  Adeyeye, Emmanuel I., John O. Olanlokun, and Tosin O. Falodun. “Proximate and mineral composition of whole body, flesh and exoskeleton of male and female common West African fresh water crab Sudananautes africanus africanus.” Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences 60.3 (2010).
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Jimmy, Udo Paul, and Vivian Nneka Arazu. “The Proximate and Mineral Composition of Two Edible Crabs Caflinectes amnicola and Uca tangeri (Crustecea: Decapoda) of The Cross River, Nigeria.” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 11.1 (2012): 78-82.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Wu, Xugan, et al. “Comparison of gender differences in biochemical composition and nutritional value of various edible parts of the blue swimmer crab.” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 23.2 (2010): 154-159.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  E Eddy, S.P. Meyers and J.S. Godber, Minced meat crab cake from blue crab processing by products development and sensory evaluation. J. Food Sci., 58: 99-103. 2004.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization), Nutritional elements of fish FAO, Rome. 2005.
In article      
 
[26]  B.A Moronkola, R.A. Olowu, O.O. Tovide and O.O. Ayejuyo, Determination OF Proximate and mineral contents of crab (Callinectes amnicola) Living on the shore of Ojo river, Lagos, Nigeria. Sci. Revs. Chem. Commun.: 1(1), 2011, 1-6. (2011).
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Barrento, Sara, et al. “Chemical composition, cholesterol, fatty acid and amino acid in two populations of brown crab Cancer pagurus: Ecological and human health implications.” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 23.7 (2010): 716-725.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  Sudhakar, M., et al. “Compositional characteristics and nutritional quality of Podopthalmus vigil (Fabricius).” Asian J. Biol. Sci 4.2 (2011): 166-174.
In article      View Article
 
[29]  Marques, António, et al. “Chemical composition of Atlantic spider crab Maja brachydactyla: Human health implications.” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 23.3 (2010): 230-237.
In article      View Article
 

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Cite this article:

Normal Style
Foysal Kabir Tareq, Mst. Fayzunnesa, Md. Shahariar Kabir, Musrat Nuzat. Chemical Composition, Amino Acid, Fatty Acid and Mineral in Callappa Lophos: Ecological and Human Health Implications. American Journal of Food and Nutrition. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2017, pp 77-82. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajfn/5/2/5
MLA Style
Tareq, Foysal Kabir, et al. "Chemical Composition, Amino Acid, Fatty Acid and Mineral in Callappa Lophos: Ecological and Human Health Implications." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 5.2 (2017): 77-82.
APA Style
Tareq, F. K. , Fayzunnesa, M. , Kabir, M. S. , & Nuzat, M. (2017). Chemical Composition, Amino Acid, Fatty Acid and Mineral in Callappa Lophos: Ecological and Human Health Implications. American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 5(2), 77-82.
Chicago Style
Tareq, Foysal Kabir, Mst. Fayzunnesa, Md. Shahariar Kabir, and Musrat Nuzat. "Chemical Composition, Amino Acid, Fatty Acid and Mineral in Callappa Lophos: Ecological and Human Health Implications." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 5, no. 2 (2017): 77-82.
Share
[1]  Kris-Etherton, Penny M., William S. Harris, and Lawrence J. Appel. “Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease.” circulation 106.21 (2002): 2747-2757.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Naeemi, Esmaeel D., et al. “Rapid and simple method for determination of cholesterol in processed food.” Journal of AoAC international 78.6 (1994): 1522-1525.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  WHO, 2003. Food based dietary guidelines in the World Health Organization European Region. Report EUR/03/5045414. Available at http://www.who.org. Accessed on the 18th of February 2009.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Gökoðlu, Nalan, and Pýnar Yerlikaya. “Determinaton of proximate composition and mineral contents of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and swim crab (Portunus pelagicus) caught off the Gulf of Antalya.” Food Chemistry 80.4 (2003): 495-498.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Küçükgülmez, Aygül, et al. “Proximate composition and mineral contents of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) breast meat, claw meat and hepatopancreas.” International journal of food science & technology 41.9 (2006): 1023-1026.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Adeyeye, E. I. “Determination of the chemical composition of the nutritionally valuable parts of male and female common West African fresh water crab Sudananautes africanus africanus.” International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 53.3 (2002): 189-196.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[7]  Skonberg, Denise I., and Brian L. Perkins. “Nutrient composition of green crab (Carcinus maenus) leg meat and claw meat.” Food Chemistry 77.4 (2002): 401-404.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Catacutan, Mae R. “Growth and body composition of juvenile mud crab, Scylla serrate, fed different dietary protein and lipid levels and protein to energy ratios.” Aquaculture, 208.1 (2002): 113-123.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Gökoðlu, Nalan, and Pýnar Yerlikaya. “Determinaton of proximate composition and mineral contents of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and swim crab (Portunus pelagicus) caught off the Gulf of Antalya.” Food Chemistry 80.4 (2003): 495-498.
In article      View Article
 
[10]  Çelik, Mehmet, et al. “Fatty acid composition of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896) in the north eastern Mediterranean.” Food Chemistry 88.2 (2004): 271-273.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Naczk, Marian, et al. “Compositional characteristics of green crab (Carcinus maenas).” Food Chemistry 88.3 (2004): 429-434.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  FAO/WHO/UNU, Energy and protein requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation, World Health Organization Technical Report Series 724, WHO, Geneva (1985):121–123.
In article      
 
[13]  Shoda, Ryosuke, et al. “Epidemiologic analysis of Crohn disease in Japan: increased dietary intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and animal protein relates to the increased incidence of Crohn disease in Japan.” The American journal of clinical nutrition 63.5 (1996): 741-745.
In article      PubMed
 
[14]  Gil, A. “Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory diseases.” Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 56.8 (2002): 388-396.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  FAO/WHO, Fats and oils in human nutrition. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation, 19-26 October 1993, Rome, (1994):168
In article      
 
[16]  Harper, Charles R., and Terry A. Jacobson. “Usefulness of omega-3 fatty acids and the prevention of coronary heart disease.” The American journal of cardiology 96.11 (2005): 1521-1529.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[17]  Roynette, Catherine E., et al. “n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and colon cancer prevention.” Clinical nutrition 23.2 (2004): 139-151.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[18]  Martı́nez-Valverde, Isabel, et al. “The content and nutritional significance of minerals on fish flesh in the presence and absence of bone.” Food Chemistry 71.4 (2000): 503-509.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Erkan, Nuray, and Özkan Özden. “Proximate composition and mineral contents in aqua cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), sea bream (Sparus aurata) analyzed by ICP-MS.” Food Chemistry 102.3 (2007): 721-725.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  Council, Nath Res. “Recommended dietary allowances.” Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council. Washington: National Academic (1989).
In article      
 
[21]  Adeyeye, Emmanuel I., John O. Olanlokun, and Tosin O. Falodun. “Proximate and mineral composition of whole body, flesh and exoskeleton of male and female common West African fresh water crab Sudananautes africanus africanus.” Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences 60.3 (2010).
In article      View Article
 
[22]  Jimmy, Udo Paul, and Vivian Nneka Arazu. “The Proximate and Mineral Composition of Two Edible Crabs Caflinectes amnicola and Uca tangeri (Crustecea: Decapoda) of The Cross River, Nigeria.” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 11.1 (2012): 78-82.
In article      View Article
 
[23]  Wu, Xugan, et al. “Comparison of gender differences in biochemical composition and nutritional value of various edible parts of the blue swimmer crab.” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 23.2 (2010): 154-159.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  E Eddy, S.P. Meyers and J.S. Godber, Minced meat crab cake from blue crab processing by products development and sensory evaluation. J. Food Sci., 58: 99-103. 2004.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  FAO (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization), Nutritional elements of fish FAO, Rome. 2005.
In article      
 
[26]  B.A Moronkola, R.A. Olowu, O.O. Tovide and O.O. Ayejuyo, Determination OF Proximate and mineral contents of crab (Callinectes amnicola) Living on the shore of Ojo river, Lagos, Nigeria. Sci. Revs. Chem. Commun.: 1(1), 2011, 1-6. (2011).
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Barrento, Sara, et al. “Chemical composition, cholesterol, fatty acid and amino acid in two populations of brown crab Cancer pagurus: Ecological and human health implications.” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 23.7 (2010): 716-725.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  Sudhakar, M., et al. “Compositional characteristics and nutritional quality of Podopthalmus vigil (Fabricius).” Asian J. Biol. Sci 4.2 (2011): 166-174.
In article      View Article
 
[29]  Marques, António, et al. “Chemical composition of Atlantic spider crab Maja brachydactyla: Human health implications.” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 23.3 (2010): 230-237.
In article      View Article