Nutritional Assessment of Three Commonly Consumed Bangladeshi Fish Species, L. rohita, H. molitri...

M.M.H. Khan, M. Manirujjaman, M. Rahman, A. M. M. Uddin, S.R. Kabir, M.A. Zubair, M.H. Rahman, S. Biswas, M. A. Islam

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Nutritional Assessment of Three Commonly Consumed Bangladeshi Fish Species, L. rohita, H. molitrix and P. hypophthalmus from Wild and Farmed Sources

M.M.H. Khan1, M. Manirujjaman1, 2, M. Rahman1, A. M. M. Uddin1, S.R. Kabir1, M.A. Zubair3, M.H. Rahman4, S. Biswas1, M. A. Islam1,

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

2Department of Biochemistry, Gonoshasthaya Samaj Vittik Medical College and Hospital, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

3Department of Food Technology and Nutritional Science, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Santosh, Tangail

4Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kustia, Bangladesh

Abstract

Consumption of fish provides significant contribution to nutrition. Due to economic distress Bangladeshi people especially children are badly affected by malnutrition. In order to get rid of this devastating problem, we need to make an effective plan to combat against malnutrition. For the assessment of different nutritional parameters the selected fish species were collected from different natural and fish farming ponds. The nutrient compositions were quantified by using different well established convenient methods. Our present work showed that fishes were rich sources of various types of nutrients. From the study it was found that farmed L.rohita was an important source of ash and thus the source of minerals. Total protein content of this species was higher than the other selected species and it was followed by H.moltrix farmed species. The highest quantity of total lipid was observed in P. hypophthalmus species. Vitamin B content of L. rohita species was also higher than the other species. Therefore it could be suggested that consumption of these fish species might reduce the extent of malnutrition.

Cite this article:

  • Khan, M.M.H., et al. "Nutritional Assessment of Three Commonly Consumed Bangladeshi Fish Species, L. rohita, H. molitrix and P. hypophthalmus from Wild and Farmed Sources." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 2.2 (2014): 23-27.
  • Khan, M. , Manirujjaman, M. , Rahman, M. , Uddin, A. M. M. , Kabir, S. , Zubair, M. , Rahman, M. , Biswas, S. , & Islam, M. A. (2014). Nutritional Assessment of Three Commonly Consumed Bangladeshi Fish Species, L. rohita, H. molitrix and P. hypophthalmus from Wild and Farmed Sources. American Journal of Food and Nutrition, 2(2), 23-27.
  • Khan, M.M.H., M. Manirujjaman, M. Rahman, A. M. M. Uddin, S.R. Kabir, M.A. Zubair, M.H. Rahman, S. Biswas, and M. A. Islam. "Nutritional Assessment of Three Commonly Consumed Bangladeshi Fish Species, L. rohita, H. molitrix and P. hypophthalmus from Wild and Farmed Sources." American Journal of Food and Nutrition 2, no. 2 (2014): 23-27.

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1. Introduction

The importance of fish as a rich source of animal protein is well established and this is frequently used to justify fish as a valuable food, whereas very little attention has been given to the role of fish in supplying vitamin A and minerals in the die [1]. The contribution of fish to human nutrition and its impact on health have been examined from different aspects in both developed and developing countries. In developed countries, researchers and consumers have been interested in the health benefits of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which lower blood pressure, reduce the risk of heart disease, and possibly benefit of infant growth and cognitive development [2, 3]. From the last national survey in rural Bangladesh, the mean total protein intake was 48 g/person/d, of which fish contributed 3g [4]. The value of fish in the Bangladeshi diet should not focus on the contribution made to protein, because protein recommendations in the typical diet are met provided that the energy recommendations are met [5]. In humans, the fractional calcium absorption is found to be 24 ± 6% from small fish and 22 ± 6% from milk [6]. Fish oil is derived from the tissues of oily fish. Fish and fish oils contain long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, more specifically, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [7]. The two omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) which the body converts into docosahexanoic acid (DHA), found in fish oil, have been found to elicit antidepressant effects in human. Many of the proposed mechanisms of this conversion involve neurotransmitters [8]. Thiamine plays a central role in the generation of energy from carbohydrates. It is involved in RNA and DNA production, as well as nerve function. Its active form is a coenzyme called Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), which takes part in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl Coenzyme A (CoA) in metabolism [9]. Riboflavin is involved in the energy production for the electron transport chain, the citric acid cycle, as well as the catabolism of fatty acids (beta oxidation) [10]. Fish oil is known to protect from many types of cancers of the colon, liver, breast, prostate and lung. Emerging evidences from epidemiological and experimental studies indicate a relationship between dietary fat and the risk of cancer [11, 12, 13, 14]. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional status of these commonly consumed fish species.

2.Materials and Methods

2.1. Sample Collection

L. rohita, H. molitrix and P. hypophthalmus were collected from two selected ponds which were under the supervision of the Department of Fisheries, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh. The wild species are collected from various places of Bangladesh such as Cholon Bil (Natore), Padma river (Goalonda ghat, Rajbari) and Jomuna river (Sirajgonj ghat, Sirajgonj) in rainy season due to their availability. After collection, the samples were processed and stored in deep refrigerator. Only the flesh of fish was used for different experimental purposes. Sun dried samples were preferred for experiments.

2.2. Assessment of Nutritional Parameters

The nutritional parameters were determined by using different well established convenient methods. Moisture content was determined by the conventional procedure [15]. Ash content was determined by the following method of A.O.A.C [16]. The sugar content of each selected fishes were determined calorimetrically by the anthrone method [17]. Extractions of sugar from selected fishes were done by the following method as described by Loomis [18]. The qunatification of reducing sugar of the fish species was done by dinitrisalicylic acid [19]. Nonreducing sugar content was determined by the following formula: Percent of sucrose or non reducing sugar = (%Total sugar -% reducing sugar×0.95 [20]. The amount of total protein of each selected fishes were determined by the micro-kjeldahl method [21]. Lowry et. al. [22] method was used to measure water soluble protein. Lipid content of the selected fishes was determined by the method of Bligh and Dyer [23]. For the estimation of minerals, organic matter was digested by nitric acid. The released minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer [24].

3. Results and Discussion

Consumption of fish provides important nutrients to a large number of people worldwide and thus makes important contribution to nutrition. Fish makes a vital contribution to the survival and health of a significant portion of the world’s population. Malnutrition is a great obstacle to build up a strong nation. Like others Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world. Farmed fishes are provided with sufficient amount of food, so their growth rate is higher than the wild fish species. Hence the nutritional status of the farmed fishes is also different from the wild varieties [25]. The wild L. rohita, H. molitrix and P. hypophthalmus were found to contain 1.260%, 1.452% and 1.105% ash respectively. On the other hand the farmed fishes were found to contain 2.520%, 1.785% and 1.766% respectively. The data indicated that the ash content of farmed species were higher than wild species. Specially farmed L.rohita contained highest amount of ash. These values were lower than the value 4.62% of Teramnus nlabialis seed totally [26]. Total soluble sugar content of the selected wild and farmed fish species was presented in Table 2. It was observed that the total soluble sugar content in farmed H. molitrix was higher than in the wild one. But the wild P. hypophthalmus and L.rohita contained higher amount of sugar than farmed specie. Total soluble sugar presented in all these species were lower than the value of 1.9g% for brazil nut [27]. Reducing sugar is another kind of carbohydrate. The data of reducing sugar for all three fish species obtained from the experiments were cited in the Table 2. The data showed that the values of reducing sugar of fishes were ranging from 0.028% to 0.054% for wild and 0.021% to 0.062% for farmed fishes. Reducing sugar for farmed L. rohita, was lower than wild species. But the farmed H. molitrix and P. hypophthalmus were found to contain higher quantity of reducing sugar than their respective wild species. The changes in reducing sugar might be due to enzymatic conversion of some non-reducing sugars to reducing sugar [28]. The moisture contents of wild and farmed selected fishes were tabulated in Table 1. It was found that the moisture contents in wild species of selected fishes varied from 74.25% to 76.53% in wild and in the farmed fish from 72.60% to 77.52%. Average moisture content in wild fishes was higher than that of the farmed ones. The study indicated that the selected fish species were good sources of moisture. These values were lower than a previous research work [29]. Glycogen is a storage carbohydrate in animal body. Glycogen serves as reserve nutrient. Glycogen content of all selected wild and farmed fish species were determined and the data were presented in Table 2. From the table it was found that the quantity of glycogen presented in wild was higher than the farmed fishes. Our present study showed that the glycogen content of the selected species was higher than a previous study [25].The observations indicated that variations in glycogen content in test fishes were linked to their habitat and nutritive values [30]. The results in Table 3 showed that all the fish species were good sources of protein. The quantity of water soluble protein was higher in L.rohita and H.moltrix farmed species but wild P. hypophthalmus showed variation in this regard. The results showed that the total protein content of all of the farmed species was higher than the wild ones. The relatively high to moderate percentage crude protein may be attributed to the fact that fishes are good source of pure protein, but the differences observed in the obtained values could also be as a result of absorption capability and conversion potentials of essential nutrients from their diets or their local environment into such biochemical attributes needed by the organisms body [31, 32]. The total protein content of L.rohita farmed species showed similarity to a previous study but the content in other species was lower [33]. It was also observed that the total lipid contents of farmed L. rohita, H. molitrix, and P. hypophthalmus were 32.19%, 20.89% and 14.49% higher than wild species respectively. The amount of iron, calcium, potassium, Manganese, Phosphorus, Zinc and Arsenic present in wild and farmed fishes were shown in Table 4. As shown in the Table 4, the iron content of the fish samples were ranged from 0.119mg/kg to 0.414 mg/kg in farmed and 0.117mg/kg to 0.365mg/kg in wild species. From the Table 4, the calcium content of the fish samples were ranged from 0.096 to 0.142 mg/kg in farmed and 0.093 to 0.131 mg/kg in wild species. The amount of calcium present in farmed L. rohita, H. molitrix, and P. hypophthalmus were increased by 8.40%, 4.12% and 3.22% respectively compared to wild species, where L. rohita had the highest Ca content. Potassium helps to regulate body fluids and mineral balance in and out of cells. As illustrated in Table 4, the potassium content of the fish samples were ranged from 0.043 to 0.101 mg/kg in farmed and 0.042 to 0.095 mg/kg in wild species. The amount of potassium in farmed L. rohita, H. molitrix, and P. hypophthalmus were increased by 6.32%, 6.52% and 2.38% respectively compared to wild species. As cited in Table 4, the amount of manganese present in farmed L. rohita, H. molitrix, and P. hypophthalmus were found 1.96%, 3.03%, and 2.17% higher than their corresponding wild species. Phosphorus is essential for acid base regulation, bone and teeth formation. The amount of phosphorus presented in experimental fishes was showed in Table 4. The phosphorus content in farmed L. rohita, were found to be increased by 3.54%, where farmed H. molitrix were decreased by 1.89%. No changes of phosphorus content were found in P. hypophthalmus. The amounts of zinc in experimental fishes were presented in Table 4. The zinc contents were found to be ranged from 0.031 to 0.049 mg/kg in farmed and 0.032 to 0.047 mg/kg in wild species. The result showed that the zinc contents in farmed L. rohita was found to be higher but H. molitrix wild species showed exception. No change was observed in both P. hypophthalmus species. Fatty fish and fish products are quite good sources of calcium, especially when eaten with the bones intact like sardines which contain 420 mg/100 g [34, 35]. The skeletal effects of calcium are well known but calcium may also protect against cardiovascular diseases by lowering blood pressure [35, 36]. Specifically, potassium has been noted to reduce both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in people with normal and high blood pressure [37, 38]. Calcium, Potassium, Manganese, Phosphorus, Zinc and Arsenic were measured in the selected fish species and these values were lower than a previous study but the Iron content was higher and the quantity of arsenic was consonant to the same study [39]. Arsenic has been reported to be associated with multi-site cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, dermatitis, immunotoxicity, lymphoproliferative disorders, peripheral neuropathy and many other complications [40, 41, 42]. The B1 contents were ranged from 0.235 ± 0.040 to 0.372 ± 0.031 mg% in farmed and 0.243 ± 0.063 to 0.317 ± 0.047mg% in wild species having the highest content in L. rohita and lowest in P. hypophthalmus. As shown in the table, vitamin B1 contents were higher in farmed L. rohita and H. molitrix respectively compared to their corresponding wild species. No significant changes of vitamin B1 content was higher in farmed L. rohita and H. molitrix respectively compared to their corresponding wild species. Vitamin B2, a crystalline pigment, is the principal growth-promoting factor of the vitamin B complex. The B2 contents were found to be ranged from 1.075 to 2.657 mg% in farmed and 0.969 to 2.403 mg% in wild species. From the table, vitamin B2 content was increased by 10.57%, 5.8% and 7.64% in farmed L. rohita, H. molitrix and P. hypophthalmus respectively as compared to their corresponding wild species. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) deficiency results in the condition of hypo- or ariboflavinosis, with sore throat; hyperaemia; oedema of the pharyngeal and oral mucous membranes; cheilosis; angular stomatitis; glossitis; seborrheic dermatitis; and normochromic, normocytic anaemia associated with pure red cell cytoplasia of the bone marrow [43, 44].

Table 1. Moisture and Ash contents of selected fishes (gm %)

Table 2. Sugar content of selected fishes (gm %)

Table 3. Protein and lipid contents of selected fishes (gm %)

Table 4. Amount of mineral content in selected fishes (mg/Kg)

Table 5. Vitamin B1 and B2 contents of selected fishes (mg %)

4. Conclusion

Our experiment showed that the selected fish species were good sources of moisture and other nutrients. Highest quantity of total lipid was found in farmed P. hypophthalmus species. Vitamin B1 content was highest in H.moltrix farmed species but highest amount of vitaminB2 was present in L.rohita farmed species. The quantity of total protein was also highest in L.rohita farmed species. Estimated mineral content was also highest in this species.

Competing Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this article.

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