## Figures index

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#### Linde-Hampson Anti-Machine: Self-heated Compressed Van-Der-Waals Gas as an Energy Carrier for Pneumatic Vehicles

*American Journal of Energy Research*.

**2013**, 1(3), 59-67 doi:10.12691/ajer-1-3-4

**Fig****ure****1**. (Color online) The Van der Waals model.**(a)**Iso-density lines for the classic van der Waals gas: 10, 20, 30… 710 kg/m^{3}-labelled at right and upper axes, A, B, B’, C, chosen special points on the PT plane: A(1,300), B(96.3, 1400), B’(300, 1380), C(700, 300); 1, classic Joule-Thomson inversion curve (K = 8/3) , 2, Joule-Thomson inversion curve at K = 3.42 (air), 3, approximate Joule-Thomson inversion curve built by , Ĉ, critical point, S, triple point, SS’, line of solid-liquid equilibrium, ĈS, line of vapour-liquid equilibrium; dark gray rectangular, two-phase unstable zone; bold line connecting point C and the unstable zone corresponds to isochoric heating of liquid air.**(b)**Calculated P-T diagram for internal energy of compressed air. Parameter*K**=**3.42*; isoenergetic curves:*U*_{s}*=**0.05·(s-1), s**=**1, 2**.15, max{U}<1.1*MJ/kg;*U*_{A}*=**0.217*MJ/kg,*U*_{B}*=**1.011*MJ/kg, special energy of prepared fuel at the initial point of adiabatic expansion,*U*_{B’}*=**0.989*MJ/kg, special energy of preliminary prepared fuel,*U*_{C}*=**0.148*MJ/kg, special energy of fuel in tank*.*

**Fig****ure****2.**(Color online) Calculated air enthalpy P-T diagram. Isenthalpic curves: H = 0.95·s MJ/kg, s = 1,2…16; A, B, B’, C, chosen special points (Figure 1); a, Joule-Thomson inversion curve at K = 3.42, b, approximate Joule-Thomson inversion curve built by (Figure 1, curves 2, 3); lines c and d note the Joule-Thomson process possible pressure limits 300bar and 700 bar

**Fig****ure****3.**(Color online) Calculated specific energy and density of the van-der-Waals model of air at K = 3.42. 1, isothermal compression work (P_{A}= 1bar) vs final pressure P_{C}(left axis). 2, fuel density measured in g/cm^{3}(right axis)

**Fig****ure****4.**(Color online) Calculated surface of specific work W depended on the adiabatic process limit temperatures T_{A}, T_{B}. The transverse dotted lines s = 1, 2…7 correspond to energies W_{s}= 0.1·s MJ/kg; K = 8/3

**Fig****ure****5.**(Color online) (a) Approximate design of the Linde-Hampson anti-machine:1, heat exchanger: inletting cold high pressure gas, 2, throttling device and ambient hot low pressure gas. The fuel intake point, C(PC, TC), heated fuel point, B’(PB’, TB’), PC, pressure of the input loop, PB’ , pressure of outlet loop. (b) Calculated by (6) final (t>>τ) temperature distribution curves T(t, x), Ѳ(t, x): initial, 1, 2 and final, 1’, 2’(cut at T = 1500 K). PC = 700 bar, TC = 300 K, PB’ = 300 bar, TB’ = 1134 K, Tmax(x = 0) = 1937 K, α = 150 W/m2·K, L = 1.6 m, τ = 22.4 s, δTH = TC’- TB’ = 16.13 K’

**Fig****ure****6.**(Color online) Calculated by (13) the intake temperature Ѳ_{L}= Ѳ(L, ∞) dependence in the P_{C}-P_{B’}plane. K = 3.42, α = 150 W/m^{2}·K, L = 1.6 m, surface is cut at Ѳ_{L}= 2500 K; light gray (green online) band corresponds to 800 K< Ѳ_{L }<1200 K.

**F****ig****ure****7.**(Color online) Six cycles of pressure in a pneumo-vehicle.**1**, liquid air in tank;**2**, servicing pneumo-system;**3**, heat exchanger’s output pressure cycle;**4**, heat exchanger’s input pressure cycle;**5**, pre-injection pressure cycle; 6, fuel heating isochoric cycle

**Fig****ure****8.**(Color online) A concept of oxygen depleted air circulation: Industry-Fuel Station-Vehicle-Atmosphere.