Open Access Peer-reviewed

Vaccinations of Slaughtered Horses in Finland

HI Koskinen
Department of Veterinary Biosciences Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland
American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease. 2013, 1(3), 20-23. DOI: 10.12691/ajeid-1-3-1
Published online: August 25, 2017


The purpose of this study was to study the vaccination status of slaughtered horses in Finland. Database of slaughtered horses from Hippos (The Finnish Trotting and Breeding Association) was analyzed and some statistics were calculated. Slaughtered horses (n = 1863) were divided into groups of vaccinated and unvaccinated and, further, into subgroups of regularly and irregularly vaccinated. Age and sex distribution of each group was defined. Differences between these groups defined by vaccination status, age and sex were calculated by χ²- test and t-test. The principal results showed a majority of unvaccinated horses (n = 1030, 55 %), but when vaccinated they were mostly vaccinated according to the recommendations (n = 697, 84 %). Combination of equine influenza and tetanus was mostly favored and all horses were vaccinated against equine influenza. The age of a horse was a critical factor in determining vaccination routines. In conclusion, the nonchalance of some horse owners and the susceptible nature of the horse population in Finland were suspected. A further research project with a vaccination register from competition organizers as well as the disease status among well vaccinated horses was suggested.


equine influenza, slaughtered horse, tetanus, vaccination, vaccine
[1]  British Equine Veterinary Association. 2009. 22.5.2013.
[2]  American Association of Equine Practitioners. 2012. 25.5.2013.
[3]  Estola, T., and Neuvonen, E.,“Experience of the efficacy of equine influenza vaccinations,” Nordic Veterinary Medicine, 28 (7-8). 353-356. Jul-Aug.1976. PubMed
[4]  American Association of Equine Practitioners. 2012. 25.7.2013.
[5]  OIE. Equine influenza. 27.3.2013.
[6]  The Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, “Eläintaudit Suomessa 2011. (Animal Diseases in Finland 2011).” 23.3.2013.
[7]  Fédération Equestre Internationale, “General Regulations”, in 23rd edition 2009 updated 2013. Switzerland: Fédération Equestre Internationale.
[8]  Suomen Hippos (The Finnish Trotting and Breeding Association). 23.3.2013.
[9]  Leskinen, S., “Equine vaccination, a paper mess waiting to get solved. Could ICT be the answer?” 23rd Bled eConference eTrust: Implications for the individual, enterprises and society. June 20-23, 2010, Bled, Slovania.$FILE/10_Leskinen.pdf. 22.3.2013
[10]  Garner, M.G., Cowled, B., East, I.J., Moloney, B.J., and Kung, NY., “ Evaluating the effectiveness of early vaccination in the control and eradication of equine influenza – A modeling approach,” Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 99 (1). 15-27. April. 2011.
[11]  Heldens, J.G.M., Pouwells, H.G.W., Derks, C.G.G., Van de Zande, S.M.A., and Hoeijmakers, M.J.H., “Duration of immunity induced by an equine influenza and tetanus combination vaccine formulation adjuvanted with ISCOM-Matrix,” Vaccine, 28 (43). 6989-6996. October. 2010.
[12]  Mumford, J.A., “Biology, epidemiology and vaccinology of equine influenza,” in Proceedings of the international symposium Quality control of equine influenza vaccines, Budapest, Hungary, 10-11. December, 2001, Council of Europe, 7-12.
[13]  Daly, J.M., Yates, P.J., Newton, J.R., Park, A., Henley, W., Wood, J., Davis-Poynter, N., and Mumford, J., “Evidence supporting the inclusion of strains from each of the two co-circulating lineages of H3N8 equine influenza virus in vaccines,” Vaccine, 22 (29-30). 4101-4109. September. 2004.
[14]  Lunn, D.P., Davis-Poynter, N., Flaminio, M., Horohov, D.W., Osterrieder, K., Pusterla, N., and Townsend, H., ”Equine herpesvirus-1 Consensus Statement,” Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 23 (3). 450-461. May/June. 2009.
[15]  Suomen Hippos (The Finnish Trotting and Breeding Association). 23.3.2013.
[16]  Goodman, L.B., Wagner, B., Flaminio, M., Sussman, K.H., Metzger, S.M., Holland, R., and Osterrieder, N., ”Comparison of the efficacy of inactivated combination and modified-live virus vaccines against challenge infection with neuropathogenic equine herpesvirus type 1 (ENV-1),” Vaccine, 24 (17). 3636-3645. April. 2006.
[17]  Foote, C.E., Love, D.N., Gilkerson, G.R., Wellington, J.E., and Whalley, J.M., “EHV-1 and EHV-4 infection in vaccinated mares and their foals,” Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 111 (1-2). 41-46. May. 2006.