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Open Access Peer-reviewed

Inspiration from Nature: Biomimicry as a Paradigm for Architectural and Environmental Design

Osama Nasir, Mohammad Arif Kamal
American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2022, 10(3), 126-136. DOI: 10.12691/ajcea-10-3-3
Received July 28, 2022; Revised September 05, 2022; Accepted September 14, 2022

Abstract

Nature serves as a compass for all the sciences. Nature was and continues to be the first teacher for humanity. A certain area of study advances through observing and copying nature. This area of research, known as biomimicry, can be characterized as the imitation of organic biological processes. Just like scientists and designers, architects can find inspiration in nature. Like many other professions, the realm of architectural design holds that behavior resembles nature. For instance, it is used as a source of inspiration for architectural designs, building materials, and aesthetic and environmental systems. To draw conclusions and develop solutions from nature to all fields of science and architecture, there are not enough investigations. A new field of study known as Biomimicry has emerged, and it is an innovation strategy that seeks sustainable solutions by modeling nature's time-tested patterns. In this context, the research paper discusses biomimicry, a recent development in the field of architecture, the idea of nature as inspiration; the concept of biomimicry, its levels, its application to architecture, and how to think about design and nature in the context of architectural sustainability.

1. Introduction

Energy offers "necessary services" for human life, such as heat for warmth, cooking, and manufacturing, or power for transportation and mechanical activity, so concerns about a reliable energy future are only normal. The inefficient design of buildings is currently wasting a significant quantity of primary energy globally in the twenty-first century. Additionally to the operation of the machinery utilized to transform energy into the necessary services. As a result, there has been an encouraging rise in awareness of energy efficiency and conservation, which has compelled the investigation and use of a range of design methods and solutions to address energy issues. One of these strategies is called "biomimicry," which is an innovation strategy that uses the study of natural designs, systems, and processes to solve human problems as its source of inspiration. We can learn from nature about systems, components, methods, architectures, and aesthetics. By looking at how nature resolves issues that we now face, we can extract and explore solutions that are appropriate and new approaches for our constructed surroundings.

Many efforts are made to attain sustainability through innovative designs and concepts, the use of clever materials, and energy-saving practices. There have been numerous attempts to create international sustainability standards, however not all have resulted in really sustainable architecture practices. On the path to finding a solution to the problems facing the globe and determining the best approaches to make building designs integrate with the ecosystem rather than acting as an outsider that contributes to environmental imbalance, The research demands that ecosystems and species be simulated that will function sustainably throughout time and in harmony with the environment. It also addresses the most recent and effective ways to do this. A solution to the issues affecting our environment is provided by biomimicry. Because of its potential to produce a more regenerative built environment, biomimicry serves as a source of inspiration for prospective new innovations.

The studies suggest that using nature's tried-and-true principles and techniques; architecture design should incorporate a biomimicry phase into its design process and "biologize" its design issues. The Biomimicry Institute defines “biologize” as a biomimetic approach used to evaluate design criteria 1. The goal of this strategy is to "copy form, process, and ecosystem at all levels of design" by "modelling, mentoring, and measuring" nature 1, 2. "Doing it nature's way" 3 potentially have an impact on how design problems are resolved with sustainable solutions because nature has already provided solutions to many of the issues that designers are currently facing.

The process of biomimicry has not been properly incorporated into standard practice by the experts in the field. Only a few people in the industry have suggested the biomimetic approach as an alternative way. The number of biological discoveries is increasing exponentially, and designers ought to use these cutting-edge solutions. Since nature is all around us, designers who take the time to "biologize" 1 and learn about how ecosystems function will be inspired and better equipped to develop interior spaces that mimic nature.

The field of architecture has successfully blended architectural principles and biomimicry to create remarkable environments. This research examines case studies for the same. Also the principles of biomimicry as a strategy for sustainable and effective design are covered in the paper that follows the Design Process which Nature and Architects use to solve the problems. This study's goal is to offer recommendations for using biomimicry principles in building design concepts and energy management procedures.

2. Nature as Inspiration

The most significant source of inspiration and innovation for architects is nature.

There is no denying that the natural world serves as the most creative architect's primary source of inspiration. No matter how beautiful the adaptability between ecosystems and creatures is or the limitless formations. Modern research suggests that some architects get inspiration for their designs from the natural world. Frank Lloyd Wright is one such architect who did this by studying natural laws and the surroundings. He was able to comprehend how to extract structural configuration of structures from the environment. As an illustration, Frank Lloyd Wright designed the interior pillars for Johnson Wax's administrative offices in Racine, Wisconsin, USA, between 1936 and 1939, using the mushroom's structural principles 4. The spiral ramp of the Guggenheim Museum was inspired by seashells in 1943.

Wright took inspiration from mushrooms for the design of a column expansive header (Figure 1).

The "Wright" from the shell was inspired by the upward spiral ramp design (Figure 2).

3. Biomimicry: The Study Context

Both biomimicry and biomimetic are emerging sciences that study natural materials with the goal of creating human-centered solutions by copying or drawing inspiration from them. The biomimicry idea covered in this paper is a new field of work that chooses natural laws and develops materials and procedures in accordance with laws that have preserved life for 3.8 billion years. In a nutshell, "the invention that gets inspired by nature" is what biomimicry is.

The idea of biomimicry was first proposed by Montanan writer and science enthusiast Janine M. Benyus. Benyus believed that the examples seen in nature should be imitated after reflecting on the marvels he had witnessed.

The mechanisms and patterns in nature that inspire appreciation have the potential to advance or improve many technological fields. This potential is becoming more and clearer every day as a result of the growth of human knowledge and the advancement of technology. After Janine M. Benyus treated the idea of biomimicry as a science, his colleagues and individuals with a keen interest in the subject helped to broaden its application. The field that particularly interested scientists and designers started to be actively practiced. Consequently, biomimicry emerged as a technique that produced fruitful outcomes and was adopted by a variety of professions 5.

Both biomimetic and biomimicry strive to find solutions to issues by first analyzing, then copying, or taking inspiration from natural models.

3.1. Biomimetic

The term "biomimetic" refers to the materials, tools, systems, and other devices utilized by people to mimic natural patterns and designs.

3.2. Biomimicry

A solar cell that was inspired by a leaf is an example of how biomimicry, an innovation technique, seeks out sustainable solutions by copying nature's time-tested patterns and tactics. Since Janine Benyus, a biological science writer, gave the innovative concept a name and a purpose, biomimicry has gained popularity as a way to lessen human impact on the environment 6. The aim is to develop new products, processes, and policies—new ways of living—that are well-adapted to life on earth over the long term.

"Nature is my mentor for business and design, a model for the way of life. Nature's system has worked for millions of years... Biomimicry is a way of learning from nature." 7.

4. Levels of Biomimicry

When a design issue arises, there are three basic stages of biomimicry that can be used: mimicking an ecosystem, taking inspiration from nature for the creation, and mimicking an organism's behavior. Form, process, and ecosystem are a few of these 8. In the first level, an individual organism, such as a plant or animal, is mimicked in whole or in part. The second level of behavior mimicry may involve translating a specific component of an organism's behavior or how it pertains to a wider environment. The third stage involves imitating entire ecosystems and the universal ideas that underlie their successful operation. Nature can provide a solution by evaluating the organism or ecosystem, shape, and process. It is crucial to identify the component of biology that is mimicked for this application 9. It is referred to as levels. Figure 3 shows the different levels of biomimicry.

5. Approaches for Biomimicry

By employing natural phenomena as a source of design inspiration to stably address human problems, biomimicry brings our contemporary ideology closer to the natural world. Biomimicry aims to take Mother Nature as a model, a yardstick, and a mentor in order to connect the built environment to the natural world. This strategy is justified by the idea that "the more our world resembles this natural world in appearance and operation, the more likely it is that others will accept us on this home that is ours, but not solely ours 10".

As a design methodology, biomimicry approaches often fall into two categories: Design looking to biology refers to the process of defining a human need or design challenge and exploring how other organisms or ecosystems address it. Design influencing biology refers to the process of identifying a specific characteristic, behavior, or function in an organism or ecosystem and incorporating it into human designs 11.

5.1. Design Looking to Biology

When using this strategy, designers must first define the challenges they are trying to solve and then work with biologists to match those problems to organisms that have already found solutions. Design professionals who establish the initial goals and constraints for the design effectively lead this technique.

The Robotic Arm Inspired by the Elephant's Trunk is an illustration of such a strategy (Figure 4). Achieving freedom of movement was one of the biggest challenges faced by scientists while trying to create a robotic arm. A robot's arm must be capable of all the motions needed to complete that specific task in order for it to be of any use. God gave each creature in nature the capacity to move their limbs in a way that satisfies their needs. The elephant can do jobs requiring the greatest care and sensitivity since it can move its trunk in any direction it pleases. The superiority of the elephant trunk's design is amply demonstrated by one robotic arm created in the US at Rice University. The trunk lacks any singular skeleton-like structure, giving it great flexibility and lightness. On the other hand, the robotic arm has a spine. The robotic arm has 32 degrees of freedom spread across 16 links while the elephant's trunk has a degree of motion that allows it to move in any direction. This merely serves to demonstrate that the elephant trunk is a unique structure whose every specific characteristic illuminates the nature of God's immaculate design throughout creation 6.

5.1. Influence of Biology on Design

When biological information affects human design, the collaborative design process initially depends on people being familiar with pertinent biological or ecological research rather than on difficulties with identified human design. An example of such an approach is the constantly self-cleaning lotus. The leaves of the lotus plant, a white water lily, are always clean even though it grows in the muddy, filthy bottom of lakes and ponds. This is so because the plant waves its leaf as soon as even the smallest dust particle touches it, guiding the dust particles to a specific area. Raindrops that land on the leaves are directed to the same location, washing any dirt there with them. Researchers created new house paint as a result of this lotus's characteristic. Researchers started experimenting with how to create paints that wash clean in the rain, much like lotus leaves do. Following this experiment, the German company ISPO created the Lotusan brand of interior paint (Figure 5). The product also came with a guarantee that it would remain clean for five years without detergents or sandblasting when it was sold in Europe and Asia 16.

6. Applications of Biomimicry

The roots of the term "biomimicry" are "bios" (life) and "mimesis" (to resemble). Similar to that, this idea, which includes the terms "biomimetic," "biomimesis," "biognosis," and "bionic," is used in several disciplines for research and studies to create more advanced technology by taking inspiration from nature. By materializing the "possible solutions and solution potential in nature," and in fact materializing disciplines with an interaction that brings them together, biomimicry-which may be translated as "learning the best opinions of nature by copying them"—started to be seen as a new science. Beyond using nature as a role model, people now use it as a benchmark for comparison and a mentor, learning lessons instead of simply viewing it for experiences. Benyus claims that if this learning process is allowed to continue and expand to other areas, "a biomimetic revolution" will occur in the ensuing years. Similar to Benyus's prediction, the ability to model, analyses, and observe properties like self-healing, silence, stylistic and structural characteristics that guarantee energy conservation, resistance to static and dynamic charge and the necessary durability, and lightness of the forms and materials in nature draw scientists' attention to both animate and inanimate formations 13.

Many industries, including transportation, the auto industry, electronics, and apparel, have used biomimicry. Biomimicry can give new technology improvements and help to advance numerous fields through biological study 14.

6.1. Biomimicry in Architecture

Jencks noted that the last ten years of the 20th century were particularly productive years for architecture for biological engineering under the influence of the biomorphic notion while discussing architectural concepts in his book Architecture 2000 Predictions and Methods 15.

In architecture, biomimicry is used frequently. One such instance dates back to 1851, when James Paxton used his observations of enormous water lilies to create the structural framework of the Crystal Palace. He was also influenced by these lilies in the Stratsbourg lily house. By imitating the biological structure models created by the German scientist Haeckel in the 19th century15, Robert Le Ricolais, a French professor at the University of Pennsylvania, created structural models in the middle of the 20th century. Many designers of the same century, like Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, were influenced by nature. While incorporating organic architecture into his designs, Frank Lloyd Wright avoided using nature as a dominant feature. Figure 6 illustrates how he made use of water as a natural element by depicting falling water. His entire outlook was that nature invites architecture and the other way around. According to Le Corbusier, "the big new word in architecture and planning" is biology 16.

Buildings in the desert heat without cooling systems were created using ant nests as models (Eastgate Binas, Zimbabwe). After examining how the Morpho butterfly's wings respond to light, the clothing industry produced a fabric that does not include chemical pigment (Morphotex). Calatrava's creations at the Art and Science Centre in Valencia and the Milkwaukee Art Museum have shapes like eyes or birds.

These examples of nature-inspired design in architecture demonstrate the use of biomimicry, particularly in terms of form, structure, and texture. The Bahai House of Worship takes its form from the lotus flower, while the Armadillo Concert Hall takes its name from the animal that served as inspiration (Clyde Auditorium) as illustrated in Figure 8.

7. Biomimicry Supporting Architectural and Environmental Design

According to past researches on nature as a source of inspiration and levels of nature imitation, each level of nature imitation can effectively address key architectural and environmental issues. These are demonstrated by the following examples:

7.1. The First Level: Nature as Inspiration for the Design Formation

God gave the natural world a complete look with a wide variety of forms that are successful in withstanding the environment despite various conditions. Many structural systems were influenced by natural formations, as illustrated by the following example, Bird’s Nest Stadium in China (Figure 9). The Bird's Nest Stadium was constructed by the Chinese government and the Swiss firm "Her Zog et De Mevron." Because the iron bars resemble a bird's nest, the stadium was given this name. It was created by modelling bird nests, which are made of organic materials like grass and branches. The Bird's Nest's structure is innovative in terms of structural systems and how loads should be distributed (Figure 10). In order to mimic temperatures, wind speed, and humidity inside the structure of birds' nests and to provide the audience with the opportunity to experience light, the designers of the Bird's Nest used the simulation technique (CFD) 17.

The Achievement of Sustainability through Design:

• The Bird's Nest's uses a simulation to create a sturdy structural system.

• Its distinctive architectural formation, which reaches the aesthetic values. Not to mention that modelling natural lighting and ventilation systems helped to rationalize energy use, which in turn helped to save operating expenses.

• Lowering pollution produced by the structure as a result of rationalizing energy use.

7.2. The Second Level: Mimicry of How an Organism Behaves

There are many species that are subject to the same environmental challenges that people are, yet these organisms work to find solutions to their issues within the constraints of the energy and material resources available, and they continue to do so even as the environmental challenges change. In behavior level biomimicry, the organism's behavior is imitated rather than the creature itself. It could be able to simulate the interactions between different species or groups of animals in some ways. An illustration of process and function in architecture, the CH2 Building in Melbourne, Australia, and Mick Pearce's Eastgate Building in Harare, Zimbabwe, (Figure 11) both use biomimicry at the behavior level. To provide a thermally stable interior environment, both buildings incorporate passive ventilation and temperature control strategies found in termite mounds. Similar to how some termite species would use the closeness of aquifer water as an evaporative cooling mechanism, water that is mined (and cleaned) from the sewers beneath the CH2 Building is used in this way 18.

East Gate was developed by architect Mick Pace, who used negative ventilation technology to simulate termite mounds, regulate temperature, and create a thermally stable atmosphere. In Zimbabwe, termites construct mounds that must be maintained at a precise 87 °F, despite the fact that the ambient temperature varies from 35 °F at night to 104 °F during the day. In order to accomplish this amazing feat, the termites alternately open and close a number of heating and cooling vents located throughout the mound throughout the day. East Gate Building, which was created by the architect Mick Pace Simulator for termite mounds, uses less energy than standard buildings, resulting in a 20 percent reduction in rent.

In an interview, Mick Pearce explains, "I ironically spent a lot of time studying termite nests and the reason for that is that they're really much cleverer than we are at managing the natural environment," (Mick, Principal Design Architect, City of Melbourne, CH2 Design Team, 2004). These enormous mounds that they erect in the wild serve as lungs rather than castles like the ones we construct to impress others. They are designed to grow the organism. The termites are the entire termitery, and they are actually like the blood that is circulating within the organism. In order to breathe, they construct these mounds. They actually permit the transfer of gases and/or air via a membrane that is porous, allowing for the study of gas diffusion (Figure 12). There is a good deal of science that we have developed that may be used in a termitery. 19.

7.3. The Third Level: Ecosystem Level

A benefit of designing at this level of bio-mimicry is that it can be used in conjunction with other levels of bio-mimicry (organism and behavior) in addition to the principles of sustainability. Eco-mimicry has also been used to describe the mimicking of ecosystems in design and uses the term to mean a sustainable.

The following list of ecosystem principles is as follows 20:

• The modern sun is essential to ecosystems.

• Ecosystems prioritize the system as a whole over its individual parts.

• Ecosystems are sensitive to and dependent on regional circumstances.

• Ecosystems have a wide range of parts, connections, and data.

• Ecosystems produce environments that are suitable for prolonged existence.

• Ecosystems change and adapt at various rates and to various degrees.

The team was strongly motivated to pursue solutions that went beyond "sustainable" to "restorative" by the fact that ecosystems are regenerative. The second argument was developed further with a detailed comparison of traditional ecosystems and human-made systems, which produced the disparities. These disparities are shown in Table 2.

This is illustrated by the following example, i.e. California Academy of Sciences Museum Green Roof. Building created by the architect "Renzo Piano," it obtained a "LEED" platinum rating for the project. An undulating green roof that mimics the sloping contours of the surrounding terrain will be one of the museum's standout features. Visitors will have access to a portion of the roof. Opening in 2008, the new Academy facility will have a planetarium, aquarium, and exhibition areas. With the exception of its green roof, the structure is a marvel of institutional green construction, utilizing some of the most advanced energy efficiency techniques, day lighting, potential biofuels, and water reclamation (Figure 13).

The Success of Design in Achieving Sustainability:

• Ice storage system for cooling, Agriculture, It is projected that the roof itself will save about two million gallons of rainwater from becoming storm-water discharge. Without sliding, the inclined plane used a patent known as "biotray".

• Carbon dioxide is converted into oxygen by plants.

• Stations on the roof that track changes in the air's temperature, wind, and precipitation and alert the ventilation system's negative automation system.

8. Biological Materials in Architecture

According to Princeton engineering professor Sigrid Adriaenssens, who studies biomimicry, nature is "lazy and brilliant." Nature excels at converting waste into food, an essential element for maintaining ecosystem balance that architecture has mostly overlooked throughout its history 21. But biology can teach designers about managing resources with extreme efficiency and creating circular economies. A form of "critical regionalism," which holds that architecture should take into account the geography and culture of its surroundings, is also practiced by Nature. For instance, certain parasites have evolved so specifically that they can only coexist with certain hosts 21. Janine Benyus, who became the most well-known proponent of biomimicry after publishing Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature in 1997, started the organization. A tenth of one percent of all creations are still living today, according to Dwyer, when compared to all extinct species. Millions of unsuccessful prototypes led to the development of biological solutions. 13.

8.1. Bio-utilization: Brings Building Materials to Life

What if, though, the parts that designers are employing are genuinely alive? There are two general methods to biomimicry, which is a young science with ill-defined boundaries: simulating biological processes and co-opting living things, often known as bio-utilization 21.

Brick is grown by bioMASON in its North Carolina plant under greenhouse-like, kiln-free circumstances in an effort to lower carbon emissions associated with the production of masonry (Figure 14 and Figure 15). According to founder and CEO Ginger Krieg Dosier, "What we're doing is producing biological cement."

Calcium carbonate may grow and bind the material together with minimal to no carbon emissions thanks to microorganisms that change the pH balance of the surrounding aggregate material during the company's procedure. According to Krieg Dosier, "it's analogous to what microorganisms do [to create] coral reefs." Additionally, bioMASON bricks are comparable in price to conventional bricks but are significantly more environmentally friendly 21.

9. Case Studies

Architecture has always been connected to nature and has long looked to it for inspiration. It has also served as inspiration for the development of a number of movements and ideas that have characterized design. In architecture, biomimicry is frequently utilized to find sustainable solutions by comprehending the rules that control the form rather than simply reproducing the form. In terms of materials, structural systems, design, and much more, it pertains to many facets of the architectural and engineering professions. Three layers of mimicry can be observed: in the creature, in its behavior, and in the ecosystem.

The case studies for understanding biomimicry in architecture are listed below.

9.1. Case Study 1: Lotus Temple, India

Fariborz Sahba created the lotus temple in Delhi (Figure 16), the nation's capital, as a place of devotion honoring the universality of religion. The lotus, a revered flower in Hindu mythology, is used to create its form as well as conjure up images of spirituality and purity. Even during India's sweltering heat, the design can hide the sun's harsh rays and keep the interiors cool and well-lit 22.

The Lotus Temple, a Baha'i house of worship is situated in New Delhi, India. The Lotus Shaped Outline of the Baha'i Mashriqul (23). The shape of the building was influenced by the lotus as an organism (Figure 17). The major concept behind the design is that two essential elements—light and water—have been utilised as ornamentation in place of the customary sculptures and carvings found in Indian temples 24. While each temple has a unique theme, they all feature significant and revered symbols shared by all Indian faiths. These are the symbols that numerous nations and religions have embraced. The frightened flower of the Indians, the lotus flower, is one of these symbols 25.

The temple concept was created by Fariborz Sahba based on the idea that a flower symbolizes purity (Figure 18). The Hindu culture places a high value on cleanliness. It took 2.5 years to complete the temple's blueprints. The Lotus Temple contains nine repetitions of each element (Figure 19) 24. The Temple of the Lotus in New Delhi, India displays the triumph of symmetry and self-likeness 26.

9.2. Case Study 2: Marina Bay – The Super Trees, Singapore

The lotus as an ecosystem serves as an inspiration for the shape of the building. They blend a range of functions together on the website. They function as dehumidification steam outlets and biomass furnace exhaust chimneys. They provide shade for the area as well as a location for solar energy, solar heat, and water collection.

Two zones, one for each of the canopy skin and the trunk skin, are separated by a collection of radial and diagonal elements (CHS). Increasing in number as they go from the trunk skin to the outside border of the canopy skin, these mimic branches emerging from the ground. The strength of the surface comes from its shape. The light top canopy adopts a conic shape, which is employed frequently in membrane constructions. On the other hand, the surface is inverted to work in compression as opposed to tension. The inner and outer layers of the two-layer lattice that makes up the structural frame are offset to increase stiffness out of a plane 27.

The super trees are a combination of steel and concrete structures (Figure 20). They are encased in a system of partially transparent steel cladding that surrounds a hollow concrete core. The top of the core has a "head" that is nearly flat and covered in membrane material. Although horizontal is the ideal angle for solar collectors in Singapore, placing a panel entirely horizontally would necessitate extensive cleaning. The head of the core was slightly angled downward to permit drain-cleaning 28. Each tree is supported by a concrete core that protrudes from the surface. Every one of them has a central "head" that manages the environmental machinery. Additionally, its core head helps to sustain the supertree's canopy 27.

An aerial walkway at the Supertrees is designed to replicate the treetop walkways that are so common in Australia. It can be identified by the way it’s incredibly thin and delicate skins hang from the Supertrees. The walkway was designed with very specific characteristics in mind, and due to its sensitivity, it is only intended for a small capacity and usage 27.

The 123-meter aerial walkway is 22 meters above the ground and winds around one side of the 50-meter tree as it extends out from one 42-meter Supertree to the other (Figure 22). The 42-meter trees, three nearby lesser trees, one 37-meter-tall tree, and two 30-meter-tall buildings are all connected to the structure via wire rope cables that are spaced at 1 m intervals (Figure 21). The platform is supported by rectangular hollow section cross beams of varied depths that are spaced at intervals of 1 m, which are supported by 140 mm steel tube stringers that run the length of the walkway 27.

These 18 metal-framed structures, which range in height from 82 to 164 feet, are vertical gardens. The restaurant is located on the top of the primary Supertree (Figure 23) 29. With a focus on producing a "wow" impact, Grant Associates' 18 Supertrees range in height from 25 to 50 meters and feature a vertical display of tropical flowering climbers, epiphytes, and ferns. These canopies come to life at night thanks to lights and projected images. From an aerial walkway suspended from the Supertrees, visitors may obtain a distinctive view of the gardens. Utilizing water and sustainable energy technology installed in the Supertrees, the Chilled Conservatories are cooled 30.

9.3. Case Study 3: The Gherkin, London

The Venus Flower Basket Sponge's shape and lattice structure are imitated in 30 St Mary Axe, also known as the Gherkin, a famous skyscraper designed by Norman Foster (Figure 23). Strength and stability are provided by the sponge's form and lattice exoskeleton 31. The skeleton's hollow basket serves as a water filter and nutrient collector. Due to the design of the building, the structural components are connected at various angles on each story. An open floor layout, vertical support without interior columns, wind resistance, and ventilation on all floors are all made possible by this technology 31.

10. Future of Biomimicry: Multidisciplinary Aspect

It may seem weird that replicating the way the natural world functions is only now becoming popular, but the global focus on sustainability is forcing people to consider all kinds of efficient systems. Additionally, engineers lacked the tools necessary to replicate natural processes until recently. What, then, can engineering and architecture take from nature and apply it? As long as there is an increase in multidisciplinary collaboration, the answer is much more. It is more likely that hybrid fields like biomimicry in architecture will take off as biologists, architects, mechanical engineers, and materials scientists work together more frequently 21.

"You poison its potential if you imprison biomimicry in design or engineering as though any one field owns it," claims Niewiarowski.

11. Conclusions

The science of biology, among other sciences, has historically had the greatest impact on theories and practices in architecture. Biology is the only science to discuss the central problem of teleology in nature. Innovative biological solutions, as well as the development of fresh concepts and ideas, and even new design methodologies, aid in the resolution of architectural issues. These ideas were sparked by parallels and analogies between the fields of biology and architecture. Bio-utilization, form, structure, abstract rules, concepts, and theory inspiration are all examples of historical applications of the living world in architecture. Current and upcoming applications will mostly focus on illuminating profound analogical features of bioscience such as structure, mechanism, process, function, and system.

There aren't enough studies to draw a conclusion or create natural solutions. However, for billions of years, nature has proven resourceful and effective. In order to be energy-efficient, natural species have evolved and created ways. Human issues can be resolved by incorporating these qualities into architecture. It is possible to achieve a new strategy for energy-efficient building envelopes by imitating nature. There is a substantial amount of energy used in the building envelope. By using the biomimicry strategy, it is possible to reduce energy use by learning from and copying natural processes.

Sustainability is a major concern for many businesses, and designers and other professionals in the field are once again interested in developing cutting-edge new techniques and technologies. Nature provides a variety of cost-effective, water-based, solar-powered, and ecological answers to complex design problems. It is currently accepted as a realistic strategy to use biomimicry to enlist nature to help sustainably solve human challenges. The first cooperation of its sort was established in 2008 by the architecture firm HOK and The Biomimicry Guild to incorporate biomimicry into problem-solving. This collaboration is significant because HOK designers are well-known for being environmental pioneers. Their embracement of biomimicry in their work is ground-breaking, and this alone has the power to spread the idea across the globe.

The implementation of biomimicry concepts during the design process, according to this paper's conclusion, will usher the designer into a new era of sustainable applications, technologies, and methods. Although a promising start, incorporating one or two intriguing technologies into a project will not solve the sustainability problem. We can only start to make a difference when we take into account how everything interacts with one another like an ecosystem, is related to one another, and functions like the communities seen in nature. In the end, the practice of creating sustainable environments should use as few resources as possible to create and operate a lovely, health-oriented habitat that operates in a closed-loop system that recycles all waste, generates all its energy needs, and is designed with the long-term goal of preserving humanity.

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[13]  Benyus, J. M., Biomimicry Innovation Inspired by Nature. Harper Perennial, New York, 1997.
In article      
 
[14]  Rankouhi, A, Naturally Inspired Design. Investigation into the application of biomimicry in architectural design, 2012.
In article      
 
[15]  Jencks, C., Architecture 2000: Predictions and Methods, International Thomson Publishing, London, 1971.
In article      
 
[16]  The Structural Group, The Building Envelope – A Little-Known Key to Energy Efficiency, Quorum Magazine, 2008; [Online] Accessed on: May, 08, 2022. Available on: http://www.structural.net/tabid/434/contentid/692/Default.aspx.
In article      
 
[17]  13 the beijing national stadium special issue, The Arup Journal, 1/2009, [Online] Accessed on: May, 20, 2022 Available on: www.arup.com/~/media/.../Arup_Journal_1-2009.ashx.
In article      
 
[18]  Brian Nelson, Can a Butterfly Flapping Its Wings Really Cause a Hurrican?, Treehugger, February, 7, 2022; [Online] Accessed on: June, 02, 2022 Available on: https://www.treehugger.com/can-butterfly-flapping-its-wings-really-cause-hurricane-4863374.
In article      
 
[19]  (Interview with Mick Pearce, Principal Design Architect, City of Melbourne, CH2 Design Team, 2004) Source: Radovic, D., Crist, G. Technical Research Paper 01, Nature and Aesthetics in the Sustainable City City of Melbourne, 2004.
In article      
 
[20]  Zari, M. P., Biomimetic Approaches to Architectural Design for Increased Sustainability. Sustainable Building Conference, Auckland; 2007.
In article      
 
[21]  Zach Mortice, Nature does it better: Biomimicry in Architecture and Engineering, Redshift by Autodesk, July, 30, 2021; [Online] Accessed on: May, 31, 2022. Available on: https://redshift.autodesk.com/articles/biomimicry-in-architecture.
In article      
 
[22]  Rudraakshi Tiwari, 6 Examples of Biomimicry architecture in India, Re-thinking the future; [Online] Accessed on: May, 30, 2022. Available on: https://www.re-thinkingthefuture.com/designing-for-typologies/a2949-6-examples-of-biomimicry-architecture-in-india/.
In article      
 
[23]  S. Yadav, R. Bandyopadhyay, G. Rasul & A. Rawal, Exploring the relationship between sociocultural factors and tourist satisfaction: A study of Lotus Temple, New Delhi, India, Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2010, pp. 554-558.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  Mohammed Sahil, Case Study on Architecture of Lotus Temple, International Journal Of Engineering Research And, V9(05), 2020.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  Srinivsan, P., Biomimicry in Architecture-A Mindful Imitation of Nature, PalArch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, 17(9), 7496-7518, 2020.
In article      
 
[26]  I. Mayatskaya., B. Yazyev, S. Yazyeva & P. Kulinich, Building Constructions: architecture and nature, MATEC Web of Conferences, EDP Sciences Vol. 106, p. 01031), 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Davey, M., Gardens by the Bay: Ecologically reflective design, Architectural Design, 81(6), 108-111, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  M. Davey, P. Bellew, K. Er, A. Kwek, & J. Lim, Gardens by the Bay: High performance through design optimization and integration, Intelligent Buildings International, vol. 2 No 2, pp.140-157, 2010.
In article      
 
[29]  R. Blazenhoff, Photos: Singapore's Supertrees, Solar-Powered Vertical Gardens, Laughing Squid, November, 21, 2012; [Online] Accessed on: June, 01, 2022 Available on: https://laughingsquid.com/photos-singapores-supertrees-solar-powered-vertical-gardens.
In article      
 
[30]  S. Singhal, Gardens by The Bay in Singapore by Grant Associates, Arch Showcase, July, 21, 2012; [Online] Accessed on: May, 15, 2022 Available on: https://www10.aeccafe.com/blogs/arch-showcase/2012/07/21/gardens-by-the-bay-in-singapore/?interstitial_displayed=17.
In article      
 
[31]  Arathi Biju Tiwari, 10 Stunning examples of Biomimicry in Architecture, Re-thinking the future; [Online] Accessed on: May, 31, 2022 Available on: https://www.re-thinkingthefuture.com/rtf-fresh-perspectives/a952-10-stunning-examples-of-biomimicry-in-architecture/.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2022 Osama Nasir and Mohammad Arif Kamal

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Osama Nasir, Mohammad Arif Kamal. Inspiration from Nature: Biomimicry as a Paradigm for Architectural and Environmental Design. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture. Vol. 10, No. 3, 2022, pp 126-136. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajcea/10/3/3
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Nasir, Osama, and Mohammad Arif Kamal. "Inspiration from Nature: Biomimicry as a Paradigm for Architectural and Environmental Design." American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture 10.3 (2022): 126-136.
APA Style
Nasir, O. , & Kamal, M. A. (2022). Inspiration from Nature: Biomimicry as a Paradigm for Architectural and Environmental Design. American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 10(3), 126-136.
Chicago Style
Nasir, Osama, and Mohammad Arif Kamal. "Inspiration from Nature: Biomimicry as a Paradigm for Architectural and Environmental Design." American Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture 10, no. 3 (2022): 126-136.
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In article      
 
[2]  Benyus, Janine M., Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Design, New York: Harper Perennial, pp. 2-7, 2002.
In article      
 
[3]  Implications, Learning from Nature. InformeDesign, University of Michigan, Vol. 4.1. pp. 1-5, 2010. Available on: http://www.informedesign.umn.edu.
In article      
 
[4]  Senosiain, Javier, Bio-architecture, Architectural Press: Oxford and Harmondsworth, 2003.
In article      
 
[5]  Kuday, I., Examination of the Term Biomimicry as a Supporting Factor in Design Process. Master's Thesis, Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Institute of Natural and Applied Sciences, Istanbul, 2009.
In article      
 
[6]  Yahya Harun, Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature, [Online] Accessed on: May, 12, 2022. Available on: http://harunyahya.com/en/Books/3864/biomimetics-technology-imitates-nature.
In article      
 
[7]  Buckminster Fuller Institute, Biomimicry, Buckminster Fuller Institute; [Online] Accessed on: May, 12, 2022. Available on: http://www.bfi.org/Trimtab/spring01/biomimicry.html.
In article      
 
[8]  Steadman, The Evolution of Designs-biological Anology in Architecture & Applied Arts, Oxon: Routledge P. 2008.
In article      
 
[9]  Webb, S., The Integrated Design Process of CH2, Environment Design Guide. CAS 36, 2005.
In article      
 
[10]  Benyus, J. M., Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature, Perennial (HarperCollins), 1998.
In article      
 
[11]  Guild, B., Innovation inspired by nature work book. Biomimicry Guild, 2007.
In article      
 
[12]  Jim Robbins, Engineers Ask Nature for Design Advice,” New York Times, December 11, 2001.
In article      
 
[13]  Benyus, J. M., Biomimicry Innovation Inspired by Nature. Harper Perennial, New York, 1997.
In article      
 
[14]  Rankouhi, A, Naturally Inspired Design. Investigation into the application of biomimicry in architectural design, 2012.
In article      
 
[15]  Jencks, C., Architecture 2000: Predictions and Methods, International Thomson Publishing, London, 1971.
In article      
 
[16]  The Structural Group, The Building Envelope – A Little-Known Key to Energy Efficiency, Quorum Magazine, 2008; [Online] Accessed on: May, 08, 2022. Available on: http://www.structural.net/tabid/434/contentid/692/Default.aspx.
In article      
 
[17]  13 the beijing national stadium special issue, The Arup Journal, 1/2009, [Online] Accessed on: May, 20, 2022 Available on: www.arup.com/~/media/.../Arup_Journal_1-2009.ashx.
In article      
 
[18]  Brian Nelson, Can a Butterfly Flapping Its Wings Really Cause a Hurrican?, Treehugger, February, 7, 2022; [Online] Accessed on: June, 02, 2022 Available on: https://www.treehugger.com/can-butterfly-flapping-its-wings-really-cause-hurricane-4863374.
In article      
 
[19]  (Interview with Mick Pearce, Principal Design Architect, City of Melbourne, CH2 Design Team, 2004) Source: Radovic, D., Crist, G. Technical Research Paper 01, Nature and Aesthetics in the Sustainable City City of Melbourne, 2004.
In article      
 
[20]  Zari, M. P., Biomimetic Approaches to Architectural Design for Increased Sustainability. Sustainable Building Conference, Auckland; 2007.
In article      
 
[21]  Zach Mortice, Nature does it better: Biomimicry in Architecture and Engineering, Redshift by Autodesk, July, 30, 2021; [Online] Accessed on: May, 31, 2022. Available on: https://redshift.autodesk.com/articles/biomimicry-in-architecture.
In article      
 
[22]  Rudraakshi Tiwari, 6 Examples of Biomimicry architecture in India, Re-thinking the future; [Online] Accessed on: May, 30, 2022. Available on: https://www.re-thinkingthefuture.com/designing-for-typologies/a2949-6-examples-of-biomimicry-architecture-in-india/.
In article      
 
[23]  S. Yadav, R. Bandyopadhyay, G. Rasul & A. Rawal, Exploring the relationship between sociocultural factors and tourist satisfaction: A study of Lotus Temple, New Delhi, India, Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, Vol. 2 No. 5, 2010, pp. 554-558.
In article      View Article
 
[24]  Mohammed Sahil, Case Study on Architecture of Lotus Temple, International Journal Of Engineering Research And, V9(05), 2020.
In article      View Article
 
[25]  Srinivsan, P., Biomimicry in Architecture-A Mindful Imitation of Nature, PalArch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, 17(9), 7496-7518, 2020.
In article      
 
[26]  I. Mayatskaya., B. Yazyev, S. Yazyeva & P. Kulinich, Building Constructions: architecture and nature, MATEC Web of Conferences, EDP Sciences Vol. 106, p. 01031), 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Davey, M., Gardens by the Bay: Ecologically reflective design, Architectural Design, 81(6), 108-111, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  M. Davey, P. Bellew, K. Er, A. Kwek, & J. Lim, Gardens by the Bay: High performance through design optimization and integration, Intelligent Buildings International, vol. 2 No 2, pp.140-157, 2010.
In article      
 
[29]  R. Blazenhoff, Photos: Singapore's Supertrees, Solar-Powered Vertical Gardens, Laughing Squid, November, 21, 2012; [Online] Accessed on: June, 01, 2022 Available on: https://laughingsquid.com/photos-singapores-supertrees-solar-powered-vertical-gardens.
In article      
 
[30]  S. Singhal, Gardens by The Bay in Singapore by Grant Associates, Arch Showcase, July, 21, 2012; [Online] Accessed on: May, 15, 2022 Available on: https://www10.aeccafe.com/blogs/arch-showcase/2012/07/21/gardens-by-the-bay-in-singapore/?interstitial_displayed=17.
In article      
 
[31]  Arathi Biju Tiwari, 10 Stunning examples of Biomimicry in Architecture, Re-thinking the future; [Online] Accessed on: May, 31, 2022 Available on: https://www.re-thinkingthefuture.com/rtf-fresh-perspectives/a952-10-stunning-examples-of-biomimicry-in-architecture/.
In article