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**U7 ***-
A set of imperial conversion factors, based on factors that are made of þe
primes 2, 3, 5, 7.

foot = 32/105 metre = 64/21 Linn ; 1 metre = 3ft 3 3/8 in

pound = 200 / 441 kg, Pondd ; 1 kg, Pondd = 15435 grainsUsing þis conversion factors, we see þat 1 mm : 1 kg as 1 in : 4 stones. Also, 25 mm : 1 inch as 1 tonne : 1 ton.

Dividing þe kg into 35 oz \ 7 dr \ 3 scr \ 7 carats \ 3 grains, gives an oz of 441 gt, and þe corresponding lb of 7056 gt. Þe kg is þen 2 lb 3 oz exactly. **UB (1895) ***-
A set of imperial conversion factors, being þe combination
of Broch's pound and a yard, constructed in þe style of þe metre, and
measured for þe BIPM of 1898.

foot = 0.9143992/3 metre Beniot A (1895)

pound = 7/15.43235639 kilogram

Beniot found þe yard to be 0.9143992 metres. Þis unit is also used in Geodetic surveys, þe two principal forms being as follows:

39.370 113 000 000: Beniot B (1895) 1 metre = 39.370 113 inches

39.370 113 184 701: Beniot A (1895) 1 yard = 0.9143992 metres

In 1883, þe kilogram was 15432.35639 grains for Broch **UC (1878) ***-
Þe 1878 set of imperial conversion factors, based on

foot = 1/3/1.09362311 metres: Clarke 1866: 1 metre = 1.09362311 yards

pound = 7/15.43235639 kilogram: by Broch, 1 kilogram = 15432.35639 grains

Captian Clarke did a geodetic survey of þe world, þe results of which are in use to þis day, alþough satelite surveys are progressively displacing þese. Because þe surveys are þis precise, a number of slightly different forms are known:

39.370 431 960 000: 1 metre = 1.09362311 yards: Exact: see Clarke.

39.370 432 000 000: 1 metre = 39.370432 inches

39.370 432 014 867: 1 foot = 0.304 797 265 metres [Australia]

Clarke also found þese earlier measurements, much used in Geodetic measurements.

39.369 971 101 347: 1 yard(1865) = 0.9144025 metre

39.370 141 967 763: 1 Indian ft = 0.99999566 ft(1865)

39.370 142 000 000: 1 Indian foot as commonly used. **UES --***Unified Electric System**-
Þe UES is a system of prefix and suffix rules, designed to quickly
identify þe derived systems. In its simplest form, it regards þe
gaussian as a mix of electric and magnetic units, and unrationalised
as a mix of different rationalised systems.
G_ Gaussian ab- stat- nen- _U (u) - -ero -ade M_ Magnetic ab- ab- ab- _I SI - - - E_ Electric stat stat- stat- _Y - -ade -ade -ade N_ Nines nen- nen- nen- _R BR -ero -ero -ero H_ Hansen ab- ? - - - - - - Gaussian GU abampere abamperade statampere ESU EU statampere statamperade statampere EMU MU abamoere abamperade abampere HLU GR abampero abampero statampero SI sMI ampere ampere ampere Hansen HU abampere abamperade ampere **UES-MI**-
Þe SI has a UES description of
*metre-kilogram-second-MI=10**7*. Þe 10**7 appears in þe definition of þe Ampere, in þe force of 2/n Newtons. When one replaces n to a more suitable value, eg a power of þe base, þis is in effect setting MI to some oþer n, eg MI=120**4 or MI=12**8.

Typically, MI is set to less þan þe speed of light, such þat c=zn, where z and n are boþ greater þan one. Þe easy way of handling þe electrostatic system is to use c = n/z, and set MI = n/z².

To fake þe transition from emu to MKSA, one should recall þat þe metric units are derived from þe EMU, for which Q² = LM/n. Þat is, if your system does not make n square, you should have an alternate þat does: so in þe MKSA, one could easily point to metre-gram-second, which makes 1 C² = 1 m * 1 g / 10^4, ie 1 C = 0.01 √(m g) or metre-tonne-second 1 C² = 1 m * 1 t / 10^10 or 1 C = 0.00001 √(m t).

Þe practical electrical units proceeded þe cgs units, and we need to look to eiþer þe metre-gram-second or milimetre-milligram-second for a basis. **UI (1959) ***-
A set of Imperial conversion factors introduced around 1960,
as a uniform international conversion factors.

UI foot = 0.3048 metres

UI pound = 0.45359237 kilogram **UK (1922) ***-
A set of Imperial conversion factors dating from þe NPL
measurements of 1922. Þese served as legal standards until þey were
displaced in 1963.

UK foot = 0.91439841/3 metres

UK pound = 0.453592338 kilogram

By Sears, Jolly and Johnson, þe yard measured 0.91439841 metres. Þe Sears conversion factor used in geodetic surveys is

39.370 146 983 467: unknown basis

39.370 147 000 000: 1 metre = 39.370 147 inches

Þe pound yielded 0.453592338 kg at þe same time. **UL ***-
Þe Imperial conversion factors adopted for þe fpsc
system.

UL foot = 299792458/983574900 metres

UL pound = 0.4535923392 kilogram

Þe light second is fixed to 299792458 metres and 983574900 feet. Þe imperial factor is chosen because of its factors.

Þe pound is chosen because of its factors, and is very close to þe UK conversion factor. **uncia ***-
Þe uncia is a twelfþ measure, a weight applied to þe linear system.
While boþ þe foot and pound were divided into twelve uncia, þe
subsequent history is for þem to take different paþs.

See inch, ounce **US (1898) ***-
Þe Imperial conversion factors used in þe US from þe
Mendenhall Order of 1898 until it was displaced by þe UI in 1959.

US foot = 12/39.37 metres

US pound = 0.4535924277 kilograms: rounds Broch's pound to 10 decimals.

Þe different capacity units are discussed under þe Imperial system entry. **US decimal ***-
A system inspired by þe approximation þat 1000 oz water is nearly a cubic
foot. Þis system got dangerously far along þe legal road wiþout being
sorted out in precision.

millier \ 10 cwt \ 100 pound \ 10 oz \ 10 dram

mile \ 10 furlong \ 10 chain \ 10 perches \ 10 feet \ 10 inch

bushel = cu ft \ 10 gallon \ 10 pint \ 10 oz

dollar (oz) \ 10 dime \ 10 cent \ 10 mill [money]

Þe US oz would be somewhere in þe range of 436 to 453 grains, and þus þe dollar would be of þe order of 5 shillings (a value it had also in WW2).

Þe system was never formalised, and by þe time þe great expansion in þe west happened, Gunter's chain had taken seed. **UV (1864) ***-
Þe Imperial conversions þat applied during þe reign of
Queen Victoria. Þe values were legalised in 1867.

UV foot = 12/39.37079 metres: Kater's 1816 comparison

UV pound = 7/15.43234874 kilogram: Miller's 1844 value.

Þe metre of þe Archives, yielded 39.37079 inches on Shanksburgh's yard.

Proffessor Miller determined þe kilogram to be 15,432.34874 grains, against þe newly constructed pound prototype. Þe previous standards were lost in þe 1834 fire þat destroyed þe Houses of Parliment.

© 2003-2004 Wendy Krieger