**American Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics**

## Asymptotic Solutions of Fifth Order More Critically Damped Nonlinear Systems in the Case of Four Repeated Roots

**M. Abul Kawser**^{1}, **Md. Mahafujur Rahaman**^{2,}, **Md. Shajib Ali**^{1}, **Md. Nurul Islam**^{1}

^{1}Department of Mathematics, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh

^{2}Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Z.H. Sikder University of Science & Technology, Shariatpur, Bangladesh

Abstract | |

1. | Introduction |

2. | The Method |

3. | Example |

4. | Results and Discussion |

5. | Conclusion |

Acknowledgement | |

References |

### Abstract

In this article, we have modified the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolskii (KBM) method, which is one of the most widely used methods to delve into the transient behavior of oscillating systems, to find out the solutions of fifth order more critically damped nonlinear systems. In this paper, we have considered the asymptotic solutions of fifth order more critically damped nonlinear systems when the four eigenvalues are equal and another one is distinct. This article suggests that the perturbation solutions obtained by the modified KBM method for both the cases (when repeated eigenvalues are greater than the distinct eigenvalue, and when the distinct eigenvalue is greater than repeated eigenvalues) satisfactorily correspond to the numerical solutions obtained by *Mathematica 9.0*.

**Keywords:** KBM, asymptotic solution, more critically damped system, nonlinearity, eigenvalues

**Copyright**© 2015 Science and Education Publishing. All Rights Reserved.

### Cite this article:

- M. Abul Kawser, Md. Mahafujur Rahaman, Md. Shajib Ali, Md. Nurul Islam. Asymptotic Solutions of Fifth Order More Critically Damped Nonlinear Systems in the Case of Four Repeated Roots.
*American Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics*. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2015, pp 233-242. http://pubs.sciepub.com/ajams/3/6/4

- Kawser, M. Abul, et al. "Asymptotic Solutions of Fifth Order More Critically Damped Nonlinear Systems in the Case of Four Repeated Roots."
*American Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics*3.6 (2015): 233-242.

- Kawser, M. A. , Rahaman, M. M. , Ali, M. S. , & Islam, M. N. (2015). Asymptotic Solutions of Fifth Order More Critically Damped Nonlinear Systems in the Case of Four Repeated Roots.
*American Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics*,*3*(6), 233-242.

- Kawser, M. Abul, Md. Mahafujur Rahaman, Md. Shajib Ali, and Md. Nurul Islam. "Asymptotic Solutions of Fifth Order More Critically Damped Nonlinear Systems in the Case of Four Repeated Roots."
*American Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics*3, no. 6 (2015): 233-242.

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### At a glance: Figures

### 1. Introduction

In order to obtain solutions of nonlinear systems, the asymptotic method of Krylov–Bogoliubov–Mitropolskii (KBM) ^{[1, 2]} is regarded as convenient and one of the widely-used tools. For the systems with periodic solutions with small nonlinearities, the method was first extended by Krylov and Bogoliubov^{ }^{[2]}. Later, it was amplified and justified by Bogoliubov and Mitropolskii ^{[1]}. For nonlinear systems affected by strong linear damping forces, Popov ^{[3]} extended the method. However, due to its physical significance, Popov’s method was rediscovered by Mendelson ^{[4]}. Then, this method was extended by Murty and Deekshatulu ^{[5]} for over–damped nonlinear systems. Sattar ^{[6]} studied the second order critically-damped nonlinear systems by using of the KBM method. Murty ^{[7]} proposed a unified KBM method for second order nonlinear systems which covers the undamped, over-damped and damped oscillatory cases. After that, Osiniskii ^{[8]} first developed the KBM method to solve third-order nonlinear differential systems imposing some restrictions, which makes the solution over-simplified. Mulholland ^{[9]} removed these restrictions and found desired solutions of third order nonlinear systems. Sattar ^{[10]} examined solutions of three-dimensional over-damped nonlinear systems. Shamsul ^{[11]} propounded an asymptotic method for second order over-damped and critically damped nonlinear systems. Later, Shamsul ^{[12]} extended the method presented in ^{[11]} to third-order over-damped nonlinear systems under some special conditions. Akbar *et al. *^{[13]} generalized the method and showed that their method is easier than the method of Murty et al. ^{[14]}. Recently Rahaman and Rahman ^{[15]} have suggested analytical approximate solutions of fifth order more critically damped systems in the case of smaller triply repeated roots. Moreover, Rahaman and Kawser ^{[16]} have also proposed asymptotic solutions of fifth order critically damped nonlinear systems with pair wise equal eigenvalues and another is distinct. Further, Rahaman *et al.* ^{[17]} suggested an asymptotic method of Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolskii for fifth order critically damped nonlinear systems. Again, Rahaman and Kawser ^{[18]} expounded analytical approximate solutions of fifth order more critically damped nonlinear systems

In this paper, we seeks to investigate an asymptotic solution of fifth order more critically damped nonlinear system, based upon the KBM method. In this study, we suggest that the perturbation results obtained by the presented technique reveal good coincidence with numerical results obtained by *Mathematica 9.0*.

### 2. The Method

Consider a fifth order non-linear differential system of the form

(1) |

where and stand for the fifth and fourth derivatives respectively, and over dots are used for the first, second and third derivatives of *x* with respect to* t*;* ** *are constants, is a sufficiently small parameter and is the given nonlinear function. As the unperturbed equation (1) is of fifth order, so it has five real negative eigenvalues, where four eigenvalues are equal and the other one is distinct. Suppose the eigenvalues are and

When the equation (1) becomes linear and the solution of the corresponding linear equation is

(2) |

where and are constants of integration.

When Murty ^{[7]} and Shamsul ^{[19]}, we look for a solution of equation (1) in an asymptotic expansion of the form

(3) |

where and * *are the functions of *t *and they satisfy the first order differential equations

(4) |

Now differentiating (3) five times with respect to *t*, substituting the value of *x *and the derivatives in the original equation (1) utilizing the relations presented in (4) and, finally, extracting the coefficients of *ε*, we obtain

(5) |

where

and .

We have expanded the function in the Taylor’s series (Sattar ^{[20]}, Shamsul ^{[19]}) about the origin in power of *t*. Therefore, we obtain

(6) |

Thus, using (6), the equation (5) becomes

(7) |

Following the KBM method, Murty and Deekshatulu ^{[21]}, Sattar ^{[20]}, Shamsul ^{[22]}, Shamsul and Sattar ^{[23]} imposed the condition that does not contain the fundamental terms of Therefore, equation (7) can be separated for unknown functions and in the following way:

(8) |

(9) |

Now equating the coefficients of the various power of from equation (8), we obtain

(10) |

(11) |

(12) |

(13) |

Here, we have four equations (10), (11), (12) and (13) for determining the unknown functions *A*_{1}, *B*_{1}, *C*_{1}, *D*_{1} and *H*_{1}. Thus, to obtain the unknown functions *A*_{1}, *B*_{1}, *C*_{1}, *D*_{1} and *H*_{1}, we need to impose some conditions (Shamsul ^{[26, 22, 24, 25]}) between the eigenvalues. Different authors have imposed different conditions according to the behavior of the systems, such as Shamsul ^{[25]} imposed the condition

In this study, we have investigated solutions for both the cases and . Therefore, we obtain the value of *D*_{1} from equation (13), and substituting the value of* **D*_{1} in equation (12), we get the value of *C*_{1}, and using these values of *C*_{1} and *D*_{1}* *in equation (11), we find the value of *B*_{1}. Now we will be able to separate the equation (10) for unknown functions *A*_{1} and *H*_{1} for both the conditions and ; and solving them for *A*_{1} and *H*_{1}. Since and * *are proportional to the small parameter, so they are slowly varying functions of time *t*, and for first approximate solution, we may consider them as constants which are presented in the right side. This assumption was first made by Murty and Deekshatulu ^{[21]}. Thus, the solutions of the equation (4) become

(14) |

Equation (9) is a non-homogeneous linear ordinary differential equation; therefore, it can be solved by the well-known operator method. Substituting the values of and in the equations (3), we get the complete solution of (1). Therefore, the determination of the first approximate solution is complete.

### 3. Example

As an example of the above technique, we have considered the Duffing type equation of fifth order nonlinear differential system:

(15) |

Comparing equation (13) and equation (1), we obtain

Therefore,

(16) |

For equation (15), the equation (9) to equation (13) respectively become

(17) |

(18) |

(19) |

(20) |

(21) |

The solution of the equation (21), therefore, is

(22) |

Putting the value of from equation (22) into equation (20), we obtain

(23) |

Therefore, the solution of the equation (23) is

(24) |

Putting the value of and from equation (24) and (22) into equation (19), we obtain

(25) |

Thus, the solution of the equation (25) is

(26) |

Now applying the conditions in equation (18), we obtain the following equations for unknown functions and :

(27) |

And

(28) |

Solution of the equations (27) and (28) are

(29) |

(30) |

Now applying the condition in equation (18), we obtain the following equations for unknown functions and :

(31) |

(32) |

Thus, the solution of the equations (31) and (32) are

(33) |

(34) |

Finally, the solution of the equation (17) for is

(35) |

where

Substituting the values of and from equations (29), (33), (26), (24), (22), (32) and (34) into equation (4), we obtain, when then becomes

And when then becomes

(36) |

Again, when then becomes

Further, when then becomes

Here, all of the equations (36) have no exact solutions, but since and are proportional to the small parameter, they are slowly varying functions of time *t*. Therefore, it is possible to replace and * *by their respective values obtained in linear case (i.e., the values of and * *obtained when) in the right hand side of equations (36). This type of replacement was first introduced by Murty and Deekshatulu ^{[5]} and Mutry *et.al.* ^{[14]} in order to solve similar types of nonlinear equations.

Therefore, the solutions to the equations (36) are, when then becomes

Again, when then becomes

(37) |

Moreover, when then becomes

when then becomes

Hence, we obtain the first approximate solution of the equation (13) as:

(38) |

where and * *are given by the equations (37) and is given by (35).

### 4. Results and Discussion

**Fig**

**ure**

**1**

**.**Comparison between perturbation and numerical results for with the initial condition and

In order to bring more efficiency to our results, the numerical results obtained by *Math**ematica** 9.0* are compared with the perturbation results obtained by the same program for the different sets of initial conditions. Here, we have computed * *from (38) by considering different values of and in which and are obtained from (37) and is calculated from equation (35) together with four sets of initial conditions. The corresponding numerical solutions have been computed by the *Mathematica 9.0* program for various values of *t* and all the perturbation solutions have been developed by a code in *Mathematica 9.0 *program. All the results presented by the Figure 1 and Figure 2 for the case and Figure 3 and Figure 4 for the case show the perturbation results, which are plotted by a blue line and the corresponding numerical results, which are plotted by the red line respectively.

**Fig**

**ure**

**2**

**.**

*Comparison between perturbation and numerical results for*

*with the initial condition*

*and*

**Fig**

**ure**

**3**

**.**

*Comparison between perturbation and numerical results for*with the initial ondition and

**Fig**

**ure 4.**Comparison between perturbation and numerical results for with the initial condition and

### 5. Conclusion

In conclusion, it can be said that, in this article, we have successfully modified the KBM method and applied it to the fifth order more critically damped nonlinear systems. In relation to the fifth order more critically damped nonlinear systems, the solutions are obtained in such circumstances where the four eigenvalues are equal. Ordinarily, it is seen that, in the KBM method, much error occurs in the case of rapid changes of *x* with respect to time *t. *However, it has been observed in this study that, with respect to the different sets of initial conditions of the modified KBM method, the results obtained for both the cases (when and ) correspond accurately to the numerical solutions obtained by Mathematica 9.0. We, therefore, come to the conclusion that the modified KBM method gives highly accurate results, which can be applied for different kinds of nonlinear differential systems.

### Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to Mr. Md. Mizanur Rahman, Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics, Islamic University, Bangladesh, for his invaluable comments on the earlier draft of this article. Special thanks is due to Mr. Md. Imamunur Rahman who has assisted the authors in editing this paper.

### References

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In article | |||

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