Article Versions
Export Article
Cite this article
  • Normal Style
  • MLA Style
  • APA Style
  • Chicago Style
Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Crude Oil Bioremediation - Genetically Modified Microorganisms for Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation

Sadhana S , JaiVarshini E, Nikita Reddy S, Shruthi S
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2021, 9(8), 769-785. DOI: 10.12691/aees-9-8-8
Received July 12, 2021; Revised August 17, 2021; Accepted August 26, 2021

Abstract

The process of Bioremediation uses the microorganisms/their enzymes to aid the degradation and removal of contaminants present in the environment. The microbial metabolic ability is used for degradation and removal of environmental pollutants providing an economically safer alternative compared to the rest of physicochemical methodologies. One of the hazardous organic priority pollutants are the Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There are a lot of public concerns and critical environmental challenges in the world because of being carcinogenically toxic and mutagenic properties, their ubiquitous distribution, recalcitrance and their environmental presence. The understanding about harmful effects of PAHs on ecosystems and human health has resulted in an interest of researchers on their degradation. Many types of microbes like bacteria, fungi, and algae are capable to use PAHs as carbon and energy source under aerobic and anaerobic conditions leading to their degradation or transformation. Microbial genetic makeup having genes conceal catabolic enzymes results in PAH-degradation mechanism. From the past twenty years, PAH- biodegradation mechanism, catabolic gene system encoding catabolic enzymes, and adaptation through genetics and regulations have been investigated in detail. This review is to attain an overview of the present knowledge of the genetically modified organisms in crude oil spills using PAH degradation mechanism.

1. Introduction

Crude oil spillages cause perilous consequences to living and non-living things (soil or water) with the growth of petroleum production. Most of these spillages are due to anthropogenic activities 1, 2. Crude oil petroleum is one of the important pollutants consisting of hydrocarbons of varying molecular weight and about 17,000 organic compounds, classified into four classes -saturates, aromatics, asphaltenes, and resins 3 out of which 30% are PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) 4. These compounds proving hazardous to terrestrial and aquatic lifeforms are leading to bioaccumulation. 16 PAHs compounds have been designated by the U.S.EPA as priority pollutants 5. Most PAHs are carcinogenic, mutagenic in nature and also potent immunosuppressants that affect the immune system growth, humoral immunity, and resistances of the host 4, 6. Approximately 1.3 million liters of crude oil is released into the environment every year 7. To prevent the adverse effects of crude oil, degradation of this compound is mandatory. There are several techniques to remove or isolate or modify contaminants in the environment. These techniques have expanded to remediate PAHs contaminated areas 8. PAH remediation can be done by different means. Physically it can be done by solvent extraction, soil washing, air sparging techniques, etc., chemically by chemical oxidation, photocatalytic degradation, etc., thermally by thermal desorption, microwave frequency, etc. But these techniques are expensive and complicated 9.

In recent years’ biological techniques have picked up steam as it is economically efficient and non-invasive. These techniques include bioremediation and phytoremediation. In bioremediation, different microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, and algae) help in degrading PAHs. In phytoremediation, various plants help to degrade/stabilize PAH contamination 8, 10.

Microorganisms can degrade complex compounds into simple compounds that are environmentally friendly. Several hydrogen degrading microorganisms are isolated, which comprise 22 genera of bacteria and 31 genera of fungi, being isolated from the soil environment and 27 genera of bacteria and 27 genera of fungi isolated from the marine environment, which can degrade hydrocarbons 11.

Microbial adaptation has a crucial role in microbial degradation to enhance it. Gene modification is done to increase the degradation process efficiently 8. The application of genetically modified microorganisms in PAHs degradation has gained attention as these organisms are modified to have high degradation capacity and strive through harsh conditions 12. This review article explains how microbially degrading the PAHs with the help of genetically modified microorganisms can be helpful along with the challenges faced.

2. Crude Oil and Its Impacts on Environment

2.1. Crude Oil

Crude oil, a complex mixture is a non-renewable fossil fuel. Crude oil is one of the most important energy sources in the world. It is used to produce diesel, asphalt, propane, gasoline, aviation fuel, etc. Crude oils can be in the form of light volatile to highly viscous. Most crude oils are dark brown or black. Also, it can exist in yellow, green or, red color 13. Crude oil is categorized into heavy (that possess resins and asphaltenes in higher amounts than saturated hydrocarbons) and light crude oil (which comprises saturated hydrocarbons and PAHs) 1. The composition and physicochemical behavior of crude oil can vary from one source to other. Also, crude oil extracted from the same source but during different times can vary in chemical composition. Naphthene is found in crude oils up to 50%. Crude oils rarely contain aromatic compounds of more than 15% 14. Crude oil is a complex mixture containing aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), non-aromatic hydrocarbons, non-hydrocarbons, organic compounds and, trace elements (iron, nickel, copper, and, vanadium) 13, 15. Crude oil leakages can be caused through natural (volcanic eruptions, etc) or, anthropogenic sources (oil refineries, oil transportations, etc) 1. The leakage of crude oils has vandalized exposed ecosystems nearly all over the world 16.

2.2. Crude Oil Spillages Impact in Marine Environment

Crude oil is toxic to many organisms physically or biochemically. Toxicity of crude oil depends on its composition (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH), WAF, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) content), its amount and its duration in the environment 17, properties of the oil leaked, the sensitivity of the organisms and their habitation exposed and the surrounding conditions of the environment exposed 16. In crude oil, LMW hydrocarbons are more toxic than HMW hydrocarbons as HMW hydrocarbons have less solubility and less bioavailability 17. Exposure to crude oil has impacts on phytoplankton (which are important components of the food web in the sea) abundance and composition 15. Crude oil toxicity primarily targets developing heart in organisms 18 and changes its structure and its function in the embryonic stage 15. Than adults, marine invertebrate larvae are more sensitive to crude oil exposure. Based on studies, it was known that exposure of many species of marine organisms to crude oil for 48 hours, can reduce their swimming performance in the future. The Organic compounds, which are volatile and known as VOCs like toluene, benzene, xylene and, ethylbenzene known as BTEX, are found in crude oil 19 are toxic. These are PAHs 15. Many PAHs are toxic, cancer-causing agents and/or mutagens. PAHs are highly lipid-soluble and persistent in the environment 20. The persistence of PAHs is due to the presence of dense pi electrons clouds in aromatic rings, which provide resistance against nucleophilic attack 10, 21. In fishes, crude oil exposure causes changes in heart structure, heart rate and, rhythm in the embryonic stage. PAHs affect the heart development of fishes in several mechanisms. Some PAHs activate aryl hydrocarbon-receptor(AhR), which detoxifies PAHs. Despite this protective function, activation of AhR by some PAHs and others such as dioxins and PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyl) in water-soluble crude oils, which lack PAHs, disrupt usual cardiac morphogenesis in fishes 22. Some PAHs are phototoxic. Phototoxic PAHs undergo bioaccumulation, which is the first and also rate-limiting step of phototoxicity 23. These exposed to UV light, produce excited singlet and triplet state molecules 24. These excited molecules produce reactive oxygen species by transferring outer valence electrons to oxygen or biomolecules close to them 23. The produced reactive oxygen species cause oxidative stress, tissue damage and, also raised mortality 24. A leakage of nearly five million crude oil barrels in the Gulf of Mexico underwater in April 2010, has minimized the biodiversity of vertebrates and also metazoan meiofauna species. Also, crude oil leakage in Spain has wiped out almost 66% of the whole species (comprising of crustaceans, insects, mollusks, and polychaetes) 1. Also it was reported that crude oil exploitation in Niger Delta, has raised deforestation, which resulted in changes in animal habitation, loss in biodiversity, and also vegetation fragmentation 25.

2.3. Crude Oil Spillages Impact in Terrestrial Environment

The impacts of crude oil spills depend on the type of oil spilled, its amount, season and, many other factors. More oil spill cases were recorded on land than in water. In agricultural lands, exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons caused many chronic effects on agricultural products. Lighter crude oil exhibits more toxicity to plants than heavier crude oils. Exposure of crude oil in plants in the presence of light is more toxic than its exposure at night. Because in light, stomata in plants are opened, so crude oil exposure may even lead to the death of the plant 26. Soil contaminated with crude oil has reduced fertility and increased soil pH 27. Petroleum hydrocarbons produced by crude oil have both positive and negative effects on plants. Carr 174 observed improved growth in soybeans when 0.75% w/w of crude oil is added to the soil. Adieze et al 175 noticed increased shoot height and weight when 1% w/w of crude oil is added to the soil. Many negative effects in plants were also reported such as reduction in plant growth, reduced germination due to absence of viable seeds, embryo killing, yellowing and death of oiled leaves, etc. 26. Oil spills that occurred in Nigeria, between the years 1978 and 1979 made negative impacts on farming lands of rice, maize, yams, cassava and, petroleum hydrocarbons have sterilized the soil 28. Crude oil can be exposed to wildlife, either directly or indirectly. Oil can interact with organisms through inhalation, physical contact, ingestion and, adsorption 29. When exposed, crude oil can bind to the fur of mammals, quills of marine birds, which can cause the death of the organism when cleaning themselves as a result of ingesting more hydrocarbons 1. Also, when crude oil binds to the fur or feathers of organisms, they lose their capability to fly, swim and thermoregulate. These effects can result in a decrease in body temperature of organisms, drowning and, deaths 29. Human health is affected by both the chemical exposure of crude oils and their physiological and economic impacts. Humans can be exposed to crude oil through inhalation, consuming food & water contaminated with crude oil, contact with beach sand and, dermal contact. Effects of PAHs in crude oil on human health depend upon the toxicity of PAHs, the concentration of PAHs and, its exposure route in humans 30. PAHs are chemically inert and to exhibit their toxicity, mutagenic effect, etc. they need metabolic activation. Exposure to UV radiation is one of those activations. When human skin which is exposed to PAHs, is photo irradiated it can contribute to skin cancer 31. Based on much research, it was known that people who are exposed to crude oil spills have suffered skin rashes, shortness of breath, cough, fatigue, anxiety, depression, etc. Cheong and co-researchers studied the effects of crude oil on the physical health of people in the Hebei Spirit-laden oil spill, which occurred on December 7, 2007. They analysed urinary metabolites and found VOCs and PAHs in 154 people, who were exposed to oil spills. The result was found that 8 weeks after the disaster, people suffered from nose irritation (83.3%), headache (84.7%), irritation in the dermis of the skin (81.7%), memory disturbance (62.5%), fatigue/fever (83.3%), sore throats (73.6%), abdominal pain (50%), palpitation (56.3%), visual disturbances (61.1%) and many other symptoms 32. PAHs found in crude oil are carcinogenic, cause mutations, and suppress the immune system. PAHs are genotoxic in rodents’ Chronic effects of PAHs of crude oil include cataracts, kidney and, liver damage, asthma, etc. in humans. Naphthalene, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) in crude oil causes the breakdown of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) in humans when inhaled or ingested 30. Naphthalene and anthracene are allergic skin irritants in humans and other animals 30.

3. Microbial Hydrocarbon Degradation

Micro-organisms play a significant role in maintaining biosphere and ecosystem to sustain our environment 33. Bioremediation is a process that uses micro-organisms and/or the metabolites of micro-organisms, like enzymes to degrade pollutants 34, 35 into innocuous substances, requiring biostimulation or bioaugmentation or both 36. It was reported that the presence of microorganisms with microorganisms of suitable metabolic abilities to degrade pollutants influence the victory of bioremediation 37. Biostimulation is the process of adding limiting nutrients and also electron acceptors/oxygen to the contaminated environment to stimulate the growth of native oil-degrading micro-organisms 38. Nitrogen and phosphorus are crucial growth-limiting supplements for the growth of micro-organisms 37. This enhances the process of bioremediation. Bioaugmentation is the process of introducing selective micro-organisms with specific enzymes 38, to supplement the indigenous micro-organisms in a contaminated environment for more effective degradation of contaminants 39, 40, 41. Bioaugmentation is a preferable option when the crude oil polluted soil has a low population of native hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms, and when the pollutants are toxic to the indigenous micro-organisms. Also, it was reported that although bioaugmentation can degrade total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) of petroleum more effectively than biostimulation, biostimulation showed greater efficiency in remediation of petroleum polluted soil than bioaugmentation. This is because the dominant inoculants in bioaugmentation have suppressed the native micro-organisms during remediation, this showed less diversity of micro-organism species than biostimulation. Biodiversity is influenced by the richness, also evenness of the species 37. Also, it was reported that native micro-organisms can adapt easily, and respond to environmental conditions 42. Contaminants of an environment can be degraded naturally by their native micro-organisms by the process known as natural attenuation or bio attenuation. When this process is not enough to degrade the pollutants, biostimulation or/and bioaugmentation is used 40.

Bioremediation is very much used in reducing the risks of hydrocarbon contaminants 43. The susceptibility of hydrocarbons to microbial attack differs in the order: n-Alkanes > Branched alkanes > low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds > cyclic alkanes > polyaromatic hydrocarbons 44. Immobilization is a technique which is extensively used to keep the microbes or enzymes of them immobilized in a required space in marine oil spills by using the physical/chemical method 33. Immobilization makes the bioremediation process more effective against environmental barriers 38. As hydrocarbons are insoluble and hydrophobic, they restrict to be absorbed by the microbial cells and are also toxic to cells. Hydrocarbons also disturb the microbial cell membrane fluidity, so exposed micro-organisms want to change their composition of the cell membrane, to stabilize the phospholipid bilayer structure according to the exposed hydrocarbon type 45.

Micro-organisms capable of degrading hydrocarbons are found all-round in our natural environments 46. Hydrocarbon contaminants found in an environment is primarily degraded by bacteria, fungi 43 and yeast 41. Protozoa and Algae participation in biodegradation reports were scanty 40. It was reported that a consortium of micro-organisms was more effective than individuals 47, 40. Prior exposure of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria to hydrocarbons can help the microbial community to adapt and utilize hydrocarbons as carbon and energy sources 43. This is the rate-determining step of biodegradation 48. The three methods by which microbial adaptation can occur are (1) Specific enzyme induction and/or depression, (2) Genetic modifications that can affect metabolic pathways, (3) Selective enrichment of hydrocarbon-degrading microbes. Bacteria perform the above methods more than other microbes in soil 43. In the degradation of hydrocarbons, bacteria are the most active degraders 41, and they play various roles than fungi 43. Some marine bacteria (that consume PAHs as carbon and energy source) like Alcanivoras, Neptunomonas, Pseudomonas, Pseudoaltermonas, Altermonas, etc play a censorious role in metabolizing and completely oxidizing PAHs and many other petroleum hydrocarbons. This prevents PAHs from pile forming. So, these bacteria are important for the remediation of crude oil spills in the marine environment 49. The extent to which crude oil biodegradation occurs directly influences the crude oil quality. Bacteria make use of petroleum compounds as a source of carbon and energy. So during this process, a progressive reduction of light hydrocarbons takes place, then degradation of saturated hydrocarbons and aromatics occur. This biodegradation of crude oil by bacteria can increase oil viscosity because it leaves the oil enriched with heavy petroleum compounds. Sometimes, this may make mining less efficient. Also in extreme cases, it is unreasonable to extract the crude oil degraded by microbes. As the activity of microbes is limited by high temperatures, crude oils rich in LMW compounds are present in higher depths underground (>3.5 Km), where the temperature is higher than 80 degrees Celcius 50. Some hydrocarbon degradation abilities in bacteria are having degrading plasmids and more mobile genetic components, surfactant production and having certain catabolic enzymes (Oxygenases, Hydroxylases). Hyphal structures and extended surface area in fungi helps them in exposure to hydrocarbons and better penetration. Extracellular enzymes of fungi like oxidases also improve their hydrocarbon-degrading activity in soil 34. It was reported that in ligninolytic fungi, enzymes in lignin systems like lignin peroxidases, H202 producing enzymes and phenol oxidases (laccases & tyrosinases) can degrade PAHs 47. Factors that influence microbial hydrocarbon degradation is temperature, nutrients (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, iron) 41, pH, type and concentration of the contaminant, type of the soil 48, and electron acceptors in aerobic biodegradation 33.

3.1. Enzymes Involved in Microbial Degradation

Enzymes are biological catalysts that help in the conversion of substrates into products by providing conditions favourable for lowering the activation energy of the reaction. An enzyme can be either a protein or a glycoprotein 51. In both cases, it consists of at least one polypeptide moiety. Enzymes act as catalysts for many biochemical reactions happening in microbial degradation. The feasibility of bioremediation decreases when the process of degradation occurs only with the help of microorganisms since it is a slow process. In the last few years, microbial enzymes separated from their cells have been used for bioremediation as compared to using whole microorganisms 52. Sometimes, pollutants can be toxic to microbes consuming them. This gives rise to the usage of metabolic enzymes of microbes in bioremediation instead of a whole microbial cell, which was termed as “enzymatic remediation” 53. Enzyme bioremediation is independent of the microbial survival in the environment and depends on the efficiency of the enzyme. This process is safe as it does not form any toxic compounds during remediation, and this method is even applicable to soils without any adequate nutrients. Also, it is possible to bring more stable and active enzymes for remediation at lower costs and higher scales through recombinant DNA technology. This makes the usage of enzymes more favorable and advantageous 53. But, the enzyme activity can be very easily affected by external environmental factors. To overcome this issue, methods like immobilization are used 54. The enzymes involved in bioremediation are of two types i.e., Oxidoreductase and Hydrolases respectively. These enzymes have the potential to convert aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic amines, phenols, and many other pollutants to simpler less reactive forms 35. Hydrolase is a class of enzymes that commonly perform as biochemical catalysts that use water to break a chemical bond, which typically results in dividing a larger molecule into smaller molecules 55. For the conversion of pollutants to harmless inert substances, a sequence of reactions with many enzymes is necessary, which demands many types of micro-organisms for a good result. Micro-organisms require optimum environmental conditions for growth. So, the usage of enzyme extracts of micro-organisms would be a good alternative method for the bioremediation of complex compounds 35.


3.1.1. Oxidoreductase

An oxidoreductase (EC class 1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from one molecule, the reductant, also called the electron donor, to another, the oxidant, also called the electron acceptor. Oxidoreductases catalyze the detoxification of synthetic organic substances such as azo rings, aniline substances, and phenolics 56. Oxidoreductases are produced by fungi, bacteria, also higher plants. So, these organisms can detoxify natural and artificial pollutants, also can reverse xenobiotic toxicity. Two types of oxidoreductases are oxygenases (monooxygenases, dioxygenases, and peroxidases) and oxidases (laccases) 35.

Oxygenases

Oxygenases (EC 1.13, 1.14) catalyzes the transfer of oxygen from molecular oxygen(O2) to inorganic or organic substrates using coenzymes line FAD, NADH, and NADPH. Oxygenases are classified based on the usage of the number of oxygen atoms. There are two types of oxygenases, monooxygenases (EC 1.14.14) (they transfer only one oxygen atom and electrons from coenzyme NADPH or NADH), dioxygenases (1.13.11) (they transfer two oxygen atoms), and peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) (they catalyze peroxide reduction processes, through oxidation of electron donor) 35, 57. Oxygenases break the aromatic rings in compounds by the addition of one/two molecules of oxygen 35. Oxygenases catalyze the process of oxidation of aromatic compounds such as chlorinated biphenyls, aliphatic olefins making them prone to further transformation and mineralization 52. Oxygenases degrade the organic compounds by rising the reactivity or water solubility of compounds, or by breakage of aromatic rings. Generally, the addition of oxygen atoms to compounds breaks their aromatic rings. Monooxygenases catalyze aliphatic and aromatic compounds by undergoing desulfurization, denitrification, hydroxylation, biodegradation, dehalogenation, ammonification, and biotransformation. The most distinguishing monooxygenase enzyme is methane monooxygenase, which is capable of degrading alkanes, alkenes, methanes, haloalkenes, cycloalkanes, ethers, aromatics, and heterocyclic hydrocarbons. P450 monooxygenase enzyme produced by bacterium Bacillus metaterium can catalyze the degradation of aromatic compounds 57. Dioxygenases catalyze the transformation of aromatics to aliphatic compounds. And, they are used mainly for the bioremediation of pharmaceutical wastes, chemical wastes, and colorants 35. They are categorized into aromatic ring hydroxylation dioxygenases (ARHDs) and aromatic ring cleavage dioxygenases (ARCDs) was based on the method they break the bonds on aromatic compounds. Toluene (VOC) degradation can be catalyzed by Toluene Dioxygenase (TOD) produced in Pseudomonas putida 57. Peroxidases such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) catalyze the reduction reactions and generate reactive free radicals after the oxidation of organic compounds 52. Peroxidases (oxidizing agents) 56 that contain hydrogen peroxide oxidoreductase donors are widespread in the environment 57. They are divided into heme and non-heme peroxidases. Heme peroxidases are divided into two groups, the first group comprises peroxidases in animals and the second group comprises heme peroxidases in plants, prokaryotes, and fungi. Non-heme peroxidases are divided into three classes. In mammals, peroxidases participate in hormone regulation, immune systems, and other biological processes. In plants, they are involved in cell elongation, auxin metabolism, etc 57. Peroxidases are used in bioremediation, because they are thermostable, and they can oxidize a broad range of substrates. Peroxidases are produced by plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria 35.

Oxidases (Laccases)

Laccases are polyphenol oxidases, that contain four ions of copper 37. Laccases catalyze the cleaving of rings present in aromatic compounds by reducing one molecule of oxygen in the water and producing free radicals 52. They are widespread and found scattered in bacteria, higher plants, fungi, and insects. They are the oldest and majorly studied enzyme systems. They are polymeric. Laccases oxidize methoxy-phenolic acids and phenolics and also decarboxylates their methoxy groups 57. Intracellular and extracellular laccases produced by many micro-organisms catalyze the oxidation of polyphenols, polyamines, ortho-diphenols, para-diphenols, aminophenols, aryl diamines, and lignins, also some of the inorganic ions 56, 57. Among other biological enzymes, laccases show promising roles in bioremediation and biotechnical applications. Many reagents like halides (except iodine) can inhibit laccases. Different laccases have different tolerance capacities on inhibitors. Recombinant laccases could be made homologously or heterologously. Immobilization of laccases improves their stability, enzyme half-life, and resistivity to proteases. Laccase produced by Trametes Versicolor fungus immobilized on glass beads containing pores, showed good bioremediation of many pollutants, like phenolic compounds, heterocyclic aromatic compounds, and amine-containing aromatics 57.


3.1.2. Hydrolases

Hydrolases are biochemical catalysts that use water to break chemical bonds in toxic compounds, dividing larger molecules into smaller molecules, thus reducing toxicity 52, 57. There are mainly five types of Hydrolases involved in bioremediation. These are lipases, cellulases, carboxylesterases, phosphotriesterases, and haloalkane dehalogenases. Lipases help in breaking triglycerol into glycerol and fatty acid and are used for wastewater treatment, polyaromatic hydrocarbon degradation (PAHs), etc. 52. Lipases deteriorate hydrocarbon concentration in polluted soils. It was reported that lipase can be produced from P.aeruginosa, a fungal species, and can be utilized for crude oil bioremediation 53. Esterases are capable of degrading alkanes, also aromatic rings in fungal and bacterial isolates. It was reported that lipases and esterases can be used as a biological indicator to observe total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. In the presence of hydrocarbons, lipases and esterases are induced 58. Cellulases perform the breakdown of complex cellulosic materials into simple sugars. They are commonly used in the treatment of agricultural residues like cotton waste, sawdust of Khaya ivorensis, and rice straw. Carboxylesterases help in the catalyzes of the hydrolysis of carboxyl ester bonds present in synthetic pesticides such as organophosphates with the addition of water. Phosphotriesterase catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphotriester, the main components of organophosphorus compounds used worldwide in pesticides, causing severe poisoning and death. Haloalkane dehalogenases are used for biodegradation of halogenated aliphatic compounds such as 1,2,3-Trichloropropane 52. Cellulase, hemicellulase, and glycosidase actively degrade biomass. Advantages of utilizing these hydrolases are their non-selectivity, good tolerability, its availability, and cofactor stereo-selectivity lack 56. It is an effective biodegradation technique in case of oil spillages 57. It was reported that entrapment of organophosphorus hydrolase in the bacterial membrane has improved the catalytic rate of enzymes for parathion degradation 53.

Bioremediation elicited from purified and partially purified enzymes do not depend on the growth of a particular microorganism in a polluted environment but it depends upon the catalytic activity of the enzyme secreted by microbes. In soil that is nutrient deficient, bioremediation can be done by using a purified enzyme. Microbial biotransformation produces toxic side products which are not produced by environment-friendly enzymatic biotransformation. Enzymes are more specific to their substrate than microbes. Their smaller size makes them mobile in nature.

3.2. Mechanism

Breakdown of hydrocarbon pollutants microbially is a very slow process at times, but optimum biodegradation could be achieved if environmental conditions such as PH, temperature, nutrients, and relevant microbial consortia are made possible 59. We are going to discuss the degradation process which can be taken up by either bacteria or yeast. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are widespread in marine, freshwater, soil habitats and they are exploited for their ability to degrade/detoxify organic contaminants, hence being recognized as an efficient, economical, versatile, and environmentally sound treatment 60. Bacteria can exploit carbon compounds in oil considering it as a necessary source of energy 61. Taking the metabolic diversity demonstrated for yeasts into account, yeasts contribute to the environmental hydrocarbon biodegradation more than previously expected 62. The isolate of yeast also shows a high potency in petroleum oil biodegradation of some hydrocarbons 63. The biodegradation of petroleum compounds happens through three processes. First, the absorption of petroleum takes place on microbial surfaces. Second, these compounds are transferred to microbial cell membranes degrading into the microbial cell after that. Third, microorganisms degrade these compounds into various small molecules 64. Petroleum components with different structures have different pathways of degradation such as saturated, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene fractions hydrocarbon. Depending on the chain length, enzyme systems need to introduce oxygen in the substrate to start the process of biodegradation. Higher eukaryotes generally contain several different P450 families that consist of a large number of individual P450 forms that may contribute as an ensemble of isoforms to the metabolic conversion of the given substrate. In microorganisms, such P450 multiplicity can only be found in a few species 65. Results of studies also suggest that Rhodococcus sp., Trichoderma tomentosum, and Fusarium oxysporum may effectively enhance the biodegradation of PAH compounds in the category of bacterial degradation 66.


3.2.1. Degrading Process of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mainly high carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic substances, which have drawn much attention to their degradation mechanism 67. PAHs have high boiling points and are lipophilic, so easily spread and accumulate in aquatic ecosystems 68. PAHs contamination in our environment increases with the increase in the production and transport of petroleum oils. PAHs exist in many structural varieties than other non-halogenated compounds in the biosphere. The fate of these PAHs in the ecosystem includes adsorption on the soil particles, volatilization, photo-oxidation, oxidation by chemicals, and leaching. PAHs are highly stable 54 and difficult to degrade naturally. It was reported that bioremediation proves as a good solution for PAH degradation 69. PAHs are of intense public concern owing to their presence in the environment and deleterious effects on human health 65. Laccases perform well in PAH degradation. Also, it was reported that the reverse micelle system, that uses laccase, when operated under optimum conditions for 24 hours has been shown to degrade PAHs (51.2% benzo(a)anthracene degradation, 50.3% phenanthrene degradation, 68.2% anthracene, 68.9% benzo(alpha) fluoranthrene) 54. It was reported that the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex plays a crucial role in PAH compounds degradation. Microalgae can be used as a biosorbent for PAH sorption and degradation can be done by the usage of enzymes. Genetic engineering is a promising tool for enhancing the adsorption process and remediation of organic compounds. Also, can improve microalgae tolerance in these organic compounds 68. It was reported that Rhodococcus wratislaviensis strain 9, can degrade both LMW, and HMW PAHs efficiently as it has genes that code for the enzymes 2,3-dihydroxy biphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase (bphC), oxygenase component (nphA1), naphthalene dioxygenase, 4-nitrophenol 2-monooxygenase component B (npcB), 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase (phbH), and extradiol dioxygenase (edo) 70. Generally, during degradation, the PAHs undergo gradual degradation into epoxide, trans diol, phenol, and trans dihydro 2 phenol by yeast monooxygenase enzyme. Another method for PAH degradation is that PAHs undergo gradual degradation by dioxygenase enzyme into epoxide, cis diol, etc. In both PAH degradation pathways, the final products are water and carbon dioxide. The overall steps of biodegradation of PAHs are demonstrated in Figure 1 64. PAHs are different to be degraded, and the degraded level of PAHs should be graded in order of solubility, the number of benzene rings, the species, and the number of substituent species, the properties of heterocyclic atoms, etc. Also, asphalt has the most complicated structure, which is very much difficult to be decomposed by biodegradation. These results have common implications for bioremediation that’s, nature harbors diverse microbial populations capable of pollutant degradation from which a couple of pollutant-degrading populations are selected consistent with bioremediation strategies.

3.3. Some Examples of Microorganisms Involved in Biodegradation of Hydrocarbons
3.3.1. Microbes Involved in Aerobic Biodegradation of Hydrocarbons

Some examples of microbes involved in aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbon are given in Table 1.


3.3.2. Microbes Involved in Anaerobic Biodegradation of Hydrocarbons

Some examples of microbes involved in anaerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons are given in Table 2.

4. Genetically Modified Microbes for PAH Degradation

PAH degradation studies have gained importance in bioremediation but occasionally the process becomes very slow due to some abiotic and biotic factors 71. Microbes that help in PAH degradation utilizes PAHs as the carbon source for their catabolic regulation 72. In laboratory conditions, microbes show ideal activity for PAH degradation but it shows the lesser capability to degrade PAH in field conditions.

These microbe’s enzymatic activities can be modified by altering their genetic composition in order to enhance their potential to degrade PAHs in field conditions. Using genetic engineering the microbes can be modified so that they can have high salt tolerance, withstand toxic chemicals and produce biosurfactants to degrade different kinds of PAHs 12.

4.1. Genes Responsible for PAH Degradation

Anaerobic and aerobic PAH degradation is studied and a few catabolic genes which are responsible for PAH degradation was identified 78. Gram-positive bacteria like Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium, and Nocardioides help in the degradation of PAHs have catabolic genes like nar, phd, nid and pdo. Gram-negative bacteria like Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Burkholderia, Sphingomonas, and Polaromonas have catabolic genes like nag, nah, ndo, phn and pah to degrade PAHs. Some plants species also possess genes that are responsible in PAH degradation. Species and genes responsible for PAH degradation are mentioned in Table 3 71.

4.2. Genetic Engineering Approaches for PAH Bioremediation

There are different approaches to modify microorganisms genetically to increase the efficiency of PAH bioremediation. General genetic engineering approaches used in bioremediation are directed evolution, saturation mutagenesis, metabolic engineering, rational designing 79.


4.2.1. Directed Evolution

Directed evolution is a laboratory approach involving the evolution of biological macromolecules by Darwinian principles of selection and mutation 126. It is a strong approach to explore, alter the enzyme-substrate specificity and improve bio-catalysis. This strategy enables to alteration of the enzyme with desired characteristics by site-directed mutagenesis 79. Directed evolution does not require more detailed analyses about the protein structure and in vitro, it imitates natural methods like sexual recombination and random mutagenesis which accelerated in order to bring desirable changes 127. A directed evolution approach is can be used to engineer improved or new enzymes or remodel metabolic pathways or engineer the whole genome for any biological applications 128. Error-prone PCR is used to reconstruct the DNA fragments of different lengths around 10-300 bps to construct the desired gene where the random mutants can be inserted in any DNA fragments. In error-prone PCR the polymerase is not extremely specific it is modulated by the alteration of the composition, So the polymerase can make mistakes in the base pairing and synthesis of a new complementary DNA strand. By controlling the buffer concentration, the rate of error introduced can be regulated 129. Homologous recombination is done to assemble the DNA fragments. The polymerase extension is done using dNTPs and the full length of the mutated gene is obtained using a nested PCR methodology 127. The enzymes or metabolic pathways responsible for PAH degradation can be altered using this approach so that the efficiency of the degradation process can be enhanced. For example, Laccases enzymes are multicopper enzymes that help in catalyzing the four-electron reduction by four electron pathways to reduce oxygen to water and laccase also catalyzes one-electron oxidation of reducing substratum. These are extensively found in white-rot fungi 130. This fungal laccase enzyme can be helpful in the degradation of PAH. For effective bioremediation of PAHs organic co-solvents are required in high concentrations. But this organic co-solvent can decrease the stability and activity of the laccases enzyme. Therefore, laccase enzyme from Myceliophthora thermophila (MtLT2) well expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is utilized as the parent type to perform directed evolution using error-prone PCR to improve activity in organic co-solvent high concentration and to maintain the stability of the enzymes in those conditions 131, 132.


4.2.2. Rational Designing

By comparing homologous genetic sources, the key sites of the gene are identified and those specific sites are mutated by site-directed mutagenesis, in which the amino acid at a specific region is mutated replacing another amino acid, this approach is known as rational designing 79. To perform a rational designing molecular approach prior information of the 3d structure, dynamics, mechanics of the protein to be modified, is required. This is because every protein has fine folding kinetics any mutation in the undesired sites can lead to disruption of its confirmation resulting in reduced catalytic activity 133. The main advantage of this strategy is it can be successful even in the absence of a high throughput assay system 134. Many techniques like functional bioinformatics techniques, x-ray crystallography, etc. are used to identify the structural properties of the biomolecule which is modified by rational designing. X-ray crystallography or functional bioinformatics techniques provides the structural information about the biomolecule and this information is mathematically and graphically displayed in the computer for further analysis a model depicting the biomolecule is created in the computer and this allows to predict the effect of the mutation at a specific site 135.

The main element of rational designing is that the rDNA technique should be used in order to make native protein variants. The protein responsible for PAH degradation can be altered in this approach so as to perform the desired function in the degradation of PAH. For example, the oxidation activity efficiency of the p450 monooxygenase enzyme is improved for PAH bioremediation purposes. Six sets of fungal cytochrome p450 monooxygenase (pc-pah1--pc-pah6) were identified in Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Out of which pc-pah4 (CYP5136A3) has the ability to oxidizes PAH compounds like pyrene and phenanthrene 136. Mammalian and microbial CYP enzymes show less stability, reduced expression of the enzyme, and low activity in field systems due to unfavourable conditions. These major limitations are the cause to engineer this enzyme to improve its oxidation efficiency 137. The main residues involved in substrate recognition trp129 and leu324 were identified and located at SRS1 and SRS4 respectively 138. Rational engineering is done by alternative mutation of the specific site (W129L AND L324G) to increase the catalytic activity 139.


4.2.3. Saturation Mutagenesis

Saturation mutagenesis involves iterative mutations of the gene at specific sites which are chosen rationally to bring desired characteristics to the gene 79. The target sites undergo an iterative mutation cycle till the gene property of the particular gene is enhanced. The gene mutated in the first cycle is used as the template for the next mutation cycle in the respective other sites and the process is repeated until the desired feature of the gene is obtained 140. Saturated mutagenesis has numerous applications like enhancing enzymatic activity, stereoselectivity, and stability, manipulating transcriptional factors, and binding properties of the antibodies 141. Using saturation mutagenesis, it is possible to generate a library of mutants which comprises all possible mutation at predestined target sites 142.

Most of the homologous enzymes have different catalytic activity but have common structural properties. So change in few residues result in a change in its function. Performing saturation mutagenesis on those target sites helps to enhance the geometry of the binding sites in the improved or new enzyme 143. This approach comprises both rational designing and directed evolution (random mutation) approach to obtain the desired gene characteristics. Like rational designing, the key sites are identified using the spatial arrangement of the protein which is determined by x-ray crystallography, NMR techniques. The iterative mutation is done likewise in directed evolution to obtain a high-quality library of mutants that is easier to screen 144. This saturation mutagenesis approach can be used to enhance the degradation capacity of the enzymes for PAH remediation. For example, previously we understood the cytochrome p450 monooxygenase enzymatic activity towards PAHs oxidation, and the enzymatic properties were enhanced by rational designing 139 likewise the same enzyme can be engineered by using the saturation mutagenesis approach. The iterative mutation is done at the key sites until the enzymatic activity towards PAH is enhanced. Using this approach library of mutants can be constructed and the variant active toward PAH degradation, enhanced enzymatic activity, and has more stability can be screened using the library 145.


4.2.4. Metabolic Engineering

Metabolic engineering involves enhancing the production of a particular cellular compound in an organism by genetic and regulatory alteration 146. The metabolic pathway of a microorganism is modified to change the cellular property of the cell such that it can produce desired cellular compounds. This approach offers a technological framework to increase the creation of newly synthesized metabolic enzymes and pathways or altering the existing metabolic pathway in order to increase cellular activity or cellular compound production 147. Metabolic engineering can be employed for enhancing the production of chemicals which are naturally inherent. This approach is also utilized to produce artificial-non inherent, natural but non-inherent, and artificially created chemicals in an organism. The efficiency of natural- inherent chemical production can be enhanced by directly altering the host strain’s existing pathway to overproduce the required chemicals or biomolecules. Whereas to produce artificial non-inherent, natural but non-inherent, and artificially created chemicals which are not produced by the host’s existing pathway is initiated with engineering a suitable synthetic metabolic pathway designed heterologous or combinational expression of new or known genes 148. After the designed pathway is constructed the host strain is further engineered to increase the efficiency of the production of these compounds 149. The type of host organism, the desired product and the type of metabolic engineering approach to be used should be analysed and determined to obtain successful metabolic engineering 150. This approach can be used for PAH bioremediation purposes. In order to enhance the degradation process, the metabolic activity of the organism can be enhanced by combining the metabolic pathway of the different organisms in one organism 79. For example, Arabidopsis is an autotrophic plant variety it can thrive in PAH contaminated soil conditions. But it lacks genes responsible for PAH degradation. So engineering bacterial pathways into this plant by metabolic engineering approach can be helpful for efficient degradation of PAH present in the contaminated soil. For this purpose, Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 naphthalene dehydrogenase system is incorporated into Arabidopsis plants for the initial transformation of three aromatic rings PAHs. M.vanbaalenii PYR-1 genes encoding for electron transport chain was undetermined hence suitable electron transport chain from Pseudomonas putida G7 naphthalene dehydrogenase system was incorporated into nib genes of the mycobacterium. This co-transformed mycobacterium is introduced into the plants and the desired gene for detoxifying PAH is produced 151.

4.3. Some Examples of Genetically Engineered Microbes for PAH Bioremediation

PAHs present in the environment can be degraded efficiently by modifying the genetic makeover of the microbes. For this purpose, many microbes are genetically modified to check their degradation efficiency. Modified microbial species and their respective genetic modification method, desired outcome from the modified microbial species are explained in Table 4.

5. Regulatory Challenges for Gem:

When it comes to the development of Genetically Engineered microorganisms that could be deployed for the purpose of bioremediation and other different environmental applications, there arise ethical arguments relating to possible outcomes of risk when they are used in the field. The slow progress of Genetically engineered microbes over the past decade and strict regulations involved in their deployment is referenced to legislative constraints and safety concerns sensed by the public in general 79, 152. The regulatory agencies that oversee the regulations of Genetically modified organisms are the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (OECD 1992, 1994) 153. Genetically modified organisms are most probable of creating adverse effects on the environment as well as human health. The effects caused depends on the characteristics of the GMO and the nature of the environment. With reference to 154, it has been prescribed by the regulatory agents that the genetic makeup of the mutated microorganisms need to be compared to their wild-type counterparts with all the necessary field conditions before being deployed 79. The main obstacle in deterring the use of genetically modified organisms is containment 167. The rate of survival and horizontal gene transfer ability of genetically modified organisms is also a serious issue to consider. More often, genetically engineered organisms don’t exploit the target substrate as expected even if it is a well-defined biochemical pathway. It leads to unintended side reactions resulting in the formation of toxins which makes determining the possible impacts on the diversity of the ecosystem challenging 168. On the whole, designing a microorganism that shows satisfactory affinity to ecological diversity is one of the prime strategies 169.

6. Future Aspects

The progress in protein engineering, molecular biology and genetic engineering has led to novel ways of redefining the containment system of genetically engineered microbes 170. The extended presence of genetically engineered organisms in the ecosystem after the desired purpose is attributed to the physical and chemical stability of selective markers, recombinant genes and plasmids 171. To avoid this possibility, we could refrain from using selective markers without antibiotic resistance and certain transposons and plasmids 168, 172.

The unintended damage to the ecological diversity can be nipped by using containment strategies such as suicide mechanisms, which is based on killer-anti-killer gene mechanism where the microbes are activated only in the presence of the target substrate and the cells are prone to autolysis upon successful degradation of the target substrate 169. Development of these suicidal engineered genetically modified microorganisms will be a very relevant technology for the future as it tackles both the regulatory challenges associated with genetically modified organisms as well as preventing ecological damage.

7. Conclusion

Crude oil spillages are a threat to our environment. Among them, PAHs causes dangerous health hazards to many organisms in our environment. So, degradation of these contaminants can cause a considerable effect in lowering the toxicity of crude oil. As earlier, micro-organisms play a notable role in bioremediation. Genetically modifying the micro-organisms allows us to modify the micro-organisms, with required biodegrading capabilities, which are more effective than natural micro-organisms in degrading toxic wastes. Many reports have shown the potential of genetically engineered micro-organisms (GEMs) to degrade pollutants in soil, groundwater and sludge. The survival of GEMs in the contaminated environment is non-problematic even in harsh environmental conditions. Also, they persist even after the degradation of pollutants. This can be a disadvantage. In future, we may be able to see more safe GEMs to remove toxic pollutants from our environment.

Acknowledgements

This review paper on the:

CRUDE OIL BIOREMEDIATION - GENETICALLY MODIFIED MICROORGANISMS FOR POLY-AROMATIC HYDROCARBON DEGRADATION is immensely supported by Ré - The research and exploratory cell of Kumaraguru College of Technology. We sincerely thank our mentors from Ré for their extraordinary support and guidance throughout the course of the completion of the review paper.

References

[1]  M. Hassanshahian, N. Amirinejad and M. A. Behzadi, “Crude oil pollution and biodegradation at the Persian Gulf: A comprehensive and review study,” Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, vol. 18, p. 1415-1435, 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[2]  R. Pelta, N. Carmon and E. Ben-Dor, “A machine learning approach to detect crude oil contamination in a real scenario using hyperspectral remote sensing,” International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 82, p. 101901, 2019.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  A. G. Marshall and R. P. Rodgers, “Petroleomics: Chemistry of the underworld,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 105, p. 18090-18095, 10 2008.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[4]  H. I. Abdel-Shafy and M. S. M. Mansour, “A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation,” Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, vol. 25, p. 107-123, 3 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  A. Kumar, A. Munjal and R. Sawhney, “Crude oil PAH constitution, degradation pathway and associated bioremediation microflora: an overview,” International Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 1, p. 1420-1439, 2011.
In article      
 
[6]  X. Wu, B. Yue, Y. Su, Q. Wang, Q. Huang, Q. Wang and H. Cai, “Pollution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in common used mineral oils and their transformation during oil regeneration,” Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 56, p. 247-253, 6 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[7]  R. J. W. Brooijmans, M. I. Pastink and R. J. Siezen, “Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria: the oil-spill clean-up crew,” Microbial Biotechnology, vol. 2, p. 587-594, 10 2009.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[8]  Sakshi and A. K. Haritash, “A comprehensive review of metabolic and genomic aspects of PAH-degradation,” Archives of Microbiology, vol. 202, p. 2033-2058, 6 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[9]  S. Kuppusamy, P. Thavamani, K. Venkateswarlu, Y. B. Lee, R. Naidu and M. Megharaj, “Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions,” Chemosphere, vol. 168, p. 944-968, 2 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[10]  S. Kathi and A. B. Khan, “Phytoremediation approaches to PAH contaminated soil,” Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 4, p. 56-63, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  S. Chandra, R. Sharma, K. Singh and A. Sharma, “Application of bioremediation technology in the environment contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon,” Annals of Microbiology, vol. 63, p. 417-431, 9 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  S. M. Khade and S. K. Srivastava, “Genetically Modified Microbes for Bioremediation of Oil Spills in Marine Environment”.
In article      
 
[13]  S. Ngene, K. Tota-Maharaj, P. Eke and C. Hills, “Environmental and economic impacts of crude oil and natural gas production in developing countries,” International Journal of Economy, Energy and Environment, vol. 1, p. 64-73, 2016.
In article      
 
[14]  G. Yasin, M. I. Bhanger, T. M. Ansari, S. M. S. R. Naqvi, M. Ashraf, K. Ahmad and F. N. Talpur, “Quality and chemistry of crude oils,” Journal of Petroleum Technology and Alternative Fuels, vol. 4, p. 53-63, 2013.
In article      
 
[15]  E. J. Buskey, H. K. White and A. J. Esbaugh, “Impact of oil spills on marine life in the Gulf of Mexico: effects on plankton, nekton, and deep-sea benthos,” Oceanography, vol. 29, p. 174-181, 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  P. E. Ndimele, A. O. Saba, D. O. Ojo, C. C. Ndimele, M. A. Anetekhai and E. S. Erondu, “Remediation of crude oil spillage,” in The political ecology of oil and gas activities in the Nigerian aquatic ecosystem, Elsevier, 2018, p. 369-384.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  S. Kauppi, A. Sinkkonen and M. Romantschuk, “Enhancing bioremediation of diesel-fuel-contaminated soil in a boreal climate: comparison of biostimulation and bioaugmentation,” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 65, p. 359-368, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  J. P. Incardona, “Molecular mechanisms of crude oil developmental toxicity in fish,” Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, vol. 73, p. 19-32, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[19]  S. Chandra, R. Sharma, K. Singh and A. Sharma, “Application of bioremediation technology in the environment contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon,” Annals of microbiology, vol. 63, p. 417-431, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  A. Baali and A. Yahyaoui, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their influence to some aquatic species,” in Biochemical Toxicology-Heavy Metals and Nanomaterials, IntechOpen, 2019.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  O. S. Obayori and L. B. Salam, “Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: role of plasmids,” Scientific Research and Essays, vol. 5, p. 4093-4106, 2010.
In article      
 
[22]  E. Sørhus, J. P. Incardona, Ø. Karlsen, T. Linbo, L. Sørensen, T. Nordtug, T. van der Meeren, A. Thorsen, M. Thorbjørnsen, S. Jentoft and others, “Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, p. 1-21, 2016.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[23]  B. E. Finch, S. Marzooghi, D. M. Di Toro and W. A. Stubblefield, “Phototoxic potential of undispersed and dispersed fresh and weathered Macondo crude oils to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms,” Environmental toxicology and chemistry, vol. 36, p. 2640-2650, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[24]  M. K. Sellin Jeffries, C. Claytor, W. Stubblefield, W. H. Pearson and J. T. Oris, “Quantitative risk model for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon photoinduced toxicity in Pacific herring following the Exxon Valdez oil spill,” Environmental science & technology, vol. 47, p. 5450-5458, 2013.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[25]  K. S. Chukwuka, C. G. Alimba, G. A. Ataguba and W. A. Jimoh, “The impacts of petroleum production on terrestrial fauna and flora in the oil-producing region of Nigeria,” in The Political Ecology of Oil and Gas Activities in the Nigerian Aquatic Ecosystem, Elsevier, 2018, p. 125-142.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  J. Odukoya, R. Lambert and R. Sakrabani, “Understanding the impacts of crude oil and its induced abiotic stresses on agrifood production: A review,” Horticulturae, vol. 5, p. 47, 2019.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Y. Wang, J. Feng, Q. Lin, X. Lyu, X. Wang and G. Wang, “Effects of crude oil contamination on soil physical and chemical properties in Momoge wetland of China,” Chinese geographical science, vol. 23, p. 708-715, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  I. N. E. Onwurah, V. N. Ogugua, N. B. Onyike, A. E. Ochonogor and O. F. Otitoju, “Crude oil spills in the environment, effects and some innovative clean-up biotechnologies,” 2007.
In article      
 
[29]  B. L. Chilvers, K. J. Morgan and B. J. White, “Sources and reporting of oil spills and impacts on wildlife 1970-2018,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 28, p. 754-762, 2021.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[30]  H. I. Abdel-Shafy and M. S. M. Mansour, “A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation,” Egyptian journal of petroleum, vol. 25, p. 107-123, 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  P. P. Fu, Q. Xia, X. Sun and H. Yu, “Phototoxicity and environmental transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)—light-induced reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C, vol. 30, p. 1-41, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[32]  M. A. D'Andrea and G. K. Reddy, “Crude oil spill exposure and human health risks,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 56, p. 1029-1041, 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[33]  S. J. Varjani, “Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 223, p. 277-286, 1 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[34]  C.. B. Chikere, G.. C. Okpokwasili and B.. O. Chikere, “Monitoring of microbial hydrocarbon remediation in the soil,” 3 Biotech, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 117-138, 6 July 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[35]  C. H. Okino-Delgado, M. R. Zanutto-Elgui, D. Z. do Prado, M. S. Pereira and L. F. Fleuri, “Enzymatic bioremediation: current status, challenges of obtaining process, and applications,” in Microbial metabolism of xenobiotic compounds, Springer, 2019, p. 79-101.
In article      View Article
 
[36]  X. Wang, Z. Cai, Q. Zhou, Z. Zhang and C. Chen, “Bioelectrochemical stimulation of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in saline soil using U-tube microbial fuel cells,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 109, p. 426-433, 10 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[37]  M. Wu, J. Wu, X. Zhang and X. Ye, “Effect of bioaugmentation and biostimulation on hydrocarbon degradation and microbial community composition in petroleum-contaminated loessal soil,” Chemosphere, vol. 237, p. 124456, 2019.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[38]  H. Zhang, J. Tang, L. Wang, J. Liu, R. G. Gurav and K. Sun, “A novel bioremediation strategy for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants using salt tolerant Corynebacterium variabile HRJ4 and biochar,” Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 47, p. 7-13, 9 2016.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[39]  G. O. Adams, P. T. Fufeyin, S. E. Okoro, I. Ehinomen and others, “Bioremediation, biostimulation and bioaugmention: a review,” International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation, vol. 3, p. 28-39, 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[40]  N. Tahri, W. Bahafid, H. Sayel and N. E. Ghachtouli, “Biodegradation: Involved Microorganisms and Genetically Engineered Microorganisms,” in Biodegradation - Life of Science, InTech, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[41]  N. Das and P. Chandran, “Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants: An Overview,” Biotechnology Research International, vol. 2011, p. 1-13, 9 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[42]  A. Roy, A. Dutta, S. Pal, A. Gupta, J. Sarkar, A. Chatterjee, A. Saha, P. Sarkar, P. Sar and S. K. Kazy, “Biostimulation and bioaugmentation of native microbial community accelerated bioremediation of oil refinery sludge,” Bioresource technology, vol. 253, p. 22-32, 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[43]  C. B. Chikere, G. C. Okpokwasili and B. O. Chikere, “Monitoring of microbial hydrocarbon remediation in the soil,” 3 Biotech, vol. 1, p. 117-138, 7 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[44]  B. Z. Fathepure, “Recent studies in microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 5, 4 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[45]  F. Abbasian, R. Lockington, M. Mallavarapu and R. Naidu, “A Comprehensive Review of Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation by Bacteria,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 176, p. 670-699, 5 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[46]  J.-F. Zhou, P.-K. Gao, X.-H. Dai, X.-Y. Cui, H.-M. Tian, J.-J. Xie, G.-Q. Li and T. Ma, “Heavy hydrocarbon degradation of crude oil by a novel thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain A-2,” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 126, p. 224-230, 1 2018.
In article      View Article
 
[47]  A. B. Al-Hawash, M. A. Dragh, S. Li, A. Alhujaily, H. A. Abbood, X. Zhang and F. Ma, “Principles of microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment,” The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, vol. 44, p. 71-76, 6 2018.
In article      View Article
 
[48]  C. W. Greer, L. G. Whyte and T. D. Niederberger, “Microbial Communities in{\hspace{0.167em}}Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Temperate, Tropical, Alpine, and Polar Soils,” in Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2010, p. 2313-2328.
In article      View Article
 
[49]  D. W. Lee, H. Lee, A. H. Lee, B.-O. Kwon, J. S. Khim, U. H. Yim, B. S. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Microbial community composition and PAHs removal potential of indigenous bacteria in oil contaminated sediment of Taean coast, Korea,” Environmental pollution, vol. 234, p. 503-512, 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[50]  Ł. Ławniczak, M. Woźniak-Karczewska, A. P. Loibner, H. J. Heipieper and Ł. Chrzanowski, “Microbial degradation of hydrocarbons—basic principles for bioremediation: a review,” Molecules, vol. 25, p. 856, 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[51]  C. S. Karigar and S. S. Rao, “Role of microbial enzymes in the bioremediation of pollutants: a review,” Enzyme research, vol. 2011, 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[52]  B. Sharma, A. K. Dangi and P. Shukla, “Contemporary enzyme based technologies for bioremediation: a review,” Journal of environmental management, vol. 210, p. 10-22, 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[53]  J. O. Osuoha and E. O. Nwaichi, “Enzymatic technologies as green and sustainable techniques for remediation of oil-contaminated environment: state of the art,” International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 18, p. 1299-1322, 2021.
In article      View Article
 
[54]  P. Xu, H. Du, X. Peng, Y. Tang, Y. Zhou, X. Chen, J. Fei, Y. Meng and L. Yuan, “Degradation of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by laccase in reverse micelle system,” Science of The Total Environment, vol. 708, p. 134970, 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[55]  B. Sharma, A. K. Dangi and P. Shukla, “Contemporary enzyme based technologies for bioremediation: A review,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 210, p. 10-22, 3 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[56]  R. Shome, “Role of microbial enzymes in Bioremediation,” eLifePress, vol. 1, p. 15-20, 2020.
In article      
 
[57]  S. Dave and J. Das, “Role of microbial enzymes for biodegradation and bioremediation of environmental pollutants: challenges and future prospects,” in Bioremediation for Environmental Sustainability, Elsevier, 2021, p. 325-346.
In article      View Article
 
[58]  T. Kadri, T. Rouissi, S. Magdouli, S. K. Brar, K. Hegde, Z. Khiari, R. Daghrir and J.-M. Lauzon, “Production and characterization of novel hydrocarbon degrading enzymes from Alcanivorax borkumensis,” International journal of biological macromolecules, vol. 112, p. 230-240, 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[59]  I. F. H. AI-Jawhari, “Ability of some soil fungi in biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon,” Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, vol. 2, p. 46-52, 2014.
In article      
 
[60]  S. H. Mirdamadian and G. Emtiazi, “Biodegradation of Petroleum and Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Bacteria Isolated from Petroleum-Contaminated Soil,” Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology, vol. 1, 2010.
In article      View Article
 
[61]  K. V. Darsa, A. J. Thatheyus and D. Ramya, “Biodegradation of Petroleum Compound Using the Bacterium Bacillus subtilis,” Science International, vol. 2, p. 20-25, 1 2014.
In article      View Article
 
[62]  B. Gargouri, N. Mhiri, F. Karray, F. Aloui and S. Sayadi, “Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, p. 1-11, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[63]  S. Farag and N. A. Soliman, “Biodegradation of crude petroleum oil and environmental pollutants by Candida tropicalis strain,” Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, vol. 54, p. 821-830, 8 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[64]  J. Xue, Y. Yu, Y. Bai, L. Wang and Y. Wu, “Marine oil-degrading microorganisms and biodegradation process of petroleum hydrocarbon in marine environments: a review,” Current microbiology, vol. 71, p. 220-228, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[65]  N. Das and P. Chandran, “Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants: an overview,” Biotechnology research international, vol. 2011, 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[66]  C. Marchand, M. St-Arnaud, W. Hogland, T. H. Bell and M. Hijri, “Petroleum biodegradation capacity of bacteria and fungi isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil,” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 116, p. 48-57, 1 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[67]  K. Watanabe, “Microorganisms relevant to bioremediation,” Current opinion in biotechnology, vol. 12, p. 237-241, 2001.
In article      View Article
 
[68]  B. Pathak, S. Gupta and R. Verma, “Biosorption and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by microalgae,” in Green adsorbents for pollutant removal, Springer, 2018, p. 215-247.
In article      View Article
 
[69]  T. Kadri, T. Rouissi, S. K. Brar, M. Cledon, S. Sarma and M. Verma, “Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by fungal enzymes: A review,” Journal of environmental sciences, vol. 51, p. 52-74, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[70]  S. R. Subashchandrabose, K. Venkateswarlu, R. Naidu and M. Megharaj, “Biodegradation of high-molecular weight PAHs by Rhodococcus wratislaviensis strain 9: Overexpression of amidohydrolase induced by pyrene and BaP,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 651, p. 813-821, 2019.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[71]  A. K. Haritash, “A comprehensive review of metabolic and genomic aspects of PAH-degradation,” Archives of Microbiology, vol. 202, p. 2033-2058, 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[72]  K. Arun, M. Ashok and S. Rajesh, “Crude oil PAH constitution, degradation pathway and associated bioremediation microflora: an overview,” International Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 1, p. 1420, 2011.
In article      
 
[73]  S. U. I. A. Baba, A. Norhafizah, I. Azni, P. Z. Mohamad and Y. S. Mohd, “Biodegradation of pyrene by a mixed culture isolated from hydrocarbon-polluted soil,” African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 13, p. 1-12, 1 2019.
In article      View Article
 
[74]  F. Chaillan , A. L. Fleche, E. Bury, Y.-h. Phantavong, P. Grimont, A. Saliot and J. Oudot, “Identification and biodegradation potential of tropical aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms.,” vol. 155, no. 7, pp. 589-95, 2004.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[75]  Z. C. . H. J. W. Y. W. M. and H. Z. , “Hydrocarbon degradation and bioemulsifier production by thermophilic Geobacillus pallidus strains,” Bioresource Technology, pp. 9155-9161, 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[76]  K. Trautwein, S. Lahme, L. Wohlbrand, C. Feenders, K. Mangelsdorf, J. Harder, A. Steinbuchel, B. Blasius, R. Heinhardt and R. Rabus, Physiological and Proteomic Adaptation of “Aromatoleum aromaticum” EbN1 to Low Growth Rates in Benzoate-Limited, Anoxic Chemostats, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[77]  R. Rabus, M. Bollc , J. Heidere, R. U. Meckenstock, W. Buckel, O. Einsle, U. Ermler, B. T. Golding, R. P. Gunsalus, P. M. Kroneck, M. Krüger, T. Lueders, B. M. Martins, F. Musat, H. H. Richnow, B. Schink, J. Seifert, M. Szaleniec, T. Treude, G. M. Ullmann, C. Vogt, M. v. Bergen and H. Wilkes, “Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons: From Enzymatic Reactions to the Environment.,” vol. 26, pp. 5-28, 2016.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[78]  G. Bengtsson, N. Törneman, J. R. De Lipthay and S. J. Sørensen, “Microbial diversity and PAH catabolic genes tracking spatial heterogeneity of PAH concentrations,” Microbial ecology, vol. 65, p. 91-100, 2013.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[79]  S. Kumar, V. K. Dagar, Y. P. Khasa and R. C. Kuhad, “Genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs) for bioremediation,” in Biotechnology for environmental management and resource recovery, Springer, 2013, p. 191-218.
In article      View Article
 
[80]  S. A. Denome, D. C. Stanley, E. S. Olson and K. D. Young, “Metabolism of dibenzothiophene and naphthalene in Pseudomonas strains: complete DNA sequence of an upper naphthalene catabolic pathway.,” Journal of bacteriology, vol. 175, p. 6890-6901, 1993.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[81]  J. C. Hernández-Vega, B. Cady, G. Kayanja, A. Mauriello, N. Cervantes, A. Gillespie, L. Lavia, J. Trujillo, M. Alkio and A. Colón-Carmona, “Detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Arabidopsis thaliana involves a putative flavonol synthase,” Journal of hazardous materials, vol. 321, p. 268-280, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[82]  C. T. Hennessee and Q. X. Li, “Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures on degradation, gene expression, and metabolite production in four Mycobacterium species,” Applied and environmental microbiology, vol. 82, p. 3357-3369, 2016.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[83]  A. A. Khan, R.-F. Wang, W.-W. Cao, D. R. Doerge, D. Wennerstrom and C. E. Cerniglia, “Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of genes encoding a polycyclic aromatic ring dioxygenase from Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 67, p. 3577-3585, 2001.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[84]  O. Kweon, S.-J. Kim, D.-W. Kim, J. M. Kim, H.-l. Kim, Y. Ahn, J. B. Sutherland and C. E. Cerniglia, “Pleiotropic and epistatic behavior of a ring-hydroxylating oxygenase system in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolic network from Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1,” Journal of bacteriology, vol. 196, p. 3503-3515, 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[85]  S.-J. Kim, O. Kweon, J. P. Freeman, R. C. Jones, M. D. Adjei, J.-W. Jhoo, R. D. Edmondson and C. E. Cerniglia, “Molecular cloning and expression of genes encoding a novel dioxygenase involved in low-and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 72, p. 1045-1054, 2006.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[86]  P. F. Churchill, A. C. Morgan and E. Kitchens, “Characterization of a pyrene-degrading Mycobacterium sp. strain CH-2,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, vol. 43, p. 698-706, 2008.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[87]  L. Schuler, S. M. N. Chadhain, Y. Jouanneau, C. Meyer, G. J. Zylstra, P. Hols and S. N. Agathos, “Characterization of a novel angular dioxygenase from fluorene-degrading Sphingomonas sp. strain LB126,” Applied and environmental microbiology, vol. 74, p. 1050-1057, 2008.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[88]  P. Wattiau, L. Bastiaens, R. van Herwijnen, L. Daal, J. R. Parsons, M.-E. Renard, D. Springael and G. R. Cornelis, “Fluorene degradation by Sphingomonas sp. LB126 proceeds through protocatechuic acid: a genetic analysis,” Research in microbiology, vol. 152, p. 861-872, 2001.
In article      View Article
 
[89]  J. B. Coitinho, D. M. A. Costa, S. L. Guimaraes, A. M. de Góes and R. A. P. Nagem, “Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic studies of NahF, a salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida G7 involved in naphthalene degradation,” Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications, vol. 68, p. 93-97, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[90]  M. J. Simon, T. D. Osslund, R. Saunders, B. D. Ensley, S. Suggs, A. Harcourt, S. Wen-chen, D. L. Cruder, D. T. Gibson and G. J. Zylstra, “Sequences of genes encoding naphthalene dioxygenase in Pseudomonas putida strains G7 and NCIB 9816-4,” Gene, vol. 127, p. 31-37, 1993.
In article      View Article
 
[91]  M. G. Waigi, F. Kang, C. Goikavi, W. Ling and Y. Gao, “Phenanthrene biodegradation by sphingomonads and its application in the contaminated soils and sediments: a review,” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 104, p. 333-349, 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[92]  G. J. Zylstra and E. Kim, “Aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae B1,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 19, p. 408-414, 1997.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[93]  M. Fernández, J. L. Niqui-Arroyo, S. Conde, J. L. Ramos and E. Duque, “Enhanced tolerance to naphthalene and enhanced rhizoremediation performance for Pseudomonas putida KT2440 via the NAH7 catabolic plasmid,” Applied and environmental microbiology, vol. 78, p. 5104-5110, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[94]  A. E.-L. Hesham, A. M. M. Mawad, Y. M. Mostafa and A. Shoreit, “Biodegradation ability and catabolic genes of petroleum-degrading Sphingomonas koreensis strain ASU-06 isolated from Egyptian oily soil,” BioMed research international, vol. 2014, 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[95]  D. Miyazawa, L. T. H. Thanh, A. Tani, M. Shintani, N. H. Loc, T. Hatta, K. Kimbara and others, “Isolation and characterization of genes responsible for naphthalene degradation from thermophilic naphthalene degrader, Geobacillus sp. JF8,” Microorganisms, vol. 8, p. 44, 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[96]  M. Tay, D. Roizman, Y. Cohen, T. Tolker-Nielsen, M. Givskov and L. Yang, “Draft genome sequence of the model naphthalene-utilizing organism Pseudomonas putida OUS82,” Genome announcements, vol. 2, 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[97]  H. Kiyohara, S. Torigoe, N. Kaida, T. Asaki, T. Iida, H. Hayashi and N. Takizawa, “Cloning and characterization of a chromosomal gene cluster, pah, that encodes the upper pathway for phenanthrene and naphthalene utilization by Pseudomonas putida OUS82.,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 176, p. 2439-2443, 1994.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[98]  T. Fang, R. Pan, J. Jiang, F. He and H. Wang, “Effect of salinity on community structure and naphthalene dioxygenase gene diversity of a halophilic bacterial consortium,” Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, vol. 10, 12 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[99]  N. Takizawa, T. Iida, T. Sawada, K. Yamauchi, Y.-W. Wang, M. Fukuda and H. Kiyohara, “Nucleotide sequences and characterization of genes encoding naphthalene upper pathway of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PaK1 and Pseudomonas putida OUS82,” Journal of bioscience and bioengineering, vol. 87, p. 721-731, 1999.
In article      View Article
 
[100]  F. Augelletti, J. Tremblay, S. N. Agathos and B. Stenuit, “Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of the Fluorene-Degrading Sphingobium sp. Strain LB126, Isolated from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil,” Microbiology Resource Announcements, vol. 6, 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[101]  T. Y. Izmalkova, O. I. Sazonova, I. A. Kosheleva and A. M. Boronin, “Phylogenetic analysis of the genes for naphthalene and phenanthrene degradation in Burkholderia sp. strains,” Russian Journal of Genetics, vol. 49, p. 609-616, 6 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[102]  A. D. Laurie and G. Lloyd-Jones, “The phn Genes of Burkholderiasp. Strain RP007 Constitute a Divergent Gene Cluster for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Catabolism,” Journal of bacteriology, vol. 181, p. 531-540, 1999.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[103]  D. R. Singleton, L. Guzmán Ramirez and M. D. Aitken, “Characterization of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation gene cluster in a phenanthrene-degrading Acidovorax strain,” Applied and environmental microbiology, vol. 75, p. 2613-2620, 2009.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[104]  W. J. Hickey, S. Chen and J. Zhao, “The phn island: a new genomic island encoding catabolism of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons,” Frontiers in microbiology, vol. 3, p. 125, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[105]  A. R. Shetty, V. de Gannes, C. C. Obi, S. Lucas, A. Lapidus, J.-F. Cheng, L. A. Goodwin, S. Pitluck, L. Peters, N. Mikhailova and others, “Complete genome sequence of the phenanthrene-degrading soil bacterium Delftia acidovorans Cs1-4,” Standards in genomic sciences, vol. 10, p. 1-10, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[106]  T. Fang and N.-Y. Zhou, “Purification and characterization of salicylate 5-hydroxylase, a three-component monooxygenase from Ralstonia sp. strain U2,” Applied microbiology and biotechnology, vol. 98, p. 671-679, 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[107]  S. L. Fuenmayor, M. Wild, A. L. Boyes and P. A. Williams, “A gene cluster encoding steps in conversion of naphthalene to gentisate in Pseudomonas sp. strain U2,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 180, p. 2522-2530, 1998.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[108]  H. J. Lee, J. M. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. Park, K. Lee, E. L. Madsen and C. O. Jeon, “Gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase, in the third naphthalene catabolic gene cluster of Polaromonas naphthalenivorans CJ2, has a role in naphthalene degradation,” Microbiology, vol. 157, p. 2891-2903, 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[109]  C. O. Jeon, M. Park, H.-S. Ro, W. Park and E. L. Madsen, “The naphthalene catabolic (nag) genes of Polaromonas naphthalenivorans CJ2: evolutionary implications for two gene clusters and novel regulatory control,” Applied and environmental microbiology, vol. 72, p. 1086-1095, 2006.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[110]  R. Jauregui, B. Rodelas, R. Geffers, N. Boon, D. H. Pieper and R. Vilchez-Vargas, “Draft genome sequence of the naphthalene degrader Herbaspirillum sp. strain RV1423,” Genome announcements, vol. 2, p. e00188-14, 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[111]  P. Di Gennaro, P. Terreni, G. Masi, S. Botti, F. De Ferra and G. Bestetti, “Identification and characterization of genes involved in naphthalene degradation in Rhodococcus opacus R7,” Applied microbiology and biotechnology, vol. 87, p. 297-308, 2010.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[112]  M. J. Larkin, C. C. R. Allen, L. A. Kulakov and D. A. Lipscomb, “Purification and characterization of a novel naphthalene dioxygenase from Rhodococcus sp. strain NCIMB12038,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 181, p. 6200-6204, 1999.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[113]  C. Zhang and A. J. Anderson, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degrading gene islands in five pyrene-degrading Mycobacterium isolates from different geographic locations,” Canadian journal of microbiology, vol. 58, p. 102-111, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[114]  S. Krivobok, S. Kuony, C. Meyer, M. Louwagie, J. C. Willison and Y. Jouanneau, “Identification of pyrene-induced proteins in Mycobacterium sp. strain 6PY1: evidence for two ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 185, p. 3828-3841, 2003.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[115]  C. Muangchinda, S. Chavanich, V. Viyakarn, K. Watanabe, S. Imura, A. S. Vangnai and O. Pinyakong, “Abundance and diversity of functional genes involved in the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in Antarctic soils and sediments around Syowa Station,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 22, p. 4725-4735, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[116]  S. Meyer, R. Moser, A. Neef, U. Stahl and P. Kämpfer, “Differential detection of key enzymes of polyaromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria using PCR and gene probes,” Microbiology, vol. 145, p. 1731-1741, 1999.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[117]  S. Li, H. Zhao, Y. Li, S. Niu and B. Cai, “Complete Genome Sequence of the Naphthalene-Degrading Pseudomonas putida Strain ND6,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 194, p. 5154-5155, 8 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[118]  Y. Jiang, X. Yang, B. Liu, H. Zhao, Q. Cheng and B. Cai, “Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ND6: gene sequence and enzyme characterization,” Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, vol. 68, p. 1798-1800, 2004.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[119]  W. Zhou, D. He, X. Li, H. Zhang, X. Zeng and G. Cheng, “Isolation and characterization of naphthalene-degrading strains, Pseudomonas sp. CZ2 and CZ5,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 7, p. 13-19, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[120]  K. Sangkharak, A. Choonut, T. Rakkan and P. Prasertsan, “The degradation of phenanthrene, pyrene, and fluoranthene and its conversion into medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate by novel polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria,” Current microbiology, p. 1-13, 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[121]  J. Cao, Q. Lai, J. Yuan and Z. Shao, “Genomic and metabolic analysis of fluoranthene degradation pathway in Celeribacter indicus P73 T,” Scientific reports, vol. 5, p. 1-12, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[122]  E. Nikolaivits, M. Dimarogona, N. Fokialakis and E. Topakas, “Marine-Derived Biocatalysts: Importance, Accessing, and Application in Aromatic Pollutant Bioremediation,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 8, 2 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[123]  A. Saito, T. Iwabuchi and S. Harayama, “Characterization of genes for enzymes involved in the phenanthrene degradation in Nocardioides sp. KP7,” Chemosphere, vol. 38, p. 1331-1337, 1999.
In article      View Article
 
[124]  P. Wanapaisan, N. Laothamteep, F. Vejarano, J. Chakraborty, M. Shintani, C. Muangchinda, T. Morita, C. Suzuki-Minakuchi, K. Inoue, H. Nojiri and O. Pinyakong, “Synergistic degradation of pyrene by five culturable bacteria in a mangrove sediment-derived bacterial consortium,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 342, p. 561-570, 1 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[125]  S.-J. Kim, O. Kweon, R. C. Jones, J. P. Freeman, R. D. Edmondson and C. E. Cerniglia, “Complete and integrated pyrene degradation pathway in Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 based on systems biology,” Journal of bacteriology, vol. 189, p. 464-472, 2007.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[126]  S. Lutz and W. M. Patrick, “Novel methods for directed evolution of enzymes: quality, not quantity,” Current opinion in biotechnology, vol. 15, p. 291-297, 2004.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[127]  E. G. Hibbert and P. A. Dalby, “Directed evolution strategies for improved enzymatic performance,” Microbial Cell Factories, vol. 4, p. 1-6, 2005.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[128]  T. W. Johannes and H. Zhao, “Directed evolution of enzymes and biosynthetic pathways,” Current opinion in microbiology, vol. 9, p. 261-267, 2006.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[129]  J. N. Copp, P. Hanson-Manful, D. F. Ackerley and W. M. Patrick, “Error-prone PCR and effective generation of gene variant libraries for directed evolution,” in Directed Evolution Library Creation, Springer, 2014, p. 3-22.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[130]  R. Shekher, S. Sehgal, M. Kamthania, A. Kumar and others, “Laccase: microbial sources, production, purification, and potential biotechnological applications,” Enzyme research, vol. 2011, 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[131]  M. Zumárraga, F. J. Plou, H. Garcı́a-Arellano, A. Ballesteros and M. Alcalde, “Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by fungal laccases engineered by directed evolution,” Biocatalysis and Biotransformation, vol. 25, p. 219-228, 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[132]  T. Bulter, M. Alcalde, V. Sieber, P. Meinhold, C. Schlachtbauer and F. H. Arnold, “Functional expression of a fungal laccase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by directed evolution,” Applied and environmental microbiology, vol. 69, p. 987-995, 2003.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[133]  M. G. Lozano, Y. P. Garcı́a, J. A. S. Gonzalez, C. V. O. Bañuelos, M. P. L. Escareño and N. Balagurusamy, “Biosensors for food quality and safety monitoring: fundamentals and applications,” in Enzymes in food biotechnology, Elsevier, 2019, p. 691-709.
In article      View Article
 
[134]  K. Steiner and H. Schwab, “Recent advances in rational approaches for enzyme engineering,” Computational and structural biotechnology journal, vol. 2, p. e201209010, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[135]  F. Jakob and U. Schwaneberg, “Engineering of subtilisin proteases for detergent applications,” 2013.
In article      
 
[136]  K. Syed, H. Doddapaneni, V. Subramanian, Y. W. Lam and J. S. Yadav, “Genome-to-function characterization of novel fungal P450 monooxygenases oxidizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),” Biochemical and biophysical research communications, vol. 399, p. 492-497, 2010.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[137]  S. Kumar, M. Jin and J. L. Weemhoff, “Cytochrome P450-mediated phytoremediation using transgenic plants: A need for engineered cytochrome P450 enzymes,” Journal of petroleum & environmental biotechnology, vol. 3, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[138]  K. Syed and J. S. Yadav, “P450 monooxygenases (P450ome) of the model white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium,” Critical reviews in microbiology, vol. 38, p. 339-363, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[139]  K. Syed, A. Porollo, D. Miller and J. S. Yadav, “Rational engineering of the fungal P450 monooxygenase CYP5136A3 to improve its oxidizing activity toward polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,” Protein Engineering, Design & Selection, vol. 26, p. 553-557, 2013.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[140]  M. T. Reetz, S. Prasad, J. D. Carballeira, Y. Gumulya and M. Bocola, “Iterative saturation mutagenesis accelerates laboratory evolution of enzyme stereoselectivity: rigorous comparison with traditional methods,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 132, p. 9144-9152, 2010.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[141]  C. G. Acevedo-Rocha, M. T. Reetz and Y. Nov, “Economical analysis of saturation mutagenesis experiments,” Scientific reports, vol. 5, p. 1-12, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[142]  M. T. Reetz and J. D. Carballeira, “Iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM) for rapid directed evolution of functional enzymes,” Nature protocols, vol. 2, p. 891, 2007.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[143]  R. Georgescu, G. Bandara and L. Sun, “Saturation mutagenesis,” in Directed evolution library creation, Springer, 2003, p. 75-83.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[144]  R. M. P. Siloto and R. J. Weselake, “Site saturation mutagenesis: Methods and applications in protein engineering,” Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, vol. 1, p. 181-189, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[145]  M. M. Y. Chen, C. D. Snow, C. L. Vizcarra, S. L. Mayo and F. H. Arnold, “Comparison of random mutagenesis and semi-rational designed libraries for improved cytochrome P450 BM3-catalyzed hydroxylation of small alkanes,” Protein Engineering, Design & Selection, vol. 25, p. 171-178, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[146]  M. Teng, S. Chen, X. Yin and G. Zhang, “System metabolic engineering strategies for cell factories construction,” in Systems and Synthetic Metabolic Engineering, Elsevier, 2020, p. 125-151.
In article      View Article
 
[147]  J. Nielsen, “Metabolic engineering,” Applied microbiology and biotechnology, vol. 55, p. 263-283, 2001.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[148]  S.-T. Yang, X. Liu and Y. Zhang, “Metabolic engineering-applications, methods, and challenges,” in Bioprocessing for Value-Added Products from Renewable Resources, Elsevier, 2007, p. 73-118.
In article      View Article
 
[149]  J. W. Lee, D. Na, J. M. Park, J. Lee, S. Choi and S. Y. Lee, “Systems metabolic engineering of microorganisms for natural and non-natural chemicals,” Nature chemical biology, vol. 8, p. 536, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[150]  D. M. Wuest, S. Hou and K. H. Lee, “Metabolic Engineering,” 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[151]  R. Peng, X. Fu, Y. Tian, W. Zhao, B. Zhu, J. Xu, B. Wang, L. Wang and Q. Yao, “Metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis for remediation of different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using a hybrid bacterial dioxygenase complex,” Metabolic engineering, vol. 26, p. 100-110, 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[152]  D. Paul, G. Pandey and R. K. Jain, “Suicidal genetically engineered microorganisms for bioremediation: need and perspectives,” BioEssays, vol. 27, p. 563-573, 2005.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[153]  P. Kearns, “An overview of OECD activities related to modern techniques of biotechnology and genome editing,” Transgenic research, vol. 28, p. 41-44, 2019.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[154]  E. Smith, J. D. Van Elsas and J. A. Van Veen, “Risks associated with the application of genetically modified microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystems,” FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol. 8, p. 263-278, 1992.
In article      View Article
 
[155]  X. Ji, “Long Term Impacts of a Genetically Engineered Microorganism (GEM) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Soil Bacterial Communities,” 2013.
In article      
 
[156]  A. E. Filonov, L. I. Akhmetov, I. F. Puntus, T. Z. Esikova, A. B. Gafarov, I. A. Kosheleva and A. M. Boronin, “Horizontal transfer of catabolic plasmids and naphthalene biodegradation in open soil,” Microbiology, vol. 79, p. 184-190, 2010.
In article      View Article
 
[157]  L. Cao, Q. Wang, J. Zhang, C. Li, X. Yan, X. Lou, Y. Xia, Q. Hong and S. Li, “Construction of a stable genetically engineered rhamnolipid-producing microorganism for remediation of pyrene-contaminated soil,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 28, p. 2783-2790, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[158]  A. Loeschcke and S. Thies, “Pseudomonas putida—a versatile host for the production of natural products,” Applied microbiology and biotechnology, vol. 99, p. 6197-6214, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[159]  L. Liu, M. Bilal, X. Duan and H. M. N. Iqbal, “Mitigation of environmental pollution by genetically engineered bacteria—Current challenges and future perspectives,” Science of The Total Environment, vol. 667, p. 444-454, 2019.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[160]  Y. Zhou, J. Wei, N. Shao and D. Wei, “Construction of a genetically engineered microorganism for phenanthrene biodegradation,” Journal of basic microbiology, vol. 53, p. 188-194, 2013.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[161]  G. Mardani, A. H. Mahvi, M. Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, S. Naseri, M. H. Dehghani and P. Ghasemi-Dehkordi, “Application of genetically engineered dioxygenase producing Pseudomonas putida on decomposition of oil from spiked soil,” Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products, vol. 12, 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[162]  G. Zafra, Á. E. Absalón, M. Á. Anducho-Reyes, F. J. Fernandez and D. V. Cortés-Espinosa, “Construction of PAH-degrading mixed microbial consortia by induced selection in soil,” Chemosphere, vol. 172, p. 120-126, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[163]  M. Ahankoub, G. Mardani, P. Ghasemi-Dehkordi, A. Mehri-Ghahfarrokhi, A. Doosti, M.-S. Jami, M. Allahbakhshian-Farsani, J. Saffari-Chaleshtori and M. Rahimi-Madiseh, “Biodecomposition of phenanthrene and pyrene by a genetically engineered Escherichia coli,” Recent patents on biotechnology, vol. 14, p. 121-133, 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[164]  O. Cho, K. Y. Choi, G. J. Zylstra, Y.-S. Kim, S.-K. Kim, J. H. Lee, H.-Y. Sohn, G.-S. Kwon, Y. M. Kim and E. Kim, “Catabolic role of a three-component salicylate oxygenase from Sphingomonas yanoikuyae B1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation,” Biochemical and biophysical research communications, vol. 327, p. 656-662, 2005.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[165]  J. Lu, C. Guo, M. Zhang, G. Lu and Z. Dang, “Biodegradation of single pyrene and mixtures of pyrene by a fusant bacterial strain F14,” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 87, p. 75-80, 2014.
In article      View Article
 
[166]  Á. Sandoval, E. Arias-Barrau, F. Bermejo, L. Cañedo, G. Naharro, E. R. Olivera and J. M. Luengo, “Production of 3-hydroxy-n-phenylalkanoic acids by a genetically engineered strain of Pseudomonas putida,” Applied microbiology and biotechnology, vol. 67, p. 97-105, 2005.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[167]  D. B. Janssen and G. Stucki, “Perspectives of genetically engineered microbes for groundwater bioremediation,” Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, vol. 22, p. 487-499, 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[168]  E. A. Perpetuo, C. B. Souza and C. A. O. Nascimento, “Engineering bacteria for bioremediation,” Progress in Molecular and Environmental Bioengineering-From Analysis and Modeling to Technology Applications, 2011.
In article      
 
[169]  S. Kulshreshtha, “Genetically Engineered Microorganisms: A Problem Solving Approach for Bioremediation,” Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation, vol. 04, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[170]  M. A. K. Azad, L. Amin and N. M. Sidik, “Genetically engineered organisms for bioremediation of pollutants in contaminated sites,” Chinese science bulletin, vol. 59, p. 703-714, 2014.
In article      View Article
 
[171]  J. S. Singh, P. C. Abhilash, H. B. Singh, R. P. Singh and D. P. Singh, “Genetically engineered bacteria: an emerging tool for environmental remediation and future research perspectives,” Gene, vol. 480, p. 1-9, 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[172]  A. Singh, K. Billingsley and O. Ward, “Composting: a potentially safe process for disposal of genetically modified organisms,” Critical reviews in biotechnology, vol. 26, p. 1-16, 2006.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[173]  M. H. Ryder, “Monitoring of biocontrol agents and genetically engineered microorganisms in the environment: biotechnological approaches,” in Molecular Methods in Plant Pathology, CRC Press, 2017, p. 475-492.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[174]  Carr, R. H. “Vegetative growth in soils containing crude petroleum.” Soil Science 8.1: 67-68, 1919.
In article      View Article
 
[175]  Ifechukwu E. Adieze, Justina C. Orji, Rose N. Nwabueze and G.O.C. Onyeze, “Hydrocarbon stress response of four tropical plants in weathered crude oil contaminated soil in microcosms,” International Journal of Environmental Studies, 69: 3, 490-500, 2012.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Sadhana S, JaiVarshini E, Nikita Reddy S and Shruthi S

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Sadhana S, JaiVarshini E, Nikita Reddy S, Shruthi S. Crude Oil Bioremediation - Genetically Modified Microorganisms for Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Vol. 9, No. 8, 2021, pp 769-785. http://pubs.sciepub.com/aees/9/8/8
MLA Style
S, Sadhana, et al. "Crude Oil Bioremediation - Genetically Modified Microorganisms for Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9.8 (2021): 769-785.
APA Style
S, S. , E, J. , S, N. R. , & S, S. (2021). Crude Oil Bioremediation - Genetically Modified Microorganisms for Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 9(8), 769-785.
Chicago Style
S, Sadhana, JaiVarshini E, Nikita Reddy S, and Shruthi S. "Crude Oil Bioremediation - Genetically Modified Microorganisms for Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbon Degradation." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9, no. 8 (2021): 769-785.
Share
[1]  M. Hassanshahian, N. Amirinejad and M. A. Behzadi, “Crude oil pollution and biodegradation at the Persian Gulf: A comprehensive and review study,” Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, vol. 18, p. 1415-1435, 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[2]  R. Pelta, N. Carmon and E. Ben-Dor, “A machine learning approach to detect crude oil contamination in a real scenario using hyperspectral remote sensing,” International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 82, p. 101901, 2019.
In article      View Article
 
[3]  A. G. Marshall and R. P. Rodgers, “Petroleomics: Chemistry of the underworld,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 105, p. 18090-18095, 10 2008.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[4]  H. I. Abdel-Shafy and M. S. M. Mansour, “A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation,” Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, vol. 25, p. 107-123, 3 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  A. Kumar, A. Munjal and R. Sawhney, “Crude oil PAH constitution, degradation pathway and associated bioremediation microflora: an overview,” International Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 1, p. 1420-1439, 2011.
In article      
 
[6]  X. Wu, B. Yue, Y. Su, Q. Wang, Q. Huang, Q. Wang and H. Cai, “Pollution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in common used mineral oils and their transformation during oil regeneration,” Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 56, p. 247-253, 6 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[7]  R. J. W. Brooijmans, M. I. Pastink and R. J. Siezen, “Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria: the oil-spill clean-up crew,” Microbial Biotechnology, vol. 2, p. 587-594, 10 2009.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[8]  Sakshi and A. K. Haritash, “A comprehensive review of metabolic and genomic aspects of PAH-degradation,” Archives of Microbiology, vol. 202, p. 2033-2058, 6 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[9]  S. Kuppusamy, P. Thavamani, K. Venkateswarlu, Y. B. Lee, R. Naidu and M. Megharaj, “Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions,” Chemosphere, vol. 168, p. 944-968, 2 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[10]  S. Kathi and A. B. Khan, “Phytoremediation approaches to PAH contaminated soil,” Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 4, p. 56-63, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  S. Chandra, R. Sharma, K. Singh and A. Sharma, “Application of bioremediation technology in the environment contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon,” Annals of Microbiology, vol. 63, p. 417-431, 9 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  S. M. Khade and S. K. Srivastava, “Genetically Modified Microbes for Bioremediation of Oil Spills in Marine Environment”.
In article      
 
[13]  S. Ngene, K. Tota-Maharaj, P. Eke and C. Hills, “Environmental and economic impacts of crude oil and natural gas production in developing countries,” International Journal of Economy, Energy and Environment, vol. 1, p. 64-73, 2016.
In article      
 
[14]  G. Yasin, M. I. Bhanger, T. M. Ansari, S. M. S. R. Naqvi, M. Ashraf, K. Ahmad and F. N. Talpur, “Quality and chemistry of crude oils,” Journal of Petroleum Technology and Alternative Fuels, vol. 4, p. 53-63, 2013.
In article      
 
[15]  E. J. Buskey, H. K. White and A. J. Esbaugh, “Impact of oil spills on marine life in the Gulf of Mexico: effects on plankton, nekton, and deep-sea benthos,” Oceanography, vol. 29, p. 174-181, 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[16]  P. E. Ndimele, A. O. Saba, D. O. Ojo, C. C. Ndimele, M. A. Anetekhai and E. S. Erondu, “Remediation of crude oil spillage,” in The political ecology of oil and gas activities in the Nigerian aquatic ecosystem, Elsevier, 2018, p. 369-384.
In article      View Article
 
[17]  S. Kauppi, A. Sinkkonen and M. Romantschuk, “Enhancing bioremediation of diesel-fuel-contaminated soil in a boreal climate: comparison of biostimulation and bioaugmentation,” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 65, p. 359-368, 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[18]  J. P. Incardona, “Molecular mechanisms of crude oil developmental toxicity in fish,” Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, vol. 73, p. 19-32, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[19]  S. Chandra, R. Sharma, K. Singh and A. Sharma, “Application of bioremediation technology in the environment contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon,” Annals of microbiology, vol. 63, p. 417-431, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[20]  A. Baali and A. Yahyaoui, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their influence to some aquatic species,” in Biochemical Toxicology-Heavy Metals and Nanomaterials, IntechOpen, 2019.
In article      View Article
 
[21]  O. S. Obayori and L. B. Salam, “Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: role of plasmids,” Scientific Research and Essays, vol. 5, p. 4093-4106, 2010.
In article      
 
[22]  E. Sørhus, J. P. Incardona, Ø. Karlsen, T. Linbo, L. Sørensen, T. Nordtug, T. van der Meeren, A. Thorsen, M. Thorbjørnsen, S. Jentoft and others, “Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, p. 1-21, 2016.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[23]  B. E. Finch, S. Marzooghi, D. M. Di Toro and W. A. Stubblefield, “Phototoxic potential of undispersed and dispersed fresh and weathered Macondo crude oils to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms,” Environmental toxicology and chemistry, vol. 36, p. 2640-2650, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[24]  M. K. Sellin Jeffries, C. Claytor, W. Stubblefield, W. H. Pearson and J. T. Oris, “Quantitative risk model for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon photoinduced toxicity in Pacific herring following the Exxon Valdez oil spill,” Environmental science & technology, vol. 47, p. 5450-5458, 2013.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[25]  K. S. Chukwuka, C. G. Alimba, G. A. Ataguba and W. A. Jimoh, “The impacts of petroleum production on terrestrial fauna and flora in the oil-producing region of Nigeria,” in The Political Ecology of Oil and Gas Activities in the Nigerian Aquatic Ecosystem, Elsevier, 2018, p. 125-142.
In article      View Article
 
[26]  J. Odukoya, R. Lambert and R. Sakrabani, “Understanding the impacts of crude oil and its induced abiotic stresses on agrifood production: A review,” Horticulturae, vol. 5, p. 47, 2019.
In article      View Article
 
[27]  Y. Wang, J. Feng, Q. Lin, X. Lyu, X. Wang and G. Wang, “Effects of crude oil contamination on soil physical and chemical properties in Momoge wetland of China,” Chinese geographical science, vol. 23, p. 708-715, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[28]  I. N. E. Onwurah, V. N. Ogugua, N. B. Onyike, A. E. Ochonogor and O. F. Otitoju, “Crude oil spills in the environment, effects and some innovative clean-up biotechnologies,” 2007.
In article      
 
[29]  B. L. Chilvers, K. J. Morgan and B. J. White, “Sources and reporting of oil spills and impacts on wildlife 1970-2018,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 28, p. 754-762, 2021.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[30]  H. I. Abdel-Shafy and M. S. M. Mansour, “A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation,” Egyptian journal of petroleum, vol. 25, p. 107-123, 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[31]  P. P. Fu, Q. Xia, X. Sun and H. Yu, “Phototoxicity and environmental transformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)—light-induced reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C, vol. 30, p. 1-41, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[32]  M. A. D'Andrea and G. K. Reddy, “Crude oil spill exposure and human health risks,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 56, p. 1029-1041, 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[33]  S. J. Varjani, “Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 223, p. 277-286, 1 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[34]  C.. B. Chikere, G.. C. Okpokwasili and B.. O. Chikere, “Monitoring of microbial hydrocarbon remediation in the soil,” 3 Biotech, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 117-138, 6 July 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[35]  C. H. Okino-Delgado, M. R. Zanutto-Elgui, D. Z. do Prado, M. S. Pereira and L. F. Fleuri, “Enzymatic bioremediation: current status, challenges of obtaining process, and applications,” in Microbial metabolism of xenobiotic compounds, Springer, 2019, p. 79-101.
In article      View Article
 
[36]  X. Wang, Z. Cai, Q. Zhou, Z. Zhang and C. Chen, “Bioelectrochemical stimulation of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation in saline soil using U-tube microbial fuel cells,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 109, p. 426-433, 10 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[37]  M. Wu, J. Wu, X. Zhang and X. Ye, “Effect of bioaugmentation and biostimulation on hydrocarbon degradation and microbial community composition in petroleum-contaminated loessal soil,” Chemosphere, vol. 237, p. 124456, 2019.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[38]  H. Zhang, J. Tang, L. Wang, J. Liu, R. G. Gurav and K. Sun, “A novel bioremediation strategy for petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants using salt tolerant Corynebacterium variabile HRJ4 and biochar,” Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 47, p. 7-13, 9 2016.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[39]  G. O. Adams, P. T. Fufeyin, S. E. Okoro, I. Ehinomen and others, “Bioremediation, biostimulation and bioaugmention: a review,” International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation, vol. 3, p. 28-39, 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[40]  N. Tahri, W. Bahafid, H. Sayel and N. E. Ghachtouli, “Biodegradation: Involved Microorganisms and Genetically Engineered Microorganisms,” in Biodegradation - Life of Science, InTech, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[41]  N. Das and P. Chandran, “Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants: An Overview,” Biotechnology Research International, vol. 2011, p. 1-13, 9 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[42]  A. Roy, A. Dutta, S. Pal, A. Gupta, J. Sarkar, A. Chatterjee, A. Saha, P. Sarkar, P. Sar and S. K. Kazy, “Biostimulation and bioaugmentation of native microbial community accelerated bioremediation of oil refinery sludge,” Bioresource technology, vol. 253, p. 22-32, 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[43]  C. B. Chikere, G. C. Okpokwasili and B. O. Chikere, “Monitoring of microbial hydrocarbon remediation in the soil,” 3 Biotech, vol. 1, p. 117-138, 7 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[44]  B. Z. Fathepure, “Recent studies in microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in hypersaline environments,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 5, 4 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[45]  F. Abbasian, R. Lockington, M. Mallavarapu and R. Naidu, “A Comprehensive Review of Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation by Bacteria,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 176, p. 670-699, 5 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[46]  J.-F. Zhou, P.-K. Gao, X.-H. Dai, X.-Y. Cui, H.-M. Tian, J.-J. Xie, G.-Q. Li and T. Ma, “Heavy hydrocarbon degradation of crude oil by a novel thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus strain A-2,” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 126, p. 224-230, 1 2018.
In article      View Article
 
[47]  A. B. Al-Hawash, M. A. Dragh, S. Li, A. Alhujaily, H. A. Abbood, X. Zhang and F. Ma, “Principles of microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment,” The Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, vol. 44, p. 71-76, 6 2018.
In article      View Article
 
[48]  C. W. Greer, L. G. Whyte and T. D. Niederberger, “Microbial Communities in{\hspace{0.167em}}Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Temperate, Tropical, Alpine, and Polar Soils,” in Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2010, p. 2313-2328.
In article      View Article
 
[49]  D. W. Lee, H. Lee, A. H. Lee, B.-O. Kwon, J. S. Khim, U. H. Yim, B. S. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Microbial community composition and PAHs removal potential of indigenous bacteria in oil contaminated sediment of Taean coast, Korea,” Environmental pollution, vol. 234, p. 503-512, 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[50]  Ł. Ławniczak, M. Woźniak-Karczewska, A. P. Loibner, H. J. Heipieper and Ł. Chrzanowski, “Microbial degradation of hydrocarbons—basic principles for bioremediation: a review,” Molecules, vol. 25, p. 856, 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[51]  C. S. Karigar and S. S. Rao, “Role of microbial enzymes in the bioremediation of pollutants: a review,” Enzyme research, vol. 2011, 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[52]  B. Sharma, A. K. Dangi and P. Shukla, “Contemporary enzyme based technologies for bioremediation: a review,” Journal of environmental management, vol. 210, p. 10-22, 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[53]  J. O. Osuoha and E. O. Nwaichi, “Enzymatic technologies as green and sustainable techniques for remediation of oil-contaminated environment: state of the art,” International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 18, p. 1299-1322, 2021.
In article      View Article
 
[54]  P. Xu, H. Du, X. Peng, Y. Tang, Y. Zhou, X. Chen, J. Fei, Y. Meng and L. Yuan, “Degradation of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by laccase in reverse micelle system,” Science of The Total Environment, vol. 708, p. 134970, 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[55]  B. Sharma, A. K. Dangi and P. Shukla, “Contemporary enzyme based technologies for bioremediation: A review,” Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 210, p. 10-22, 3 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[56]  R. Shome, “Role of microbial enzymes in Bioremediation,” eLifePress, vol. 1, p. 15-20, 2020.
In article      
 
[57]  S. Dave and J. Das, “Role of microbial enzymes for biodegradation and bioremediation of environmental pollutants: challenges and future prospects,” in Bioremediation for Environmental Sustainability, Elsevier, 2021, p. 325-346.
In article      View Article
 
[58]  T. Kadri, T. Rouissi, S. Magdouli, S. K. Brar, K. Hegde, Z. Khiari, R. Daghrir and J.-M. Lauzon, “Production and characterization of novel hydrocarbon degrading enzymes from Alcanivorax borkumensis,” International journal of biological macromolecules, vol. 112, p. 230-240, 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[59]  I. F. H. AI-Jawhari, “Ability of some soil fungi in biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon,” Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, vol. 2, p. 46-52, 2014.
In article      
 
[60]  S. H. Mirdamadian and G. Emtiazi, “Biodegradation of Petroleum and Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Bacteria Isolated from Petroleum-Contaminated Soil,” Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology, vol. 1, 2010.
In article      View Article
 
[61]  K. V. Darsa, A. J. Thatheyus and D. Ramya, “Biodegradation of Petroleum Compound Using the Bacterium Bacillus subtilis,” Science International, vol. 2, p. 20-25, 1 2014.
In article      View Article
 
[62]  B. Gargouri, N. Mhiri, F. Karray, F. Aloui and S. Sayadi, “Isolation and Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Yeast Strains from Petroleum Contaminated Industrial Wastewater,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, p. 1-11, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[63]  S. Farag and N. A. Soliman, “Biodegradation of crude petroleum oil and environmental pollutants by Candida tropicalis strain,” Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, vol. 54, p. 821-830, 8 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[64]  J. Xue, Y. Yu, Y. Bai, L. Wang and Y. Wu, “Marine oil-degrading microorganisms and biodegradation process of petroleum hydrocarbon in marine environments: a review,” Current microbiology, vol. 71, p. 220-228, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[65]  N. Das and P. Chandran, “Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants: an overview,” Biotechnology research international, vol. 2011, 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[66]  C. Marchand, M. St-Arnaud, W. Hogland, T. H. Bell and M. Hijri, “Petroleum biodegradation capacity of bacteria and fungi isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil,” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 116, p. 48-57, 1 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[67]  K. Watanabe, “Microorganisms relevant to bioremediation,” Current opinion in biotechnology, vol. 12, p. 237-241, 2001.
In article      View Article
 
[68]  B. Pathak, S. Gupta and R. Verma, “Biosorption and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by microalgae,” in Green adsorbents for pollutant removal, Springer, 2018, p. 215-247.
In article      View Article
 
[69]  T. Kadri, T. Rouissi, S. K. Brar, M. Cledon, S. Sarma and M. Verma, “Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by fungal enzymes: A review,” Journal of environmental sciences, vol. 51, p. 52-74, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[70]  S. R. Subashchandrabose, K. Venkateswarlu, R. Naidu and M. Megharaj, “Biodegradation of high-molecular weight PAHs by Rhodococcus wratislaviensis strain 9: Overexpression of amidohydrolase induced by pyrene and BaP,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 651, p. 813-821, 2019.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[71]  A. K. Haritash, “A comprehensive review of metabolic and genomic aspects of PAH-degradation,” Archives of Microbiology, vol. 202, p. 2033-2058, 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[72]  K. Arun, M. Ashok and S. Rajesh, “Crude oil PAH constitution, degradation pathway and associated bioremediation microflora: an overview,” International Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 1, p. 1420, 2011.
In article      
 
[73]  S. U. I. A. Baba, A. Norhafizah, I. Azni, P. Z. Mohamad and Y. S. Mohd, “Biodegradation of pyrene by a mixed culture isolated from hydrocarbon-polluted soil,” African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 13, p. 1-12, 1 2019.
In article      View Article
 
[74]  F. Chaillan , A. L. Fleche, E. Bury, Y.-h. Phantavong, P. Grimont, A. Saliot and J. Oudot, “Identification and biodegradation potential of tropical aerobic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms.,” vol. 155, no. 7, pp. 589-95, 2004.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[75]  Z. C. . H. J. W. Y. W. M. and H. Z. , “Hydrocarbon degradation and bioemulsifier production by thermophilic Geobacillus pallidus strains,” Bioresource Technology, pp. 9155-9161, 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[76]  K. Trautwein, S. Lahme, L. Wohlbrand, C. Feenders, K. Mangelsdorf, J. Harder, A. Steinbuchel, B. Blasius, R. Heinhardt and R. Rabus, Physiological and Proteomic Adaptation of “Aromatoleum aromaticum” EbN1 to Low Growth Rates in Benzoate-Limited, Anoxic Chemostats, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[77]  R. Rabus, M. Bollc , J. Heidere, R. U. Meckenstock, W. Buckel, O. Einsle, U. Ermler, B. T. Golding, R. P. Gunsalus, P. M. Kroneck, M. Krüger, T. Lueders, B. M. Martins, F. Musat, H. H. Richnow, B. Schink, J. Seifert, M. Szaleniec, T. Treude, G. M. Ullmann, C. Vogt, M. v. Bergen and H. Wilkes, “Anaerobic Microbial Degradation of Hydrocarbons: From Enzymatic Reactions to the Environment.,” vol. 26, pp. 5-28, 2016.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[78]  G. Bengtsson, N. Törneman, J. R. De Lipthay and S. J. Sørensen, “Microbial diversity and PAH catabolic genes tracking spatial heterogeneity of PAH concentrations,” Microbial ecology, vol. 65, p. 91-100, 2013.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[79]  S. Kumar, V. K. Dagar, Y. P. Khasa and R. C. Kuhad, “Genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs) for bioremediation,” in Biotechnology for environmental management and resource recovery, Springer, 2013, p. 191-218.
In article      View Article
 
[80]  S. A. Denome, D. C. Stanley, E. S. Olson and K. D. Young, “Metabolism of dibenzothiophene and naphthalene in Pseudomonas strains: complete DNA sequence of an upper naphthalene catabolic pathway.,” Journal of bacteriology, vol. 175, p. 6890-6901, 1993.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[81]  J. C. Hernández-Vega, B. Cady, G. Kayanja, A. Mauriello, N. Cervantes, A. Gillespie, L. Lavia, J. Trujillo, M. Alkio and A. Colón-Carmona, “Detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Arabidopsis thaliana involves a putative flavonol synthase,” Journal of hazardous materials, vol. 321, p. 268-280, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[82]  C. T. Hennessee and Q. X. Li, “Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures on degradation, gene expression, and metabolite production in four Mycobacterium species,” Applied and environmental microbiology, vol. 82, p. 3357-3369, 2016.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[83]  A. A. Khan, R.-F. Wang, W.-W. Cao, D. R. Doerge, D. Wennerstrom and C. E. Cerniglia, “Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of genes encoding a polycyclic aromatic ring dioxygenase from Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 67, p. 3577-3585, 2001.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[84]  O. Kweon, S.-J. Kim, D.-W. Kim, J. M. Kim, H.-l. Kim, Y. Ahn, J. B. Sutherland and C. E. Cerniglia, “Pleiotropic and epistatic behavior of a ring-hydroxylating oxygenase system in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolic network from Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1,” Journal of bacteriology, vol. 196, p. 3503-3515, 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[85]  S.-J. Kim, O. Kweon, J. P. Freeman, R. C. Jones, M. D. Adjei, J.-W. Jhoo, R. D. Edmondson and C. E. Cerniglia, “Molecular cloning and expression of genes encoding a novel dioxygenase involved in low-and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation in Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 72, p. 1045-1054, 2006.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[86]  P. F. Churchill, A. C. Morgan and E. Kitchens, “Characterization of a pyrene-degrading Mycobacterium sp. strain CH-2,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, vol. 43, p. 698-706, 2008.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[87]  L. Schuler, S. M. N. Chadhain, Y. Jouanneau, C. Meyer, G. J. Zylstra, P. Hols and S. N. Agathos, “Characterization of a novel angular dioxygenase from fluorene-degrading Sphingomonas sp. strain LB126,” Applied and environmental microbiology, vol. 74, p. 1050-1057, 2008.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[88]  P. Wattiau, L. Bastiaens, R. van Herwijnen, L. Daal, J. R. Parsons, M.-E. Renard, D. Springael and G. R. Cornelis, “Fluorene degradation by Sphingomonas sp. LB126 proceeds through protocatechuic acid: a genetic analysis,” Research in microbiology, vol. 152, p. 861-872, 2001.
In article      View Article
 
[89]  J. B. Coitinho, D. M. A. Costa, S. L. Guimaraes, A. M. de Góes and R. A. P. Nagem, “Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic studies of NahF, a salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida G7 involved in naphthalene degradation,” Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications, vol. 68, p. 93-97, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[90]  M. J. Simon, T. D. Osslund, R. Saunders, B. D. Ensley, S. Suggs, A. Harcourt, S. Wen-chen, D. L. Cruder, D. T. Gibson and G. J. Zylstra, “Sequences of genes encoding naphthalene dioxygenase in Pseudomonas putida strains G7 and NCIB 9816-4,” Gene, vol. 127, p. 31-37, 1993.
In article      View Article
 
[91]  M. G. Waigi, F. Kang, C. Goikavi, W. Ling and Y. Gao, “Phenanthrene biodegradation by sphingomonads and its application in the contaminated soils and sediments: a review,” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 104, p. 333-349, 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[92]  G. J. Zylstra and E. Kim, “Aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by Sphingomonas yanoikuyae B1,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 19, p. 408-414, 1997.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[93]  M. Fernández, J. L. Niqui-Arroyo, S. Conde, J. L. Ramos and E. Duque, “Enhanced tolerance to naphthalene and enhanced rhizoremediation performance for Pseudomonas putida KT2440 via the NAH7 catabolic plasmid,” Applied and environmental microbiology, vol. 78, p. 5104-5110, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[94]  A. E.-L. Hesham, A. M. M. Mawad, Y. M. Mostafa and A. Shoreit, “Biodegradation ability and catabolic genes of petroleum-degrading Sphingomonas koreensis strain ASU-06 isolated from Egyptian oily soil,” BioMed research international, vol. 2014, 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[95]  D. Miyazawa, L. T. H. Thanh, A. Tani, M. Shintani, N. H. Loc, T. Hatta, K. Kimbara and others, “Isolation and characterization of genes responsible for naphthalene degradation from thermophilic naphthalene degrader, Geobacillus sp. JF8,” Microorganisms, vol. 8, p. 44, 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[96]  M. Tay, D. Roizman, Y. Cohen, T. Tolker-Nielsen, M. Givskov and L. Yang, “Draft genome sequence of the model naphthalene-utilizing organism Pseudomonas putida OUS82,” Genome announcements, vol. 2, 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[97]  H. Kiyohara, S. Torigoe, N. Kaida, T. Asaki, T. Iida, H. Hayashi and N. Takizawa, “Cloning and characterization of a chromosomal gene cluster, pah, that encodes the upper pathway for phenanthrene and naphthalene utilization by Pseudomonas putida OUS82.,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 176, p. 2439-2443, 1994.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[98]  T. Fang, R. Pan, J. Jiang, F. He and H. Wang, “Effect of salinity on community structure and naphthalene dioxygenase gene diversity of a halophilic bacterial consortium,” Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering, vol. 10, 12 2016.
In article      View Article
 
[99]  N. Takizawa, T. Iida, T. Sawada, K. Yamauchi, Y.-W. Wang, M. Fukuda and H. Kiyohara, “Nucleotide sequences and characterization of genes encoding naphthalene upper pathway of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PaK1 and Pseudomonas putida OUS82,” Journal of bioscience and bioengineering, vol. 87, p. 721-731, 1999.
In article      View Article
 
[100]  F. Augelletti, J. Tremblay, S. N. Agathos and B. Stenuit, “Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of the Fluorene-Degrading Sphingobium sp. Strain LB126, Isolated from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil,” Microbiology Resource Announcements, vol. 6, 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[101]  T. Y. Izmalkova, O. I. Sazonova, I. A. Kosheleva and A. M. Boronin, “Phylogenetic analysis of the genes for naphthalene and phenanthrene degradation in Burkholderia sp. strains,” Russian Journal of Genetics, vol. 49, p. 609-616, 6 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[102]  A. D. Laurie and G. Lloyd-Jones, “The phn Genes of Burkholderiasp. Strain RP007 Constitute a Divergent Gene Cluster for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Catabolism,” Journal of bacteriology, vol. 181, p. 531-540, 1999.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[103]  D. R. Singleton, L. Guzmán Ramirez and M. D. Aitken, “Characterization of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation gene cluster in a phenanthrene-degrading Acidovorax strain,” Applied and environmental microbiology, vol. 75, p. 2613-2620, 2009.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[104]  W. J. Hickey, S. Chen and J. Zhao, “The phn island: a new genomic island encoding catabolism of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons,” Frontiers in microbiology, vol. 3, p. 125, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[105]  A. R. Shetty, V. de Gannes, C. C. Obi, S. Lucas, A. Lapidus, J.-F. Cheng, L. A. Goodwin, S. Pitluck, L. Peters, N. Mikhailova and others, “Complete genome sequence of the phenanthrene-degrading soil bacterium Delftia acidovorans Cs1-4,” Standards in genomic sciences, vol. 10, p. 1-10, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[106]  T. Fang and N.-Y. Zhou, “Purification and characterization of salicylate 5-hydroxylase, a three-component monooxygenase from Ralstonia sp. strain U2,” Applied microbiology and biotechnology, vol. 98, p. 671-679, 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[107]  S. L. Fuenmayor, M. Wild, A. L. Boyes and P. A. Williams, “A gene cluster encoding steps in conversion of naphthalene to gentisate in Pseudomonas sp. strain U2,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 180, p. 2522-2530, 1998.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[108]  H. J. Lee, J. M. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. Park, K. Lee, E. L. Madsen and C. O. Jeon, “Gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase, in the third naphthalene catabolic gene cluster of Polaromonas naphthalenivorans CJ2, has a role in naphthalene degradation,” Microbiology, vol. 157, p. 2891-2903, 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[109]  C. O. Jeon, M. Park, H.-S. Ro, W. Park and E. L. Madsen, “The naphthalene catabolic (nag) genes of Polaromonas naphthalenivorans CJ2: evolutionary implications for two gene clusters and novel regulatory control,” Applied and environmental microbiology, vol. 72, p. 1086-1095, 2006.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[110]  R. Jauregui, B. Rodelas, R. Geffers, N. Boon, D. H. Pieper and R. Vilchez-Vargas, “Draft genome sequence of the naphthalene degrader Herbaspirillum sp. strain RV1423,” Genome announcements, vol. 2, p. e00188-14, 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[111]  P. Di Gennaro, P. Terreni, G. Masi, S. Botti, F. De Ferra and G. Bestetti, “Identification and characterization of genes involved in naphthalene degradation in Rhodococcus opacus R7,” Applied microbiology and biotechnology, vol. 87, p. 297-308, 2010.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[112]  M. J. Larkin, C. C. R. Allen, L. A. Kulakov and D. A. Lipscomb, “Purification and characterization of a novel naphthalene dioxygenase from Rhodococcus sp. strain NCIMB12038,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 181, p. 6200-6204, 1999.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[113]  C. Zhang and A. J. Anderson, “Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degrading gene islands in five pyrene-degrading Mycobacterium isolates from different geographic locations,” Canadian journal of microbiology, vol. 58, p. 102-111, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[114]  S. Krivobok, S. Kuony, C. Meyer, M. Louwagie, J. C. Willison and Y. Jouanneau, “Identification of pyrene-induced proteins in Mycobacterium sp. strain 6PY1: evidence for two ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 185, p. 3828-3841, 2003.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[115]  C. Muangchinda, S. Chavanich, V. Viyakarn, K. Watanabe, S. Imura, A. S. Vangnai and O. Pinyakong, “Abundance and diversity of functional genes involved in the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in Antarctic soils and sediments around Syowa Station,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 22, p. 4725-4735, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[116]  S. Meyer, R. Moser, A. Neef, U. Stahl and P. Kämpfer, “Differential detection of key enzymes of polyaromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria using PCR and gene probes,” Microbiology, vol. 145, p. 1731-1741, 1999.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[117]  S. Li, H. Zhao, Y. Li, S. Niu and B. Cai, “Complete Genome Sequence of the Naphthalene-Degrading Pseudomonas putida Strain ND6,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 194, p. 5154-5155, 8 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[118]  Y. Jiang, X. Yang, B. Liu, H. Zhao, Q. Cheng and B. Cai, “Catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain ND6: gene sequence and enzyme characterization,” Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry, vol. 68, p. 1798-1800, 2004.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[119]  W. Zhou, D. He, X. Li, H. Zhang, X. Zeng and G. Cheng, “Isolation and characterization of naphthalene-degrading strains, Pseudomonas sp. CZ2 and CZ5,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 7, p. 13-19, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[120]  K. Sangkharak, A. Choonut, T. Rakkan and P. Prasertsan, “The degradation of phenanthrene, pyrene, and fluoranthene and its conversion into medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate by novel polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria,” Current microbiology, p. 1-13, 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[121]  J. Cao, Q. Lai, J. Yuan and Z. Shao, “Genomic and metabolic analysis of fluoranthene degradation pathway in Celeribacter indicus P73 T,” Scientific reports, vol. 5, p. 1-12, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[122]  E. Nikolaivits, M. Dimarogona, N. Fokialakis and E. Topakas, “Marine-Derived Biocatalysts: Importance, Accessing, and Application in Aromatic Pollutant Bioremediation,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 8, 2 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[123]  A. Saito, T. Iwabuchi and S. Harayama, “Characterization of genes for enzymes involved in the phenanthrene degradation in Nocardioides sp. KP7,” Chemosphere, vol. 38, p. 1331-1337, 1999.
In article      View Article
 
[124]  P. Wanapaisan, N. Laothamteep, F. Vejarano, J. Chakraborty, M. Shintani, C. Muangchinda, T. Morita, C. Suzuki-Minakuchi, K. Inoue, H. Nojiri and O. Pinyakong, “Synergistic degradation of pyrene by five culturable bacteria in a mangrove sediment-derived bacterial consortium,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 342, p. 561-570, 1 2018.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[125]  S.-J. Kim, O. Kweon, R. C. Jones, J. P. Freeman, R. D. Edmondson and C. E. Cerniglia, “Complete and integrated pyrene degradation pathway in Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 based on systems biology,” Journal of bacteriology, vol. 189, p. 464-472, 2007.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[126]  S. Lutz and W. M. Patrick, “Novel methods for directed evolution of enzymes: quality, not quantity,” Current opinion in biotechnology, vol. 15, p. 291-297, 2004.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[127]  E. G. Hibbert and P. A. Dalby, “Directed evolution strategies for improved enzymatic performance,” Microbial Cell Factories, vol. 4, p. 1-6, 2005.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[128]  T. W. Johannes and H. Zhao, “Directed evolution of enzymes and biosynthetic pathways,” Current opinion in microbiology, vol. 9, p. 261-267, 2006.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[129]  J. N. Copp, P. Hanson-Manful, D. F. Ackerley and W. M. Patrick, “Error-prone PCR and effective generation of gene variant libraries for directed evolution,” in Directed Evolution Library Creation, Springer, 2014, p. 3-22.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[130]  R. Shekher, S. Sehgal, M. Kamthania, A. Kumar and others, “Laccase: microbial sources, production, purification, and potential biotechnological applications,” Enzyme research, vol. 2011, 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[131]  M. Zumárraga, F. J. Plou, H. Garcı́a-Arellano, A. Ballesteros and M. Alcalde, “Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by fungal laccases engineered by directed evolution,” Biocatalysis and Biotransformation, vol. 25, p. 219-228, 2007.
In article      View Article
 
[132]  T. Bulter, M. Alcalde, V. Sieber, P. Meinhold, C. Schlachtbauer and F. H. Arnold, “Functional expression of a fungal laccase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by directed evolution,” Applied and environmental microbiology, vol. 69, p. 987-995, 2003.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[133]  M. G. Lozano, Y. P. Garcı́a, J. A. S. Gonzalez, C. V. O. Bañuelos, M. P. L. Escareño and N. Balagurusamy, “Biosensors for food quality and safety monitoring: fundamentals and applications,” in Enzymes in food biotechnology, Elsevier, 2019, p. 691-709.
In article      View Article
 
[134]  K. Steiner and H. Schwab, “Recent advances in rational approaches for enzyme engineering,” Computational and structural biotechnology journal, vol. 2, p. e201209010, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[135]  F. Jakob and U. Schwaneberg, “Engineering of subtilisin proteases for detergent applications,” 2013.
In article      
 
[136]  K. Syed, H. Doddapaneni, V. Subramanian, Y. W. Lam and J. S. Yadav, “Genome-to-function characterization of novel fungal P450 monooxygenases oxidizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),” Biochemical and biophysical research communications, vol. 399, p. 492-497, 2010.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[137]  S. Kumar, M. Jin and J. L. Weemhoff, “Cytochrome P450-mediated phytoremediation using transgenic plants: A need for engineered cytochrome P450 enzymes,” Journal of petroleum & environmental biotechnology, vol. 3, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[138]  K. Syed and J. S. Yadav, “P450 monooxygenases (P450ome) of the model white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium,” Critical reviews in microbiology, vol. 38, p. 339-363, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[139]  K. Syed, A. Porollo, D. Miller and J. S. Yadav, “Rational engineering of the fungal P450 monooxygenase CYP5136A3 to improve its oxidizing activity toward polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,” Protein Engineering, Design & Selection, vol. 26, p. 553-557, 2013.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[140]  M. T. Reetz, S. Prasad, J. D. Carballeira, Y. Gumulya and M. Bocola, “Iterative saturation mutagenesis accelerates laboratory evolution of enzyme stereoselectivity: rigorous comparison with traditional methods,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 132, p. 9144-9152, 2010.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[141]  C. G. Acevedo-Rocha, M. T. Reetz and Y. Nov, “Economical analysis of saturation mutagenesis experiments,” Scientific reports, vol. 5, p. 1-12, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[142]  M. T. Reetz and J. D. Carballeira, “Iterative saturation mutagenesis (ISM) for rapid directed evolution of functional enzymes,” Nature protocols, vol. 2, p. 891, 2007.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[143]  R. Georgescu, G. Bandara and L. Sun, “Saturation mutagenesis,” in Directed evolution library creation, Springer, 2003, p. 75-83.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[144]  R. M. P. Siloto and R. J. Weselake, “Site saturation mutagenesis: Methods and applications in protein engineering,” Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, vol. 1, p. 181-189, 2012.
In article      View Article
 
[145]  M. M. Y. Chen, C. D. Snow, C. L. Vizcarra, S. L. Mayo and F. H. Arnold, “Comparison of random mutagenesis and semi-rational designed libraries for improved cytochrome P450 BM3-catalyzed hydroxylation of small alkanes,” Protein Engineering, Design & Selection, vol. 25, p. 171-178, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[146]  M. Teng, S. Chen, X. Yin and G. Zhang, “System metabolic engineering strategies for cell factories construction,” in Systems and Synthetic Metabolic Engineering, Elsevier, 2020, p. 125-151.
In article      View Article
 
[147]  J. Nielsen, “Metabolic engineering,” Applied microbiology and biotechnology, vol. 55, p. 263-283, 2001.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[148]  S.-T. Yang, X. Liu and Y. Zhang, “Metabolic engineering-applications, methods, and challenges,” in Bioprocessing for Value-Added Products from Renewable Resources, Elsevier, 2007, p. 73-118.
In article      View Article
 
[149]  J. W. Lee, D. Na, J. M. Park, J. Lee, S. Choi and S. Y. Lee, “Systems metabolic engineering of microorganisms for natural and non-natural chemicals,” Nature chemical biology, vol. 8, p. 536, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[150]  D. M. Wuest, S. Hou and K. H. Lee, “Metabolic Engineering,” 2011.
In article      View Article
 
[151]  R. Peng, X. Fu, Y. Tian, W. Zhao, B. Zhu, J. Xu, B. Wang, L. Wang and Q. Yao, “Metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis for remediation of different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using a hybrid bacterial dioxygenase complex,” Metabolic engineering, vol. 26, p. 100-110, 2014.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[152]  D. Paul, G. Pandey and R. K. Jain, “Suicidal genetically engineered microorganisms for bioremediation: need and perspectives,” BioEssays, vol. 27, p. 563-573, 2005.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[153]  P. Kearns, “An overview of OECD activities related to modern techniques of biotechnology and genome editing,” Transgenic research, vol. 28, p. 41-44, 2019.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[154]  E. Smith, J. D. Van Elsas and J. A. Van Veen, “Risks associated with the application of genetically modified microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystems,” FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol. 8, p. 263-278, 1992.
In article      View Article
 
[155]  X. Ji, “Long Term Impacts of a Genetically Engineered Microorganism (GEM) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on Soil Bacterial Communities,” 2013.
In article      
 
[156]  A. E. Filonov, L. I. Akhmetov, I. F. Puntus, T. Z. Esikova, A. B. Gafarov, I. A. Kosheleva and A. M. Boronin, “Horizontal transfer of catabolic plasmids and naphthalene biodegradation in open soil,” Microbiology, vol. 79, p. 184-190, 2010.
In article      View Article
 
[157]  L. Cao, Q. Wang, J. Zhang, C. Li, X. Yan, X. Lou, Y. Xia, Q. Hong and S. Li, “Construction of a stable genetically engineered rhamnolipid-producing microorganism for remediation of pyrene-contaminated soil,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 28, p. 2783-2790, 2012.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[158]  A. Loeschcke and S. Thies, “Pseudomonas putida—a versatile host for the production of natural products,” Applied microbiology and biotechnology, vol. 99, p. 6197-6214, 2015.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[159]  L. Liu, M. Bilal, X. Duan and H. M. N. Iqbal, “Mitigation of environmental pollution by genetically engineered bacteria—Current challenges and future perspectives,” Science of The Total Environment, vol. 667, p. 444-454, 2019.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[160]  Y. Zhou, J. Wei, N. Shao and D. Wei, “Construction of a genetically engineered microorganism for phenanthrene biodegradation,” Journal of basic microbiology, vol. 53, p. 188-194, 2013.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[161]  G. Mardani, A. H. Mahvi, M. Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, S. Naseri, M. H. Dehghani and P. Ghasemi-Dehkordi, “Application of genetically engineered dioxygenase producing Pseudomonas putida on decomposition of oil from spiked soil,” Jundishapur Journal of Natural Pharmaceutical Products, vol. 12, 2017.
In article      View Article
 
[162]  G. Zafra, Á. E. Absalón, M. Á. Anducho-Reyes, F. J. Fernandez and D. V. Cortés-Espinosa, “Construction of PAH-degrading mixed microbial consortia by induced selection in soil,” Chemosphere, vol. 172, p. 120-126, 2017.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[163]  M. Ahankoub, G. Mardani, P. Ghasemi-Dehkordi, A. Mehri-Ghahfarrokhi, A. Doosti, M.-S. Jami, M. Allahbakhshian-Farsani, J. Saffari-Chaleshtori and M. Rahimi-Madiseh, “Biodecomposition of phenanthrene and pyrene by a genetically engineered Escherichia coli,” Recent patents on biotechnology, vol. 14, p. 121-133, 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[164]  O. Cho, K. Y. Choi, G. J. Zylstra, Y.-S. Kim, S.-K. Kim, J. H. Lee, H.-Y. Sohn, G.-S. Kwon, Y. M. Kim and E. Kim, “Catabolic role of a three-component salicylate oxygenase from Sphingomonas yanoikuyae B1 in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation,” Biochemical and biophysical research communications, vol. 327, p. 656-662, 2005.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[165]  J. Lu, C. Guo, M. Zhang, G. Lu and Z. Dang, “Biodegradation of single pyrene and mixtures of pyrene by a fusant bacterial strain F14,” International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol. 87, p. 75-80, 2014.
In article      View Article
 
[166]  Á. Sandoval, E. Arias-Barrau, F. Bermejo, L. Cañedo, G. Naharro, E. R. Olivera and J. M. Luengo, “Production of 3-hydroxy-n-phenylalkanoic acids by a genetically engineered strain of Pseudomonas putida,” Applied microbiology and biotechnology, vol. 67, p. 97-105, 2005.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[167]  D. B. Janssen and G. Stucki, “Perspectives of genetically engineered microbes for groundwater bioremediation,” Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, vol. 22, p. 487-499, 2020.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[168]  E. A. Perpetuo, C. B. Souza and C. A. O. Nascimento, “Engineering bacteria for bioremediation,” Progress in Molecular and Environmental Bioengineering-From Analysis and Modeling to Technology Applications, 2011.
In article      
 
[169]  S. Kulshreshtha, “Genetically Engineered Microorganisms: A Problem Solving Approach for Bioremediation,” Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation, vol. 04, 2013.
In article      View Article
 
[170]  M. A. K. Azad, L. Amin and N. M. Sidik, “Genetically engineered organisms for bioremediation of pollutants in contaminated sites,” Chinese science bulletin, vol. 59, p. 703-714, 2014.
In article      View Article
 
[171]  J. S. Singh, P. C. Abhilash, H. B. Singh, R. P. Singh and D. P. Singh, “Genetically engineered bacteria: an emerging tool for environmental remediation and future research perspectives,” Gene, vol. 480, p. 1-9, 2011.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[172]  A. Singh, K. Billingsley and O. Ward, “Composting: a potentially safe process for disposal of genetically modified organisms,” Critical reviews in biotechnology, vol. 26, p. 1-16, 2006.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[173]  M. H. Ryder, “Monitoring of biocontrol agents and genetically engineered microorganisms in the environment: biotechnological approaches,” in Molecular Methods in Plant Pathology, CRC Press, 2017, p. 475-492.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[174]  Carr, R. H. “Vegetative growth in soils containing crude petroleum.” Soil Science 8.1: 67-68, 1919.
In article      View Article
 
[175]  Ifechukwu E. Adieze, Justina C. Orji, Rose N. Nwabueze and G.O.C. Onyeze, “Hydrocarbon stress response of four tropical plants in weathered crude oil contaminated soil in microcosms,” International Journal of Environmental Studies, 69: 3, 490-500, 2012.
In article      View Article