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Control Measure of Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus spp. Using Some Botanicals

Lekhu Gehlot , Dushyent Gehlot, Anand Kumar Prajapat, Sonal Sankhala, Kheev Raj
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2021, 9(7), 704-706. DOI: 10.12691/aees-9-7-9
Received June 09, 2021; Revised July 11, 2021; Accepted July 30, 2021

Abstract

The effectiveness of some botanicals collected from various localities of Jodhpur were used against adult emergence of stored grain insect pest, Callosobruchus spp. The experiment was conducted at Department of Zoology, Jai Narain Vyas University, Jodhpur. All the botanicals were used in the form of leaf powder and applied at three doses, 0.5, 1 and 2 gm, separately mixed with 20 gm of mung beans. Azadirachta indica was found most effective with minimum number of adult emergence at all three doses while maximum adults were emerged in grains treated with Salvadora persica at 0.5 gm/20gm of mung beans in comparison to the other botanicals. Eucalyptus globulus, Fagonia cretica, Balanites aegyptiaca, Ocimum sanctum, Commiphora weightii, Barleria acanthoides and Maytenus emarginata also showed effective result in comparison to the control.

1. Introduction

Pulse beetles, Callosobruchus spp. are important stored grain insect pests, are small insects of about 2-3 mm in length. Pulse beetle infest several pulses such as mung bean, moth bean, cowpea, chickpea, pigeon pea etc. The infestation starts from field when the grains becomes green, with the harvested grains they make their way into store where they continue infest the stored grains thus Callosobruchus is field to store pest 1. During storage of pulses they cause qualitative and quantitative losses to grains and in developing countries about ten to fifteen percent of seeds are damaged during postharvest 2, 3. To overcome from this problem during storage these insects pests are controlling with the use of chemicals which are often create problem such as resistant strains, toxic residues etc. 4, non-selective insecticides also kill the beneficial insects 5, 6. Problem created by pesticides residue increased the requirement of biodegradable pesticides 7. From last few years, these insects pests have been controlling with the use of plant derived product which have many advantages in comparison to synthetic insecticides. Botanicals are target specific, have no adverse effect against beneficial insects, have no environmental hazards 8. In the present research work efficacy of some botanicals were evaluated against the adult emergence of pulse beetle, Callosobruchus spp. infesting stored mung beans.

2. Material and Method

2.1. Preparation of Plant Powder

Leaves of selected plants were collected from different areas of Jodhpur and dried naturally under shade at room temperature for ten days by which time the leaves were crisp dry, the powder prepared by grinding the leaves through grinder and then filter through a mesh size 0.25mm. The prepared powder applied at the rate of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 gram per 20 gm seeds (w/w) of mung beans.

2.2. Method used for Adult Emergence of Test Insect

Twenty grams of un-infested and clean mung beans were placed into culture tube. Plant powder were added and mixed thoroughly. For the control set no plant powder was added in grains. Five pairs of newly emerged adults of Callosobruchus spp. were introduced into each tube. Muslin cloths were tied with rubber bands to cover the mouth of tubes. All culture tubes containing mung beans treated with plant powder along with control tube maintained at 28±2°C and 70±5 % relative humidity in incubator. Three replicates were set up for each experiment. After 15 days dead beetles were removed from tubes to avoid mixing with newly emerged adults. Emergence of adult insects counted regularly till emergence was stopped.

3. Observation and Result

The effectiveness of various botanicals in the form of powder against the adult emergence of Callosobruchus spp. is presented in Table 1. Results revealed that @ 2gm/20g seeds minimum number of adult emerged in the case of Azadirachta (6.67%) followed by Eucalyptus (10.00%), Fagonia (16.67%), Balanites (20.00%), Ocimum (23.33%), Commiphora (30.00%), Barleria (33.33%), Maytenus (43.33%) and Salvadora (50.00%) while maximum number of adult emerged in control (93.33). In other two doses (1gm and 0.5gm) again minimum and maximum number of adults emerged in grains treated with Azadirachta and Salvadora respectively in comparison to the control (Table 1). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that all the treatment caused significant reduction in adult emergence (99% probability), the variance due to different concentration of same plant species are also significant (Table 2).

Botanicals have been used by various researchers in controlling stored grain insect pests. Miah et al. 9 used Vitex negundo leaf powder against Callosobruchus chinensis and they observed reduction in number of adult emergence. Panday and Singh 10 used powder of neem leaves to protect black gram from infestation by Callosobruchus chinensis. Sharvale and Borikar 11 reported that neem leaves and castor oil were found effective for the reduction in the adult emergence of Callosobruchus chinensis infesting stored chickpea. Banjo and Mabogunje 12 applied powder of Azadirachta indica, Jatropha curcas and Pepper in controlling the adult emergence of the Callosobruchus maculatus and they found satisfactory result. Gupta and Singh 13, Rahman and Talukdar 14 and Lakshmi and Venugopal 15 also tested effectiveness of plant powder against various stored grain insects and found satisfactory results. Sundria et al. 16 evaluated six botanicals against Callosobruchus chinensis infesting green gram and found reduction in number of adult emerged. Ali et al. 17 evaluated insecticidal properties of turmeric and garlic extract against Tribolium castaneum and reported that both plant cause signification reduction in larva, pupa and adult emergence in comparison to control. Asawalam et al. 18 used powder of four indigenous plants; Dennettia tripetala, Curcuma longa, Piper guineense and Zingiber officinale against Sitophilus oryzae, highest mean number of adult emerged in case of control while Curcuma longa found most effective among the all botanicals with minimum mean number of adult emerged.

Acknowledgements

Author is grateful to Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, for their financial support under the WOS-B scheme to carry out this research work.

References

[1]  Gbaye, O. A., Millard, J. C. and Holloway, G. J. 2011. Legume type and temperature effects on the toxicity of insecticide to the genus Callosobruchus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of stored product research, 47: 8-12
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Kumar, D. and Kalita, P. 2017. Reducing postharvest losses during storage of grain crops to strengthen food security in developing countries, Foods, 6: 8.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[3]  Chang Y., Lee, S. H., Na, J. H., Chang, P. S. and Han, J. 2017. Protection of grain products from Sitophilus oryzae (L.) contamination by anti-insect pest repellent sachet containing allyl mercaptan microcapsule. Journal of food science, 82: 2634-2642.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[4]  Gehlot, L. 2020. Repellent power of some botanicals against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus spp., Advances in plant sciences, 33 (I- II): 19-22.
In article      
 
[5]  Georgiou, G.P. 1991. The occurrence of Resistance to Pesticides in Arthropods, P: 318. FAQ, AGPP / MISC.
In article      
 
[6]  Abdullahi, N., 2011. Studies on the efficacy of leaf extract of balanites aegyptiaca on the oviposition and survival of immature stages (Larvae and Pupae) of Callosobruchus maculatus (f.) on treated cowpea seed, Bayera journal of pure and applied sciences, 4 (1): 40-43.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Iqbal, J., Qayyum, A. and Mustafa, S.Z. 2010. Repellent effect of ethanol extracts of plant materials on Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera), Pakistan J. Zool., 42(1): 81-86.
In article      
 
[8]  Trivedi, A., Nayak, N. and Kumar, J. 2018. Recent advances and review on use of botanicals from medicinal and aromatic plants in stored grain pest management, Journal of entomology and zoology studies, 6 (3): 295-300.
In article      
 
[9]  Miah, M.R.U, Elias, M., Torofder, G.S., Islam, B.N., Sardar, M.A. and Karim, M.A. 1993. Evaluation of local plant material against the pulse beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis Linn.) on chickpea, Bangladesh. J. Zoo., 21(2): 151-153.
In article      
 
[10]  Pandey, N.K. and Singh, S.C. 1995. Effect of neem leaf powder on survivality and mortality of pulse beetle Callosbruchus chinensis (L.) Ind. J. Entomol., 38 (2); 110-114.
In article      
 
[11]  Sharvale, T. G. and Boriker, P.S. 1998. Laboratory evaluation of plant products and grain protectants for prevention of damage by Callosobruchus chinensis (Linn.) in stored chickpea, Agric. Sci. Digest, 18(4): 234-236.
In article      
 
[12]  Banjo, A.D. and Mabogunje, B. (1999). Relative efficacy of some plant parts and seeds in the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F), A pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (F), walps.). Crop Res. Hisar, 17 (3): 395-398.
In article      
 
[13]  Gupta, S. and Singh, N.S. 2005. Effect of menthol mint leaf powder on growth rate and life table of Trogoderma granarium, J. of Applied Bio. Sci., 31(1): 12-16.
In article      
 
[14]  Rahman, A. and Talukdar, F.A. 2006. Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grains against the pulse beetle, Callosbruchus maculatus, J. Insect Sci., 6: 3.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Lakshmi, L.G. and Venugopal, M.S. 2007. Effectiveness of powdered plant products as grain protectants against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), J. of Entomol. Res., 31 (1) 75-78.
In article      
 
[16]  Sundria, M., Kumar, J. and Kumar, A. 2002. Efficacy of different botanicals against Callosbruchus chinensis (L.) in stored green gram Indian, J. Appl, Entomol., 16(1): 71-74.
In article      
 
[17]  Ali, S., Sagheer, M., Hassan, M., Abbas, M., Hafeez, F., Farooq, M., Hussain, D., Saleem, M. and Ghaffar, A., 2014. Insecticidal activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum: A safe alternative to insecticides in stored commodities. Journal Entomol. Zool. Stud. 2(3): 201-205.
In article      
 
[18]  Asawalam, E. F., Ebere, U. E. and Emeasor, K. C., 2012. Effect of some plant products on the control of rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) Coleoptera. Curculionidae, 6(33): 4811-4814.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Lekhu Gehlot, Dushyent Gehlot, Anand Kumar Prajapat, Sonal Sankhala and Kheev Raj

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Cite this article:

Normal Style
Lekhu Gehlot, Dushyent Gehlot, Anand Kumar Prajapat, Sonal Sankhala, Kheev Raj. Control Measure of Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus spp. Using Some Botanicals. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Vol. 9, No. 7, 2021, pp 704-706. http://pubs.sciepub.com/aees/9/7/9
MLA Style
Gehlot, Lekhu, et al. "Control Measure of Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus spp. Using Some Botanicals." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9.7 (2021): 704-706.
APA Style
Gehlot, L. , Gehlot, D. , Prajapat, A. K. , Sankhala, S. , & Raj, K. (2021). Control Measure of Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus spp. Using Some Botanicals. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 9(7), 704-706.
Chicago Style
Gehlot, Lekhu, Dushyent Gehlot, Anand Kumar Prajapat, Sonal Sankhala, and Kheev Raj. "Control Measure of Pulse Beetle, Callosobruchus spp. Using Some Botanicals." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9, no. 7 (2021): 704-706.
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[1]  Gbaye, O. A., Millard, J. C. and Holloway, G. J. 2011. Legume type and temperature effects on the toxicity of insecticide to the genus Callosobruchus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Journal of stored product research, 47: 8-12
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Kumar, D. and Kalita, P. 2017. Reducing postharvest losses during storage of grain crops to strengthen food security in developing countries, Foods, 6: 8.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[3]  Chang Y., Lee, S. H., Na, J. H., Chang, P. S. and Han, J. 2017. Protection of grain products from Sitophilus oryzae (L.) contamination by anti-insect pest repellent sachet containing allyl mercaptan microcapsule. Journal of food science, 82: 2634-2642.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[4]  Gehlot, L. 2020. Repellent power of some botanicals against pulse beetle, Callosobruchus spp., Advances in plant sciences, 33 (I- II): 19-22.
In article      
 
[5]  Georgiou, G.P. 1991. The occurrence of Resistance to Pesticides in Arthropods, P: 318. FAQ, AGPP / MISC.
In article      
 
[6]  Abdullahi, N., 2011. Studies on the efficacy of leaf extract of balanites aegyptiaca on the oviposition and survival of immature stages (Larvae and Pupae) of Callosobruchus maculatus (f.) on treated cowpea seed, Bayera journal of pure and applied sciences, 4 (1): 40-43.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Iqbal, J., Qayyum, A. and Mustafa, S.Z. 2010. Repellent effect of ethanol extracts of plant materials on Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera), Pakistan J. Zool., 42(1): 81-86.
In article      
 
[8]  Trivedi, A., Nayak, N. and Kumar, J. 2018. Recent advances and review on use of botanicals from medicinal and aromatic plants in stored grain pest management, Journal of entomology and zoology studies, 6 (3): 295-300.
In article      
 
[9]  Miah, M.R.U, Elias, M., Torofder, G.S., Islam, B.N., Sardar, M.A. and Karim, M.A. 1993. Evaluation of local plant material against the pulse beetle (Callosobruchus chinensis Linn.) on chickpea, Bangladesh. J. Zoo., 21(2): 151-153.
In article      
 
[10]  Pandey, N.K. and Singh, S.C. 1995. Effect of neem leaf powder on survivality and mortality of pulse beetle Callosbruchus chinensis (L.) Ind. J. Entomol., 38 (2); 110-114.
In article      
 
[11]  Sharvale, T. G. and Boriker, P.S. 1998. Laboratory evaluation of plant products and grain protectants for prevention of damage by Callosobruchus chinensis (Linn.) in stored chickpea, Agric. Sci. Digest, 18(4): 234-236.
In article      
 
[12]  Banjo, A.D. and Mabogunje, B. (1999). Relative efficacy of some plant parts and seeds in the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F), A pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (F), walps.). Crop Res. Hisar, 17 (3): 395-398.
In article      
 
[13]  Gupta, S. and Singh, N.S. 2005. Effect of menthol mint leaf powder on growth rate and life table of Trogoderma granarium, J. of Applied Bio. Sci., 31(1): 12-16.
In article      
 
[14]  Rahman, A. and Talukdar, F.A. 2006. Bioefficacy of some plant derivatives that protect grains against the pulse beetle, Callosbruchus maculatus, J. Insect Sci., 6: 3.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Lakshmi, L.G. and Venugopal, M.S. 2007. Effectiveness of powdered plant products as grain protectants against the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), J. of Entomol. Res., 31 (1) 75-78.
In article      
 
[16]  Sundria, M., Kumar, J. and Kumar, A. 2002. Efficacy of different botanicals against Callosbruchus chinensis (L.) in stored green gram Indian, J. Appl, Entomol., 16(1): 71-74.
In article      
 
[17]  Ali, S., Sagheer, M., Hassan, M., Abbas, M., Hafeez, F., Farooq, M., Hussain, D., Saleem, M. and Ghaffar, A., 2014. Insecticidal activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum: A safe alternative to insecticides in stored commodities. Journal Entomol. Zool. Stud. 2(3): 201-205.
In article      
 
[18]  Asawalam, E. F., Ebere, U. E. and Emeasor, K. C., 2012. Effect of some plant products on the control of rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) Coleoptera. Curculionidae, 6(33): 4811-4814.
In article      View Article