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A Geographical Analysis of Resource Utilization and Its Impact on Landuse Pattern in Perambalur District Using Geo-Spatial Technology

P. Manivel, S. M. Kumar, A. Vetrivel, S. Vimal, P Thirumalai
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2021, 9(7), 626-632. DOI: 10.12691/aees-9-7-1
Received May 19, 2021; Revised June 23, 2021; Accepted July 04, 2021

Abstract

The objectives of this paper are to simulate the location of the land use change due to the open mining activities from the cement industries. In this study first we estimate the existing land use distribution with the help of remote sensing data. Remote sensing technology reduces cost and time to a great extent with better accuracy to that of conventional surveying. To analysis the land cover above the sand stone with lime stone and clay as shown in the geology map and overlay this region on the land use map and crop the region and estimation given land use area going for the open mining in the study area. The existing land use, its spatial distribution and changes are essential pre-requisite for planning and land management strategies hold key for development of any region. The study of land use is necessary for proper utilization of land resources of a region.

1. Introduction

Land use is the term that is used to describe human uses of the land, or immediate actions modifying or converting land cover. It includes such broad categories as human settlements, protected areas and agriculture. Within those broad categories are more refined categories, such as urban and rural settlements, irrigated and rainfed fields, national parks and forest reserves, and transportation and other infrastructure. Land cover refers to the natural vegetative cover types that characterize a particular area. These are generally a reflection of the local climate and landforms, though they too can be altered by human actions. Examples of broad land cover categories include forest, tundra, savannah, desert or steppe, which in turn can be sub-divided into more refined categories representing specific plant communities.

“Land” is the most significant resource of mankind. It is a ‘finite area. However, population growth is very rapid. Since man is a terrestrial animal, this increase is exerting a greater pressure on land. Land surface characteristics differ from one region to the other. This results in varied environments. The land must be utilized on a rational basis so that the available resource of land, water and livestock are developed to the maximum potential and the population is assured a decent living. There exists a state of balance between rainfall, soils, crops, trees, animals and man. The potential may include both qualitative terms as degree of suitability and quantitative terms as crop/cash outputs.

Land is the area which is suitable for human to survive. Land is formed out of rocks, soils; pediments etc..,. The earth consists of 76%of the land surface and 24%of the water surface. Land use is critically linked to the interaction of natural and human influence in the environmental change. The change in the biosphere and bio-geochemical cycles are driven by the heterogeneous changes in land use. Information on the existing land use, its spatial distribution and changes are essential pre-requisite for planning. Thus land use planning and land management strategies hold key for development of any region. The study of land use is necessary for proper utilization of land resources of a region.

2. Importance of Land Use Studies

Accurate information of land use is required to central all scientific studies that aims to understand the terrestrial dynamics and is required to local to global scale to aid planning while safe guarding the environmental concerns. It is well known that land use have great impact on the economic and social development of the region. Remote sensing is an effective and economic means o collect the data and to monitor the changes occurring in land use categories. LANDSAT imageries provide up to date land use land cover information at small scale at reasonably low cost and with better accuracy.

The importance of land use analysis is numerous some of them are

• For proper planning and developing the land Use.

• For regular monitoring of the resources.

• Interpret land use from remotely sensed imagery.

• Establish hierarchical categories by grouping similar or related uses.

• Use a uniform point sampling technique for tabulating for large areas

3. Problem of the Study Area

The district is fairly rich in mineral deposits. Celeste, Lime Stone, Shale, Sand Stone, Canker and Phosphate nodules occur at various places in the district. A good deal of building stone (rough stone) is quarried in Perambalur, Kunnam and Veppanthattai Taluks. Geological study shows that more than 120 million years ago, the sea (which lies today about 100 km. East of Sathanur) had transgressed as far as 8 to 10 Km West of Sathanur. During this period which is Geologically known as the cretaceous, the sea abounded in a variety of marine animals similar to those found in the present day sea. These animals, after death, sank to the bottom and were buried by sands and clays brought down by the rivers. Along with them some of the trees which flourished on the seacoast or near shore were also buried after transport by flooded streams and were petrified in course of time. The large trunk of a petrified tree, which can be seen here, lies within the Trichinopoly group of rocks of about 100,000,000 years ago. This tree shows the presence of Conifers (The non flowering plants) that dominated the land vegetation prior to the advent of Angiosperms (the flowering plants of the present of day).

The petrified tree trunk at Sathanur measures over 18 metres in length. Similar fossil trees measuring a few meters in length are found along the stream sections near Varagur, Anaipadi, Alundalipur and Saradamangalam. Dr.M.S.Krishnan of the Geological Survey of India first reported this fossil tree in 1940.This Fossil Tree is an important tourist site of the District.

4. Study Areas and Location

Composite Perambalur District came in to existence after trifurcation of Tiruchirappalli district with effect from 30.09.1995 as per G.O MS. No 913 Revenue / Y3 dated 30.09.1995. In the Government Orders G.O (Ms)No. 656, Revenue, Dated. 29.12.2000 and G.O (Ms)No. 657, Revenue, Dated. 29.12.2000, the Government ordered Perambalur District to be bifurcated into two Districts, Perambalur District with headquarters at Perambalur and Ariyalur District with headquarters at Ariyalur. Subsequently, in the Government orders G.O (Ms) No. 167, Revenue, Dated. 19.4.2002, and G.O (Ms)No. 168, Revenue, Dated. 19.4.2002 , Government ordered that the above two districts be merged into one as Perambalur District with headquarters at Perambalur. In the Government Order G.O (Ms) NO. 683 Dated. 19.11.2007 Government passed orders that Perambalur District be reorganised and bifurcated again into two districts Perambalur and Ariyalur, out of which Perambalur district with Headquarters at Perambalur consists of one Revenue Division of Perambalur and three Taluks of Perambalur, Kunnam and Veppanthattai. It is bounded on the North by Cuddalore and Salem Districts, South by Tiruchirappalli, East by Ariyalur District, West by Tiruchirappalli and Salem Districts. In 1741, the Marathas invaded Tiruchirappalli and took Chanda Saheb as captive. Chanda Saheb succeeded in securing freedom in 1748 and soon got involved in the famous war for the Nawabs place in the Carnatic against Anwardeen, the Nawab of Arcot and his son Mohammed Ali.

Mohamed Ali annexed the two palayams of Ariyalur and Udayarpalayam located within the present Ariyalur District on the grounds of default in payment of Tributes and failure to assist him in quelling the rebellion of Yusuf Khan. In November 1764, Mohamed Ali represented the issue to Madras Council and obtained military assistance on 3rd January 1765. The forces led by Umdat-Ul-Umara and Donald Campbell entered Ariyalur and captured it. The young Poligar together with his followers, there upon fled to Udayarpalayam. On the 19th of January, the army marched upon Udayarpalayam. The Poligar's troops were defeated and the palayams were occupied. The two poligars fled their town and took refuge in Tharangampadi, then a Danish Settlement. The annexation of the palayam gave the Navab un-interrupted possession of all his territories extending Arcot to Tiruchirappalli.

The history followed was a power struggle between Hyder Ali and later Thippu Sultan with the British. After the death of Thippu Sultan, the British took the civil and military Administration of the Carnatic in 1801. Thus Tiruchirappalli came in to the hands of the English and the District was formed in 1801. In 1995 Tiruchirappalli was trifurcated and the new Perambalur and Karur districts were formed.

As per 2011 Census, the total Population of Perambalur District is 4,93,646. The density of population in the district is 322 per Sq.Km. Perambalur District is centrally located in TamilNadu and is 267 K.M away, in southern direction, from Chennai. The District has an area of 3691 Sq.Km. spread between 10.54’ and 11.30’ degree Northern latitude and 78.40’ and 79.30’ degree of the Eastern longitude. (Figure 1)

It is an inland district without coastal line. The District has Vellar River in the North and it has well marked natural divisions. The PACHAMALAI hill situated on the North boundary of Perambalur is the most important hill in the district. The Flora and Fauna of the district are fairly rich and varied. As regards Fauna, big animals like Elephants and Bisons are not found in the district whereas spotted deer wild boars, Peacocks, Common monkeys, Jackals, Poisonous and non poisonous snakes etc.

5. Aims

The aim of this study is to analyse the Land use for PERAMBALUR DISTRICT using the remote sensing, to evaluate the utilization of land use using geo-spatial technology.

6. Objectives

The main objective is to demarcate and to classify the land use pattern, and defining the Visual interpretation techniques and defining the methodology.

• To prepare the geological map for Perambalur District.

• To evaluate the land use in Perambalur District- 2014.

• To assess the utilization of resources on land use pattern in Perambalur District - 2014.

7. Methodologies and Analysis for the Study

As mentioned in the aim using the visual image interpretation technique in GIS environment does the interpretation of land use analysis.

7.1. Data Product Used

The different data source, materials, GPS instruments and software are used for Land use analysis. The multi temporal data of IRS 1D imagery is used Satellite Digital data acquired by IRS 1D image acquired on April, 2014.is used as primary data for this study. IRS-1D was an Earth-imaging satellite from the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) which launched on 29 September 1997 and ceased operations in 2010. The earth-observing instrument onboard this spacecraft is Enhanced IRS 1D Image with Four bands such as visible, near-IR, spectral regions at a spatial resolution of 23.5m.

7.2. Secondary Data

Survey of India (SOI) Toposheets with the scale of 1: 50000 published on 1978-79 are used for the base map preparation and also used to extract spatial resources such as relief and drainage.

7.3. Arc GIS 9.1

Arc GIS is a desktop mapping program produced by ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute) that allows creating maps from scratch starting with geographic in electronic form. Arc GIS includes, Arc GIS client software, components as well as application and data server software, such as Arc GIS desktop; it is integrated suite of advanced GIS application consisting of three software products; Arc View, Arc Editor, and Arc info, It can provide facility to mapping, editing and analyzing of both inputted raster and vector data. Arc map allows, the user to display and query maps, create quality hardcopy maps and perform many spatial analysis tasks. Arc map provides an easy transition from viewing a map to editing its spatial features. It provides an environment for performing geo-processing operations i.e., operations that involve alteration or information extraction. Tools step the user through the many geo spatial analysis tasks. Arc toolbox is embedded in both Arc catalog and Arc map.

8. Land Use Classification

The term land use refers to ‘how the land is being used by human beings. Land cover defined as the biophysical materials found on the land. The best way to insure land utility information derived from remote sensor data is useful in many applications to organize it according to a standard land use/ land cover classification system especially “Modified USGS land use/ land cover classification system”, proposed by Geological Survey Department, USA. The knowledge of land use and land cover is important for many planning and management activities concerned with the surface of the earth.

In the Flow chart the step by step operation of methodology which is used to create this resource information database system is denoted. There are number of steps involved in the Methodology. They are,

• Importing the satellite imagery /scanning the other maps.

• Registering the imagery, with reference to toposheet.

• Base map creation /AOI for the study area.

• Subset creation for the study area through Area of Interest.

• Categorization of land use features based on the USGS classification system.

• Visual image interpretation for the study area using the IRS 1D imageries are convert to vector layer in GIS environ.

• Area estimation and spatial distribution of the land use features.

• Resources utilization for the present study.

• conclusion

8.1. GIS Technology in Map Making

In this map making GIS technology has vital role like importing, geometric correction, registration, new vector layer creation, digitization, attribute id creation area estimation and querying etc. The process of conversion of analog data like toposheets, administrative maps and village boundary maps into digital data using computer is known as scanning. This helps to convert coordinate data into raster format in GIS analysis.It is the primary step among the all processes, and they are Geometric correction and Radiometric correction. The process of converting a new image into specified map projection. The procedure involves the selection of distinguishable Ground Control Points (GCPs) in an image such as road intersections, river and stream intersection, etc., these points are assigned with the appropriate reference information such as latitude/longitude or UTM co-ordinates. According to the selected study the number of vector layers were created to demarcate all spatial resources present in the study area with its area of extend and distribution. Vector layer creation is based on three features they are: Point, Line and Polygon from the rectified toposheets and image. Vector layers like point, line, polygon features represent to the real world environment are created by digitizing process. This helps to convert raster layer into vector layer. To create various thematic maps for focusing study area information, spatial resources expressed with its corresponding attribute and its id for making queries each vector layers created with its spatial and non spatial attributes.

The uniqueness of GIS software is able to calculate the area of extent in a particular feature present on the image. The interpreted land use features area can be estimated using Arc GIS 9.0 software. In Arc view GIS, the area of particular features whole land use can estimate by using the scripts. Every land use and land cover and its area of extent are estimated.

8.2. Geology

Gondwana Group of rocks is locally developed that consists of clay, sandstone and micaceous sandstone falling in age from Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous age. This rest unconformably above the crystalline rocks. Above the Gondwana Group of rocks, the Uttatur Group of rocks is exposed, consisting Maruvattur and Karai Formations. The Maruvattur Formation consists of coralline limestone, bedded limestone, marl, clay, sandstone and grey shale, while the Karai Formation consists of shale and concretionary shale. The Uttatur Group of rocks is deposited during marine transgression in oscillating basin. It is followed by the Trichinopoly Group of sediments.

The lower Kulakkanattam Formation consists of Calcareous sandstone and thin bands of shell limestone. The Upper Anaipadi Formation comprises lower shale dominant and upper sandstone dominant members. It consists lower limestone, middle calcareous sandstone and upper limestone members. The Kallameedu Formation consists of mainly marine and non marine sandstone, marl, with minor lenses of olive green clay. The Niniyur Formation is deposited above the Kallameedu Formation without any break. It consists of alternating layers of limestone, marl, shale and sandstone in the southern part, where as the north part mainly consists of limestone. This is overlapped by Cuddalore Formation of Mio-Pliocene age consisting conglomerate, ferruginous sandstone, pinkish clay and laterite. Limestone Deposits: Limestone deposits occur almost in all the areas. The deposits in the Niniyur Formation are by far the most significant and contribute about 81.5% of the total resources of limestone estimated from all these areas. There are four types of geological structure of rock formation where found in Perambalur District (Figure 2).

8.3. Perambalur District Land Use Classification

In the Perambalur district the overall land use where classified and the result where given in Sq.hec and the total area where calculated and get the percentage for the selected land use in the study area. In Figure 3 shows the land use in Perambalur district, the abandoned quarries with water is shown in gray color, the water bodies in blue color the major land covers in cropped land in green color, waste land in pink color, land with scrub is shown in cyan, plantation in dark green, salt affected land in white, town and cities where shown in red color, villages shown in magenta.

In the Table 2 shows the dominant land use is cropped area in nearly 80%,and followed by the cropped land wasted land nearly 10% percent, water bodies 2.6%, plantation 2.3%, and the rest of 5% of the land use that are town, villages, salt affected land and mining and industrial waste, Industries etc,.

8.4. Resource Utilization

The overall quality of the total reserves including the marginal grade limestone is much better than the minimum specifications for cement manufacture. The entire reserves of 531 million tonnes appear to be amenable to economically viable exploitation. The reserves of about 120 million tonnes of high grade limestone with an average CaO content of 49.53% in the Niniyur deposits are of great significance. The high grade limestone from the Niniyur deposits can be used for “sweetening” and grade control. Most of the known deposits have been under exploitation for a few decades. The chances of locating substantial additional tonnages in these deposits and also the chances of discovering new deposits cannot be rated as very high. Hence, judicious exploitation of the known resources is of paramount importance from the point of view of sustaining the existing cement industry and future expansion of the industry. A detailed analysis of interactions among spatial units, among actor categories, and between spatial units and actor categories is the most important step of the assessment stage. Changes over time, such as degradation processes, land use changes, ownership changes, etc, play an essential role.

In Figure 4 is the selected area from the Land use map of Perambalur District where selected by the mining resource region from the geology image, and cropped the sand stone with lime stone and Glay region selected from the geology and cropped the land use map.

According to this Table 3 shows the geology resource region that have to going to mining in future. So the above land use where going to be destroys. That is cropped area 83% and water bodies 9% of the land use where found and the town and the villages where 0.7% where found in the image. In the 0.7% of the land use two major town and 24 villages where going to be affect in future.

9. Conclusions

Land degradation is a central challenge to sustainable development. The latter has been defined as development that “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. Natural resources can potentially be used in a sustainable way if appropriate land management technology, regional planning and the policy framework complement one another in a purposeful way, in accordance with the principles and concepts of sustainable land management (SLM). At the center of this thinking is the concept of “ecosystem balance”, and especially the questions of irreversibility of ecologic (and socio-economic) processes, resilience of ecosystems, and the spatial and temporal scales to be considered at the landscape level. It is here that the relevance of geo-information to SLM can be seen. Sustainable land management has been defined as “a system of technologies and/or planning that aims to integrate ecological with socio-economic and political principles in the management of land for agricultural and other purposes to achieve intra- and intergenerational equity”.

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Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 P. Manivel, S. M. Kumar, A. Vetrivel, S. Vimal and P Thirumalai

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P. Manivel, S. M. Kumar, A. Vetrivel, S. Vimal, P Thirumalai. A Geographical Analysis of Resource Utilization and Its Impact on Landuse Pattern in Perambalur District Using Geo-Spatial Technology. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Vol. 9, No. 7, 2021, pp 626-632. http://pubs.sciepub.com/aees/9/7/1
MLA Style
Manivel, P., et al. "A Geographical Analysis of Resource Utilization and Its Impact on Landuse Pattern in Perambalur District Using Geo-Spatial Technology." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9.7 (2021): 626-632.
APA Style
Manivel, P. , Kumar, S. M. , Vetrivel, A. , Vimal, S. , & Thirumalai, P. (2021). A Geographical Analysis of Resource Utilization and Its Impact on Landuse Pattern in Perambalur District Using Geo-Spatial Technology. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 9(7), 626-632.
Chicago Style
Manivel, P., S. M. Kumar, A. Vetrivel, S. Vimal, and P Thirumalai. "A Geographical Analysis of Resource Utilization and Its Impact on Landuse Pattern in Perambalur District Using Geo-Spatial Technology." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9, no. 7 (2021): 626-632.
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[1]  Angelis, C. F., Freitas, C. C., Valeriano, D. M., & Dutra, L. V. (2002).Multitemporal analysis of land-use/land-cover JERS-1 backscatter inthe Brazilian Tropical Rainforest. Int. J. Remote Sens., 23(7), 1231-1240.
In article      View Article
 
[2]  Anjee Reddy.M. 2001, II edition, Remote Sensing and Geographical information system. B.S Publication.
In article      
 
[3]  Asner, G. P., Bustamante, M. M. C., & Townsend, A. R. (2003). Scaledependence of biophysical structure in deforested areas bordering theTapajo´s National Forest, Central Amazon. Remote Sens. Environ., 87, 507-520.
In article      View Article
 
[4]  Asner, G. P., Keller, M., Pereira, R., & Zweede, J. C. (2002). Remotesensing of selective logging in Amazonia: Assessing limitations basedon detailed field observations, Landsat ETM+ and textural analysis.Remote Sens. Environ., 80(3), 483-496.
In article      View Article
 
[5]  Asner, G. P., Townsend, A. R., & Bustamante, M. C. (1999). Spectrometryof pasture condition and biogeochemistry in the Central Amazon. Geophys.Res. Lett., 26(17), 2769-2772.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Biggs, T. W., Dunne, T., Domingues, T. F., & Martinelli, L. A. (2002).Relative influence of natural watershed properties and human disturbanceon stream solute concentrations in the southwestern BrazilianAmazon basin. Water Resour. Res., 38(8), 1150.
In article      View Article
 
[7]  Brown, I. F., Martinelli, L. A., Thomas, W. W., Moreira, M. Z., Ferreira, C. A. C., & Victoria, R. A. (1995). Uncertainty in the biomass ofAmazonian forests: An example from Rondonia, Brazil. For. Ecol.Manag., 175-189.
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