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Seasonal and Habitat Effect on Total Lipid Content in Liver, Kidney and Intestine of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Wild and Farmed

Onkar Singh Brrach, Irshad Ahmad Malik , Saima Akhter
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2021, 9(4), 484-489. DOI: 10.12691/aees-9-4-9
Received March 08, 2021; Revised April 15, 2021; Accepted April 25, 2021

Abstract

Our present work is based on the estimation of lipids in different tissues of silver carp fish (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) such as liver, kidney and intestine. The lipid contents were measured in two weight groups 1-3kg and 3-5kg from Gobind Sagar Reservoir Bhakra and Nanoki Fish Farm. The maximum lipid contents were found in liver during summer season 10.04±0.04 and 12.87±0.02 and 14.44±0.05 and 16.81±0.03 form Gobind Sagar and Nanoki Fish Farm in 1-3Kg and 3-5Kg weight groups respectively. In kidney and Intestine, same pattern was recorded. Total lipid content value in kidney was 8.36±0.02 and 9.89±0.03 for 1-3kg weight group in kidney from Gobind Sagar and Nanoki Fish Farm and 11.77±0.02 and 12.84±0.02 in 3-5 Kg Weight groups respectively. Intestine also recorded the highest value of total lipid content in summer 9.21±0.02 and 10.71±0.04 in 1-3Kg weight group and 12.89±0.02 and 13.84±0.03 in 3-5Kg weight group in both the sites respectively. Kidney recorded lowest value of total lipid content as compared to liver and intestine in all the seasons both in 1-3 and 3-5 kg weight groups as compared to liver and Intestine. The results also show that the season, size, age, sex, reproductive cycle as well as breeding season directly influence the proximate composition of fish depends. All biochemical parameters differ significantly (P<0.001) among Farmed and Wild both in 1-3 and 3-5 Kg weight groups, under investigation.

1. Introduction

The fish, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is a surface feeder and feeding mainly on phytoplankton. This silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is having large digestive tract, which helps in complete food digestion. The fingerlings of the fish (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) feed on zooplankton 1. From all the freshwater farmed fishes, the silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes) has paid high attention because to its high production and also as a favorite dish for people of northern and southern regions like China, Bangladesh, India, the Russian Federation, and Iran 2, 3, 4. The silver carp is playing a vital role in retaining a high content of necessary elements in the diet human such as nutritional and readily digestible proteins, lipid-soluble vitamins, microelements and polyunsaturated fatty acids 5 in addition to proteins and saccharides, lipids also acts as high source of energy, and have a very good role in biological functions because of the presence of essential fatty acids 6. The sliver carps of (3.0 to 3.5 kg) live weight) is believed to be the best in quality, fine-texture in case of white meat 7.

As malnutrition is world’s biggest challenge, fish meat is believed to play an important role in overcoming from malnutrition as it contains a lot of essential constituents of food such as good quality of protein in comperes with that of meat, milk and eggs. Fish meat is considered as well balanced diet containing essential amino acid profile, necessary minerals and fatty acids 8. It is also known that fish meat is digested to its extreme level and fish flesh is also high in taste. Out of all, possibilities of heart related diseases is minimized by the fish meat and makes addition in excitement of life 9. Fish requires various nutrients in a good quantity to maintain the body health and perform other functions of the body, which can be synthesized within the body of fish, but some nutrients are required to be obtained from their outside environment. The farmed fish have been provided foods with the good amount of nutrient in addition to their natural productivity of food available in the pond. On the second side, wild fish has to totally depend on natural source of food availability for its nourishment. These differences affects directly the body structure of fish, health and growth rate of the fish. Theses essential components of fish directly makes difference with availability of diet, feed rate given, presence of genetic strain and age of fish 10. Fish is known as the cheapest source of animal protein which is accessible to the poor and is hence called the ‘rich food of the poor’. India, being one of the 17 global mega biodiversity hot spot and is native to many freshwater fish species 11. It has been believed that nearly about 63mmt of processing waste of fish is world widely produced each year 12. In India 3.6 mmt waste consists of waste from home, wastes from industries, wastes by-catch and waste-on-board 13. This huge amount of waste is frequently being discarded near landfills or threw it at near sea sites and may cause various pollution problems. During fish processing the waste water generated contains about 6 mg l-1 of lipids and 2 mg l-1 of protein. These visceral parts of fishes that are being discarded as waste have highest concentrations of EPA and DHA and also having high value of nutrition particularly in protein and essential fatty acid compounds which can be used in the formation of various products like fishmeal and fish oil and are also high in minerals and enzymes that have alternative food, pharmaceutical, agricultural and industrial applications 14, 15. The main components of fish tissue include water, protein and lipid. The amount or percentage of each component within the body of a fish is known as proximate composition, and is commonly determined in studies of fish physiology, growth and nutrition 16. The utilization of fish and fish lipids can provide us information about the composition of PUFAs especially ω-3, ω-6 and ω-9, proteins, minerals and vitamins. These polyunsaturated fatty acids are very helpful to decrease the cholesterol level in the blood and hence can protect us from cardiovascular, anti-aging, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cholesterelemic diseases and are also used for anti-cancer drugs to immunostimulant and immunosuppressant therapeutics diseases 17, 18. Human body is unable to synthesize the long chain ω-3 PUFA and must be obtained from the diet. Thus, if we try to manage or enhance the current situation of our health, we should take a bold approach to validate our sustained access to essential fatty acids and, in particular, to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and rachidonic acid (AA). This has been observed that quality and quantity of fatty acids in the tissues of fish differ mainly with fish feeding, but other aspects like size or age of the fish, reproductive status of fish, geographical location, effect of season 19 and temperature 20 influence the fat content and composition of fish muscle. It is has also been observed that biochemical contents of marine organisms undergo various seasonal changes 21. The chemical elements of wild fish are highly effected by the sea environmental conditions like temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential, conductivity, salinity and TDS, which decides the nutrients availability 22 as compared to farmed fish which being provided by feeding with artificial diets prepares a large number of nutrients and determines the flesh composition 23. Although, the fish protein components is less effected by external feeding because it completely depends on intrinsic factors such as the fish species, variety, and size of the fish 24, 25, 26. Newly research works have observed the differences in the chemical composition between the wild and farmed sea bass, wild and cultured sea bream 23, 27. A review of the literature has revealed some information on the proximate composition of common carp in the Czech Republic 17 and in Turkey 28.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Collection of the Fish

Wild specimens of the fish has been obtained from the Gobind Sagar Reservoir, Bhakra Nangal and cultured fish specimens have been obtained from Nanoki Fish Farm, near Bhadson, Punjab on seasonal basis. Each individual has been put into the labeled clean air-tight ziplock polythene bags, embedded in abundant crushed ice and transported to the Fish and Fisheries Laboratory, Punjabi University, Patiala. Visceral organs were removed, washed, crushed and have been stored in a quick freezer at -20°C, till further use.

2.2. Preparing of Sample

Samples were prepared by making the compost of mixture of the same organ of same weight group with the help of pistol and motor. This was followed by the Soxhlet lipid extraction method.

2.3. Biometric Measurements

Fish individual data for total length (cm), standard length (cm) using a measuring scale and weight (g) has recorded with electronic compact weighing balance.

2.4. Estimation of Total Lipid Content

The total lipid content has been estimated by Soxhlet lipid extraction/solvent extraction method 29. The stored/frozen composite samples (3 from each fish sample) were put for 3-4 hours at 5°C and were soaked on filter paper before weighing. After preparing the composite of the sample of ten grams with the help of pistol and motor were put into the thimble of paper prepared by folding 22 x 25 cm sheet of filter paper and this thimble were tied with the help of thread and make it fit into the Soxhlet extraction tube, some cotton were put on the lower closed end of thimble to prevent the leakage of sample by making samples to put on the top of the cotton at the lower end of thimble. The extraction of lipids were done by taking 125ml of petroleum either in 250ml conical flask. Each sample were run into the Soxhlet apparatus for 8 hours at 60-80°C. The extraction in the 125ml flask with excess petroleum ether were shifted into the earlier weighted crucible. This extraction were put in the hot air oven at 80°C in order to make excess petroleum ether evaporated. Finally that the weight of cooled crucible has recorded.

Where, a = weight of the composite sample (fish waste) taken.

W1 = weight of empty crucible.

W2 = weight of crucible with extracted lipids.

3. Results and Discussion

Data on biometric measurements of the Silver Carp, each of two weight groups of both the sites are presented in Table 1, Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4. The total lipid content (TLC) Values recorded from the fish waste of visceral organs (liver, Kidney and Intestine) of Silver Carp. It has been observed that the values recorded from both the sites were significantly different (p<0.05) in both the weight groups and from both the collection sites in all the seasons. Total lipid content was higher in summer 14.44±0.05 and 16.81±0.03 for Gobind Sagar Reservoir and Nanoki Fish Farm in liver, in 3-5 Kg weight group, as shown in Table 10, followed by Intestine 12.89±0.02 and 13.84±0.03 as in Table 8 and in kidney 11.77±0.02 and 12.84±0.02 in 3-5 Kg weight group as shown in Table 6, respectively in Gobind Sagar Reservoir and Nanoki Fish farm. In 1-3 Kg weight group the total lipid content value observed in summer for liver was 10.04±0.04 and 12.87±0.04, as represented in Table 9, as compared to the Intestine 9.21±0.02 and 10.71±0.04 as shown in Table 7, and the total lipid content in summer for kidney was 8.36±0.02 and 9.89±0.03 as represented by Table 6, respectively in Gobind Sagar Reservoir and Nanoki Fish Farm. Almost in all the seasons, the total lipid content values observed are differ significantly (P<0.05) among both weight groups and also in all the seasons. Except that the lowest value for Total Lipid Content was observed in rainy season in 3-5 Kg weight group 13.54±0.01 and 11.67±0.02 in liver Table 10, 7.42±0.0-1 and 10.46±0.00 in intestine Table 8 and 7.67±0.01 and 8.79±0.03 in kidney as shown in Table 6 respectively in Gobind Sagar Reservoir and Nanoki Fish Farm because of the impact of breeding period. The results of our present study have shown that region of habitation of fish has direct effect on the availability nutrition quality. The nutrition quality content values of fish flesh of farmed silver carp (H. molitrix) showed lipids were significantly (p<0.01) higher as compared to wild silver carp both in 1-3 kg and 3-5 kg. Similarly results were reported with high lipid values (4.40%) in farmed Labeo rohita while it in compare with its wild specimens. The results of our study recorded highest lipid in summer in all tissues, kidney 8.36±0.02c and 9.89±0.03d, liver 10.04±0.04c and 12.87±0.02c, intestine 9.21±0.02d and 10.71±0.04c 1-3 kg weight group in Gobind Sagar andNanoki Fish Farm respectively. Nanoki Fish Farm (Cultured Species) recorded higher value of total lipid content as compared to the Gobind Sagar (Wild Species). These studies further verify that the constituents of lipid observed to be the functional unit of the body weight and may be highly affected by lipid constituents present in diet 30. The results of recent research studies have also observed that lipid and fatty acid composition is being highly influenced by seasonal variation 31, 32, 33, 34, 35. Similar seasonal influenced results were observed during the present course of work in all the seasons as liver, kidney and intestine of both the weight groups. Further it is observed that in various organs of the fish, the components of fatty acids and lipids are mostly affected from species to species, sex and age of the fish, water in which they are living, temperature of water and environment, degree of the pollution, nutritional conditions, seasonal variation, fish origin (wild or hatchery species) 36. Similar results were observed in cultivated perch contained more protein (20.01% vs. 17.6%) and fat (1.3% vs. 0.03%), although the water content in the fillets of cultivated perch was lower than that in wild perch (77.3% vs. 80.9%) 37. Similar results were observed in farmed and wild blackspot seabream led to a wide number of differences 38. Total lipid content values observed in 1-3 kg weight group was lowest in Autumn season 6.22±0.03 and 7.66±0.04 in kidney Table 5, as lowest value as compared to Intestine 6.99±0.07 and 9.81±0.04 Table 7 and Liver 8.05±0.05 and 12.06±0.01 represented in Table 9 respectively in Gobind Sagar Reservoir and Nanoki Fish Farm. It was also observed that the TLC in all the organs of the fish ascending order with the accelerate in the body weight and the highest value of TLC (31.30±0.45%) was found in the kidney of 751-1000g weight group, while the lowest value (5.50±0.25%) was found in the head of 250-500g weight group 39. The TLC content in the liver of Cyprinus carpio from all the three weight groups (10.8% to 22.7%) has been found to be higher than in the liver of an Indian major carp, Catla catla (7.43%) but lower than that in wild and farmed sea bass (32% and 37.5%) respectively 40, 41. The TLC of the intestine of Cyprinus carpio (13.83 to 29.6%) was lower than in Anguilla anguilla temperate fish (42.4%) and in an Antarctic fish (42.7%) 42. Similarly results were observed in the present study that higher lipid content value was recorded in Liver in both the weight groups and there was an increase in the total lipid content value with increase in the body weight of the fish except during rainy season. In all the seasons Nanoki fish Farm (Cultured Fish) Recorded higher values in both the weight groups. In rainy season the total lipid content value observed in 1-3 kg weight group was similar to value of 3-5 kg weight group because of the breeding effect. In the muscles of cultured fish the results observed were high in total lipid contents (p<0.01) when compared with its wild spacemen by opining that the food provided to the cultured species has high effect on its body fat increments. Past research studies, have also observed same pattern of results on European seabass and wild yellow perch 43, 44. Lipid content are also known as ether extraction representation because of all the constituents are soluble in organic solvents. Studies also observed that lipids appears to be generally deposit in the viscera. In recent research work, lipids are recorded between 15.8 to 77.8% of viscera fresh-weight 45. The lipid components were considerably higher (p<0.05) in wild grass carp as compared to farmed unlike observed in Silver carp as higher lipids (p<0.01) were found in farmed silver carp than wild 46. Similar results were shown during the present study that the Farmed species of silver carp has higher value of lipid content than wild species of silver carp even in the same weight groups.

Biometric measurements of Hypophthalmichthy smolitrix (Valenciennes) of different weight groups:-

Total lipid content (%) of Kidney, Liver and Intestine of Two different weight groups from two different habitats:

4. Conclusion

The total amount of lipid and fatty acid content is highly influenced by various elements such as geographic region, habits of feeding, season, age of the fish, being male or female, spawning period, etc. The total lipid and fatty acid composition data are very important for nutritionists and food scientists in preparation of dietary formulations, labeling of nutrients, for purifying and product development, for pharmaceutics the total lipid and fatty acid composition is very essential for formation of medicine and for aqua culturists in the production of feed, rearing fish species, etc.; Resultantly fish waste should be utilized instead of discarding it to spread pollution.

Acknowledgments

Authors, express our special thanks to the Head, Department of Zoology and Environmental Sciences, Punjabi University Patiala for providing necessary laboratory facilities and Fishers Department of Gobind Sagar Reservoir, Bhakra, H.P. and Mr. Ranjood Singh, owner of Nanoki Fish Farm to allow me for the collection of samples from his fish farm.

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Normal Style
Onkar Singh Brrach, Irshad Ahmad Malik, Saima Akhter. Seasonal and Habitat Effect on Total Lipid Content in Liver, Kidney and Intestine of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Wild and Farmed. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Vol. 9, No. 4, 2021, pp 484-489. http://pubs.sciepub.com/aees/9/4/9
MLA Style
Brrach, Onkar Singh, Irshad Ahmad Malik, and Saima Akhter. "Seasonal and Habitat Effect on Total Lipid Content in Liver, Kidney and Intestine of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Wild and Farmed." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9.4 (2021): 484-489.
APA Style
Brrach, O. S. , Malik, I. A. , & Akhter, S. (2021). Seasonal and Habitat Effect on Total Lipid Content in Liver, Kidney and Intestine of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Wild and Farmed. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 9(4), 484-489.
Chicago Style
Brrach, Onkar Singh, Irshad Ahmad Malik, and Saima Akhter. "Seasonal and Habitat Effect on Total Lipid Content in Liver, Kidney and Intestine of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) Wild and Farmed." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9, no. 4 (2021): 484-489.
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