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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Impact of Urban Sprawl on the Environment of Rohtak City

Priyanka Malik , Naresh Kumar
Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. 2021, 9(3), 336-339. DOI: 10.12691/aees-9-3-3
Received February 03, 2021; Revised March 09, 2021; Accepted March 18, 2021

Abstract

Urban areas are expanding at a faster pace throughout the world. Due to rapid urbanization in India urban population has increased from 79 million in 1961 which constitutes nearly 18 percent of the total population of the country to 471 million in 2019 which is about 34.47 percent of the total population of the country. The main factors behind this continuous increase of urban population in India are migration of people on large scale from rural area to urban areas in search of employment as well as migration from smaller cities to bigger cities for better employment opportunities and lifestyle. Due to this rapid urbanization in India we are losing productive agricultural land, air quality is deteriorating as well as open green spaces are decreasing and surface water bodies are depleting. In this study, an attempt has been made to study and quantify the urban sprawl of Rohtak city over the time period.

1. Introduction

Urban sprawl refers to growing concentration of people in a city which starts from a small dot and later it spreads in various dissimilar ways with varying intensity from one urban centre to another. Rapid urban growth due to economic development led to urban sprawl. Rapid urbanisation in United States in 1950s led to large scale destruction of forest area. Zhang 1 regarded this pattern of urban expansion and development as urban sprawl. Today urban sprawl is a common phenomenon in developed as well as developing countries. Some researchers regarded urban sprawl as unplanned development on the fringe area of cities along major routes of road transport.

Various attempts have been made by researchers to define urban sprawl. Urban sprawl was not studied till 1960s in economically advanced countries. Davis 2 observed the phenomenon of deconcentration of cities as they become industrialized and urbanized but it was not termed as sprawl. Late 1960s and early 1970s problem of sprawl gained importance in U.S.A. and North West Europe. “Urban Sprawl” was first coined by Nechyba and Walsh of United States in 2004. Sierra club 3 defines sprawl as an area where low density development is observed which lies beyond the service and employment area of the city and it separates the area where people live from where they shop, recreate and educate. They require cars to move between zones. This phenomenon is more common in U.S.A. Batty, Xie and Sun 4 consider urban sprawl in relation to urban growth which consists of three interrelated problem of spatial dynamics:

• Decline of core cities: They mark the historical origin of growth

• Emergence of edge cities: They compete and complement functions of the core

• Rapid urbanisation of the periphery of the cities.

Recent past has witnessed growth in urbanisation at an unprecedented scale. World urban population has increased at an alarming rate. In 1800, only 3 percent of the population lived in urban areas. In 1900, nearly 14 percent lived in urban areas and the number of cities with 1 million people was 12. In 1950, nearly 33 percent of the world population lived in urban areas and number of million cities was 83. In 2000, 47 percent of the world population lived in urban areas and number of million plus cities was 411. It is expected that by 2030, 60 percent of the population will be urban and mostly urbanisation will occur in less developed countries. The process of urbanization has become intense recently in developing countries. India urban population is currently growing at the rate of 2.3 percent per annum. Urban sprawl is now becoming a problem for developing countries as it promotes inefficient use of land, energy and destruction of fertile agriculture land.

2. Study Area

Rohtak city is located in Haryana and spreads over 31.24 square kilometre area. It is located to the north west of New Delhi on NH 10 at a distance of 75 km and 235 km to the south of Chandigarh capital city of Haryana. Rohtak city lies at the intersection of 28.8955° North latitude and 76.6066° East longitude. The average temperature in winter is 12°C and maximum temperature in summer reaches up to 45°C. South west monsoon appears in June. Rohtak city is the administrative headquarter and tehsil of the district. It is located in the NCR (National Capital Region) and identified as its regional centre. It is well connected by road and railway network to surrounding urban centres such as Sonipat, Bhiwani, Hissar and Bahadurgarh. Railway network in Rohtak city is broad gauge and is well connected not only to the surrounding areas but also connected to many cities in the south of the country. Rohtak city is a district headquarter and comprised of two parts – old and the new. Old part of the city is mainly spread over a mound, the initial site of occupancies. City expanded in all directions on the areas around the mound. Present site of the city is better defined in terms of man-made features. Rohtak city is situated on the alluvial plain of Ghaggar-Yamuna doab which is part of the larger plain extending between Sutlej and Yamuna. Rohtak city plays a dominant role in trade and transport development of the region and is surrounded by many primary market towns like Gohana, Sonipat, Sampla, Jhajjar, Beri and Kalanaur. Rohtak is the chief collecting and distributing centre for the surrounding area therefore play an important role as a major market centre.

3. Data Sets and Methodology

In our present many datasets are used were used for carrying out research work which includes Survey of India toposheet (Scale 1:50,000) (No. H43W9) and Landsat imagery for the years 1980 and 2020. Arc GIS software have been used to generate thematic maps.

4. Land Use Classification

Unsupervised classification is used in ArcGIS for classifying the imagery of both years i.e 1980 & 2020 but the results we got from unsupervised classification were not so accurate so we applied visual interpretation technique for image interpretation of image elements (i.e. shape, size, texture, tone, pattern etc.). After that both the images were classified in 4 land use categories which includes water, vegetation, barren land and settlement.

5. Results and Discussion

India is not one of the most urbanized country in the world as only 33 percent of the total population lives in urban areas but it is facing a serious problem of urban expansion. Urban expansion in plain areas is larger than in mountainous regions in India which is leading to the depletion of fertile agricultural land in plain areas. Rohtak city has undergone tremendous development in past few years. Area of Rohtak city increased from 1796.49 hectares in 1980 to 13900 hectares in 2020. Rohtak is now a Municipal corporation since 2010. Urban sprawl of Rohtak city has affected the natural environment of the nearby regions. Precious agricultural land of the nearby villages after getting included in the Municipal corporation boundary of the city has been converted into residential and commercial properties leading to the loss of fertile agricultural land. Population of the Rohtak city is increasing rapidly. Industrial areas like IMT has been established in the city leading to the encroachment of these fertile lands.

6. Conclusion

Current trend of urban development in Rohtak city has huge impact on the land resources of the nearby areas of the city leading to the depletion of precious agricultural land. Rohtak city has undergone large urban development in past few decades. The main aim of this study is to analyse the effect of urban sprawl of Rohtak city on the environment of the city. Rohtak city is located in the NCR region due to which it will keep on expanding. We need to take preventive measures for protecting the nearby agricultural land. We need to focus on sustainable development of the Rohtak city keeping in view the increasing population and massive resource utilization by the people. Thus, we need to focus on the development of rational urban planning policy for decreasing the adverse impact of urban sprawl of Rohtak city.

References

[1]  Zhang, B. (2004), Study on Urban Growth Management in China, Xinhua Press, Beijing.
In article      
 
[2]  Davis K. (1962), Urbanisation in India: Past and Future, In: Roy Turner (eds.), India’s Urban Future, Oxford University Press, Bombay. pp. 3-26.
In article      
 
[3]  Sierra Club. Stop sprawl: sprawling cities, spreading malaise. Sprawl report 2001b. Available at: http://www.sierraclub.org/sprawl/reports.
In article      
 
[4]  Batty, M., Xie, Y. and Sun, Z. (1999) The dynamics of urban sprawl. Working Paper Series. Paper 15. Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. University College London.
In article      
 
[5]  Ali, A.M.S., 2006. Rice to shrimp: land use/land covers changes and soil degradation in south-western Bangladesh. Land Use Policy 23 (4), 421-435.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Barnes, K.B., Mrogan III, J.M., Roberge, M.C., Lowe, S., 2001. Sprawl Development: Its Patterns, Consequences, and Measurement. Towson University, Towson.
In article      
 
[7]  Chadchan, J., Shankar, R., 2012. An analysis of urban growth trends in The post-economic reforms period in India. Int. J Sustainable Built. Environ. 1.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Cheng, J., Masser, I., 2003. Urban growth pattern modeling: a case study Of Wuhan city, PR China. Landscape Urban Plan., 62.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Dewan, A.M., Yamaguchi, Y., 2009a. Using remote sensing and GIS to Detect and monitor land use and land cover change in Dhaka Metropolitan of Bangladesh during 1960–2005. Environ. Monit. Assess. 150 (1-4), 237-249.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[10]  Dewan, A.M., Yamaguchi, Y., 2009b. Land use and land cover change in greater Dhaka, Bangladesh: using remote sensing to promote sustainable urbanization Appl. Geogr. 29 (3), 390-401.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Dewan, A.M., Yamaguchi, Y., Rahman, M.Z., 2012. Dynamics of land use/cover changes and the analysis of landscape fragmentation in Dhaka Metropolitan. Bangladesh Geojournal 77 (3), 315-330.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Du, S., Shi, P., Rompaey, A.V., 2013. The relationship between urban sprawl and farmland displacement in the Pearl River Delta. China Land 3 (34), 34-51.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Epstein, J., Payne, K., Kramer, E., 2002. Techniques for mapping suburban sprawl. Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 63 (9).
In article      
 
[14]  Farooq, S., Ahmad, S., 2008. Urban sprawl development around Aligarh City: a study aided by satellite remote sensing and GIS. J. Ind. Soc. Remote Sens. 36.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Forkuor, G., Cofie, O., 2011. Dynamics of land-use/land-cover change in Free town Sierra Leone and its effects on urban and peri-urban agriculture – a remote sensing approach. Int. J. Remote Sens. 32 (4).
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Grimm, N.B., Grove, J.M., Picket, S.T.A., Redman, C.L., 2000. Integrated approaches to long-term studies of urban ecological systems. Bioscience 50 (7).
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Gregorio, A., 2005. Land Cover Classification System: Classification Concepts and User Manual. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
In article      
 
[18]  Herold, M., Scepan, J., Clarke, C., 2002. The use of remote sensing and landscape metrics to describe structures and changes in urban land uses. Environ. Plann. 34.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Himiyama, Y., 2004. The trend, mechanism and impact of urban expansion in Japan. Reports of the Taisetsuzan Institute of Science.
In article      
 
[20]  Im, J., Jensen, J., Tullis, J., 2008. Object-based change detection using correlation image analysis and image segmentation. Int. J. Remote Sens. 29 (2).
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Jat, M.K., Garg, P.K., Khare, D., 2008. Modeling urban growth using spatial analysis techniques: a case study of Ajmer city (India). Int. J. Remote Sens. 29 (2), 543-567.
In article      View Article
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2021 Priyanka Malik and Naresh Kumar

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Normal Style
Priyanka Malik, Naresh Kumar. Impact of Urban Sprawl on the Environment of Rohtak City. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Vol. 9, No. 3, 2021, pp 336-339. http://pubs.sciepub.com/aees/9/3/3
MLA Style
Malik, Priyanka, and Naresh Kumar. "Impact of Urban Sprawl on the Environment of Rohtak City." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9.3 (2021): 336-339.
APA Style
Malik, P. , & Kumar, N. (2021). Impact of Urban Sprawl on the Environment of Rohtak City. Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 9(3), 336-339.
Chicago Style
Malik, Priyanka, and Naresh Kumar. "Impact of Urban Sprawl on the Environment of Rohtak City." Applied Ecology and Environmental Sciences 9, no. 3 (2021): 336-339.
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[1]  Zhang, B. (2004), Study on Urban Growth Management in China, Xinhua Press, Beijing.
In article      
 
[2]  Davis K. (1962), Urbanisation in India: Past and Future, In: Roy Turner (eds.), India’s Urban Future, Oxford University Press, Bombay. pp. 3-26.
In article      
 
[3]  Sierra Club. Stop sprawl: sprawling cities, spreading malaise. Sprawl report 2001b. Available at: http://www.sierraclub.org/sprawl/reports.
In article      
 
[4]  Batty, M., Xie, Y. and Sun, Z. (1999) The dynamics of urban sprawl. Working Paper Series. Paper 15. Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. University College London.
In article      
 
[5]  Ali, A.M.S., 2006. Rice to shrimp: land use/land covers changes and soil degradation in south-western Bangladesh. Land Use Policy 23 (4), 421-435.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  Barnes, K.B., Mrogan III, J.M., Roberge, M.C., Lowe, S., 2001. Sprawl Development: Its Patterns, Consequences, and Measurement. Towson University, Towson.
In article      
 
[7]  Chadchan, J., Shankar, R., 2012. An analysis of urban growth trends in The post-economic reforms period in India. Int. J Sustainable Built. Environ. 1.
In article      View Article
 
[8]  Cheng, J., Masser, I., 2003. Urban growth pattern modeling: a case study Of Wuhan city, PR China. Landscape Urban Plan., 62.
In article      View Article
 
[9]  Dewan, A.M., Yamaguchi, Y., 2009a. Using remote sensing and GIS to Detect and monitor land use and land cover change in Dhaka Metropolitan of Bangladesh during 1960–2005. Environ. Monit. Assess. 150 (1-4), 237-249.
In article      View Article  PubMed
 
[10]  Dewan, A.M., Yamaguchi, Y., 2009b. Land use and land cover change in greater Dhaka, Bangladesh: using remote sensing to promote sustainable urbanization Appl. Geogr. 29 (3), 390-401.
In article      View Article
 
[11]  Dewan, A.M., Yamaguchi, Y., Rahman, M.Z., 2012. Dynamics of land use/cover changes and the analysis of landscape fragmentation in Dhaka Metropolitan. Bangladesh Geojournal 77 (3), 315-330.
In article      View Article
 
[12]  Du, S., Shi, P., Rompaey, A.V., 2013. The relationship between urban sprawl and farmland displacement in the Pearl River Delta. China Land 3 (34), 34-51.
In article      View Article
 
[13]  Epstein, J., Payne, K., Kramer, E., 2002. Techniques for mapping suburban sprawl. Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens. 63 (9).
In article      
 
[14]  Farooq, S., Ahmad, S., 2008. Urban sprawl development around Aligarh City: a study aided by satellite remote sensing and GIS. J. Ind. Soc. Remote Sens. 36.
In article      View Article
 
[15]  Forkuor, G., Cofie, O., 2011. Dynamics of land-use/land-cover change in Free town Sierra Leone and its effects on urban and peri-urban agriculture – a remote sensing approach. Int. J. Remote Sens. 32 (4).
In article      View Article
 
[16]  Grimm, N.B., Grove, J.M., Picket, S.T.A., Redman, C.L., 2000. Integrated approaches to long-term studies of urban ecological systems. Bioscience 50 (7).
In article      View Article
 
[17]  Gregorio, A., 2005. Land Cover Classification System: Classification Concepts and User Manual. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
In article      
 
[18]  Herold, M., Scepan, J., Clarke, C., 2002. The use of remote sensing and landscape metrics to describe structures and changes in urban land uses. Environ. Plann. 34.
In article      View Article
 
[19]  Himiyama, Y., 2004. The trend, mechanism and impact of urban expansion in Japan. Reports of the Taisetsuzan Institute of Science.
In article      
 
[20]  Im, J., Jensen, J., Tullis, J., 2008. Object-based change detection using correlation image analysis and image segmentation. Int. J. Remote Sens. 29 (2).
In article      View Article
 
[21]  Jat, M.K., Garg, P.K., Khare, D., 2008. Modeling urban growth using spatial analysis techniques: a case study of Ajmer city (India). Int. J. Remote Sens. 29 (2), 543-567.
In article      View Article