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Research Article
Open Access Peer-reviewed

Modified Theory of Relativity (MTR)

Bjarne & Linda M. Lorenzen
Frontiers of Astronomy Astrophysics and Cosmology. 2018, 4(1), 32-53. DOI: 10.12691/faac-4-1-4
Received October 03, 2018; Revised Month November 22, 2018; Accepted December 03, 2018

Abstract

For decades, two aspects of nature have been either overlooked, poorly understood or misconceived. Ÿ The first is Anisotropic Dark Flow Acceleration (DFA).Ÿ The second is Relativistic Resistance against Motion (RR).The consequences for their inclusion will tremendously broaden our present picture of the Universe. Prediction: The special theory of relativity will begin to fall apart in 2020 / 2021 when the theory of relativity will be tested on board the ISS.

1. Introduction

As technical development and experience have progressed through the decades, we have gained a greater insight into the nature of the cosmos; however, we are constantly facing new discoveries that simply cannot be implemented in the prevailing paradigm. For some time now, it has become increasingly apparent that the field of astrophysics requires new knowledge in order to understand and solve the growing list of perplexing kinematic anomalies and phenomena that have been discovered so far. This new theory will solve the long list of mysteries in a very natural way which, unfortunately, we have failed to properly understand so far.

The beginning of the 19th century saw several mathematical paradoxes, partly deduced from the Lorentz transformation and partly from Maxwell’s equations. The essential aspects are: time dilation, length contraction, and the speed of light being constant regardless of the speed of the light source.

Shortly after, the theory of relativity was developed, and for the first time, it was possible to relate to these mathematical discoveries.

In the special theory of relativity, this necessitated a claim stating that there was no absolute motion reference frame. Already in 2020, (2022) we will see proof that this interpretation must be incorrect.

The reason for these misinterpretations is the fact that Albert Einstein was only aware of length contraction and time dilation. He had no mathematical basis to claim or believe that the ruler is also deformed in proportion to time and space. We will soon see that exactly in this area, new knowledge will force us to modify the 100-year old theory.

MTR is a further development of the theory of relativity and essentially simply claims that the ruler is also always a proportional transformation factor (logical suppositions justify this very necessary note).

This simplifies the special as well as the general theory of relativity to one single expression: “Reality Transformation”, which means that everything is always proportion transformation factors (obviously only locally).

This applies regardless of whether the relativistic transformation is caused by gravitational field influence or caused by relativistic motion.

In simple terms, the new understanding of relativity means that: “our reality”-the world we see around us-as well as time linked to this reality is proportionally transformed (reduced or enlarged) due to effects from either a gravitational field or due to speed.

Notice: the speed of light continues to be: “the same in all reference frames”, however, as the ruler is a proportional relativistic variable, ‘c’ is not comparably the same.

Without it being necessary to venture into extreme speculations, it is (so far) easy to conclude that the universe as well as matter must have an elastic common denominator which must be: the nature of space. In the same way, the cause of gravity must obviously be found in the elastic character of space.

Following a ‘red thread’ is therefore also unproblematic for the MTR theory to a far higher degree than expected, even to a degree where it can be concluded that the concept “dark energy simply must be due to changes in the elastic structure of space.

The distances in electromagnetic spectra are thus not stretched (expanding) while photons from distant stars travel towards us, but it is rather completely opposite; our physical reality is gradually being more and more contracted through billions of years due to the change (release of tension) in the elastic structure of space. Cosmological redshift is therefore in reality the evidence for: Reality Transformation.

In other words: the cosmologic redshift indicates a universal gravitational field in constant change and obviously easily leads to the opinion that endless cycles of Big Crunch and Big Bang must be responsible for a race between increasing and decreasing tension in the structure of space which constantly affects the entire universe through billions of years.

It is therefore implicit in the DNA of the MTR that the mass dissemination of the universe is limited but also that the universe must have its own acceleration due to gravity aimed at its own centre.

At a more speculative level, it is uncomplicated to suspect the strong nuclear force to be responsible for absorbing and twisting space and therefore, as a result, responsible for space being stretched towards (space absorbing) matter (meaning an elastic matter-space connection) where the endless red thread (supported by well-known knowledge or observations) is also aiming.

The following equation contains a basic acceleration based on several unsolved kinematic observations. This could suggest our universe is moving at huge speed.

The weakness and problem with the Special Theory of Relativity (hereafter SR) is that the old theory never succeeded to explain the cause and effect of the so-called curvature of space, not even hypothetically, or how the cause of “curved space” was connected or caused by the presence of matter.

Furthermore, one had to be satisfied with a rather superficial explanation claiming that the Lorentz Transformation was a result of relative motion in which an absolute frame of motion did not exist.

Many have refused to accept that “relative motion” was the correct cause-effect explanation for transformations that can be derived from the Lorentz Transformations. Even though conflict with QM, several mathematical as well as common sense-based thought experiments and ‘disproof’ have been brought forward, the old theory has survived.

The MTR theory claims that relativistic transformations are caused by a process where the strong nuclear force as well as the elastic nature of space play the only two main roles. The elastic property of space allows space to participate in a process where a given amount of energy is preserved. This includes the nuclear binding kinetic energy as well as kinetic and potential and energy.

Energy as a whole is converted and conserved in one and the same process whereby the property of space as a common denominator always becomes the linkage between the strong force and all Lorentz Transformations.

In simple terms; so soon the tension of space is changing either due to change in the total amount of energy, or due to the influence of nearby matter (gravity), - not only the tension of space is changing, - but matter (realties) connected to space is changing as well, simply due to matter and space is always connected with each other. Because realities (which included rulers) no longer not is comparable the same, different observers will measure the same distance, - differently.

This mean that the old terms “curvature of space” and distance abbreviation, will have a new meaning, and therefore also General Relativity (GR) will also never be the same again.

This also necessitates the introduction of an ‘absolute movement reference frame’ in which movement and relativistic transformation no longer depend on movement relative to other objects but only is a question of “true movement”-always relative to absolute rest.

Therefore, the greater part of the mathematical foundation of the old SR and GR will remain unchanged in the MTR, however, the cause-effect of the Lorentz Transformation is now completely different, and the well-known nature of space is now much easier to adapt with well-known facts.

Now it is therefore easy to predict that the old SR will break down when the theory is tested in an absolute reference frame. This is exactly what will happen on board ISS now. The result is expected ready in 2020 / 2022 1.

Because the elastic characteristic of space is involved in the strong nuclear interaction process, it is natural to ask whether a critical limit exists for how much space can be stretched before a nuclear explosion will occur.

At least, it must be obvious that the deeper into a gravitational field one gets, the more extreme the elasticity of space is stretched, and the more challenged the strong nuclear force is suspected to be.

Endless cycles of dissolution and reformation of matter applies not only to supernovas but most likely also to huge clusters of galaxies as well as the central mass accumulations of the universe.

If a Big Crunch triggers a Big Bang, matter and therefore also gravity will at first cease to exist in an increasing radius from the centre of the universe whereby mass will be attracted and instead aim towards other mass accumulations near the centre after which these will also explode as soon as space in these areas reaches a critical tension of space.

After the first stage of Big Bang, the elasticity of space, which previously stretched towards the centre of the gravitational field of an old universe, now withdraws from these centres towards a state with no (less) tension.

When central gravity of the universe disappears, the universe’s acceleration due to gravity will therefore gradually aim opposite the centre (towards the periphery) of the universe for a while. When the universe is cooled off, the strong nuclear force will emerge again, thus also gravity. Again, matter will aim towards the centre.

Today, the dissolution of a previous universal gravitational field currently dominates because the decreasing effect has a head start compared to the effect that the reformation gravitational field of the new universe is causing.

Therefore, the elastic withdrawal of the universal gravitational field dominates and continues, even today. However, at the same time, matter is again attracted by the recovered central gravitational field of the (new) universe, and everything is therefore again headed towards a new Big Crunch. Later in this paper, it will be shown how Dark Flow most likely must be understood as evidence for a Big Crunch taken place right now.

Even though the red thread of the theory has been stretched as far as possible, it is not decisive to the primary message of the theory.

This introduction should not be seen as the perfect image of a new paradigm, only a possible image, or rather a ‘template’ based on completely new knowledge.

The central message, however, is that we will soon have proof of a serious weakness in the theory of relativity, which supports Dark Flow as being fact. Time will tell how exactly to bid the old picture of the universe farewell.

2. Anisotropic Motion & Acceleration

An Anisotropic Dark Flow Acceleration exists.

This claim is based on a kinematic analysis of 21 Allais Effect measurements. This aspect of nature is important to truly research and understand as it is one of the most important cornerstones in what will soon be the new paradigm.

All measurements (without exception) substantiate that the Allais Effect is consistent with anisotropic acceleration and that the acceleration is directed in the same direction as Dark Flow. So far, Allais Effect measurements have taken place blindfolded.

Now, it is possible to calculate and predict when and where the Allais Effect can be confirmed, and of course also predict where and why no effect can be confirmed.

In addition, it is now also possible to calculate how strong anomalies can be expected, and even whether the effect can be measured before or after the eclipse reaches the maximum.

The exact magnitude of the anisotropic acceleration (possible to measure with different pendulums) is calculated to be around 35μGal (3.5*10-7m/s2), and not much deviation must be expected in the years to come.

Since the first claim in the 1950s when it was described as an anomalous effect, experimenters using pendulums have sporadically noted slight deviations when an eclipse is underway. Economic Nobel Prize winner Maurice Allais first reported his observations in 1954 when he noted that the pendulum in his Paris laboratory demonstrated a slight change in the precession of its plane of oscillation. Repeating his experiment in 1959, he obtained similar results. Numerous scientists have attempted to recreate his experiment with some claiming success and others reporting no changes to the pendulum movement.

Unfortunately, no theory has ever been able to explain why only some solar (and lunar) eclipses disturb different kinds of pendulums, or why the effect is sometimes delayed and sometimes happens before the eclipse, nor why different pendulums are sometimes able to measure the effect and gravimeters only very weakly or not at all. These days in darkness have now come to an end, and all these questions have now been answered.

An Anisotropic Acceleration can now be mathematically proven.

In order for a significant anisotropic acceleration to be measurable on Earth, specific conditions must be present.

It is somewhat similar to the situation that it is also impossible to measure the acceleration of Earth’s orbit acceleration from Earth (given that everything on Earth is part of the same acceleration frame of reference). However, there is an indirect method of measuring Dark Flow Acceleration (in short DFA), which is the same force / acceleration responsible for the Allais Effect 2, 3.

3. Dark Flow

Two independent observations and measurements based on NASA and ESA research have confirmed that Dark Flow could be true 4, 5, 6, 7. According to a NASA team led by Alexander Kashlinsky, the Dark Flow is directed towards the area between Hydra, Vela and Centaurus (Figure 1).

The latest WMAP confirms temperature variations in the form of spherical harmonic oscillation that seem to be relative to the movement of the Earth.

These temperature variations are neatly separated in the northern and southern sky relative to the geometry of the ecliptic plane of the solar system.

Also the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation seems to be slightly warmer in the direction of movement of the Local Group of galaxies that includes the Milky Way galaxy. This connection or alignment has been named “the axis of evil” because of the possible controversial interpretations, and thus the potential damage it can do to current big bang and standard cosmology theories. Still, dark flow has not been definitively proven, however, it must be noted that the possible cause of the Allais Effect, (an anisotropic Dark Flow Acceleration), can very easily adapt to observations based on the latest WMAP data.

Numerous Allais Effect research measurements during the decades have shown that an unknown force (at the minus 7 scale 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13) is occasionally exposed by a solar eclipse.

Recently, this force has also been measured by lunar eclipses. Sometimes the effect is weak, sometimes strong, and sometimes no effect has been measured. Now, for the first time ever, a new theory is able to explain and mathematically prove exactly why these phenomena have been so mysterious 14

4. Relativistic Resistance (RR)

We know that it requires ever more energy to maintain constant acceleration. In the 70's we saw both Pioneer space probes decelerating unexpectedly 15.

Not everybody agrees that NASA really solved the problem why. 16.

The MTR claims that resistance against motion happens by constant speed. Soon (within a year or two) it will be beyond any doubt that a braking force must exist. If that was not true, Dark Flow Acceleration would force the universe to go mad (reach speed ‘c’) within only 20 million years. We will very soon be forced to reconsider whether we recently were on the threshold to a new physic that unfortunately was swept under the carpet by NASA.

We will refer to this as Relativistic Resistance against Motion (Hereafter “RR”).

This, of course, means that Newton’s first law is incorrect, and it means that all orbits are periodically instable.

The cause of this is that the speed increment of an object causes energy and therefore also mass increment. Due to mass increment, the (so-called) curvature of space near a moving object also increases.

Space resists deformation (e.g. the release of tension of space results in a gravitational wave). There are several reasons to believe that the process by which kinetic energy converts to the mass/energy is a reversible process. Space must have some kind of elastic nature woven together with matter, allowing space to convert and conserve relativistic energy to reversible elastic space deformation / tension.

So the Lorentz transformation is also an expression of the elastic tension increase of space which a fast-moving object exerts. When the force (causing the speed of an object) stops, speed-related tension on space is automatically released too, so the Lorentz transformation factor is also a resistance factor.

Relativistic resistance is a reversible process, and the Lorentz transformation reflects the magnitude of resistance against motion and the magnitude of possible deceleration at the same time. A resistance factor can be calculated based on the already known Lorentz Transformation equation. RR = Relativistic Resistance. (The equation for transformation of the rulers is also shown below).

5. Unsolved Kinematic Problems

We have recently discovered several space probe anomalies, some decelerating, and some accelerating.

The biggest mystery has been why only small objects were affected and apparently not bigger objects such as astronomic objects.

The answer is that all objects and all orbits are in fact affected, but many anomalies cancel out after a certain period, some have not yet been discovered, some depend of orbit inclination, some are insignificant, and some are only active in certain periods.

Even Earth is constantly affected. As a whole, RR and DFA have several significant consequences. These can be verified and recognized in many orbits and trajectories. On the biggest scale, galaxies and clusters of galaxies are affected as well. The same law of nature is responsible for the strange orbits and motion that ‘we’ believe is caused by so-called dark matter.

Thinking of RR as a reversible process combined with DFA leads us to a different understanding of the nature of the Universe whereby a long list of kinematic orbit and trajectory anomalies and mysteries are solved nearly automatically 17.

6. Absolute Motion, - Acceleration & RR

Principle 1:

As long as there is no orbit acceleration or motion away from the Dark Flow Direction (hereafter DFD), the maximum Dark Flow Speed (DFS) will be reached. As soon as this happens, the Dark Flow Acceleration (DFA) and Relativistic Resistance against Motion (RR) counteract each other.

Both factors are possible to calculate because the speed of Dark Flow is known (600kms-1).

What remains is therefore only to calculate the magnitude of RR by that speed based on the assumption that 600kms-1 must be the maximum possible Dark Flow speed, and the magnitude of DFA is thereby also (indirectly) known. (See the graph, Figure 2).

Principle 2 - Local RR Magnitude:

The magnitude of RR (seen from an absolute motion frame of motion) always depends on true speed (Figure 3).

When the dark flow is e.g. 600 kms-1 and a galaxy moves in the opposite direction at 250 kms-1, the true, absolute speed of this galaxy is reduced to 350 kms-1. Notice: any object that moves at the maximum DFA speed will not accelerate (illustrated by Figure 2), but objects moving opposite DFA (by lower absolute speed) will accelerate towards the Dark Flow Direction (DFD). - We will refer to this as Effective Dark Flow Acceleration EDFA.

Principle 3. - RR is a reversible process.

This means that if no force pushes / pulls an object (further) towards the RR direction (see principle 4), the object will decelerate. The RR affecting an object can be compared to a retracted arrow. All that is required for the retracted, potential, kinetic energy of the arrow to be released is that the force of the string is released (which also illustrates that motion opposing DFD will cause less RR, also simple to calculate based on the equation shown above). (Figure 4)

Principle 4 - RR Directions:

RR is the same magnitude due to any movement perpendicular to the Dark Flow Direction (DFD) axis (see red arrow Figure 5) as it is moving straight towards DFD while it is gradually decreasing, starting from perpendicular movement to movement opposite to DFD (any northern direction).

Principle 5 - Local & Absolute Relativistic Resistance

Seen from a local perspective, absolute motion (for instance of the Earth or Solar System) towards any direction is affected by RR. Regardless of the basic absolute motion speed of the astronomic object, RR must always be calculated based on the RR-Lorentz equation based on a certain reference frame. Even though Earth is already travelling fast (for example 300 kms-1), this already affects the reference frame (time and distance) on Earth.

Principle 6:

Any additional speed relative to the Dark Flow Speed (DFS) triggers additional (local) Relativistic Resistance against Motion (RR), and any reduced speed relative to the Dark Flow speed reduces RR.

7. Illustrated Principles

Orbit A (Figure 6)

One would think that objects following orbit A (for example the Earth orbiting the Sun) must decelerate or spiralling in wards due to RR. However, this is not true. A certain Resulting Force is able to counteract a certain Resulting RR and hence maintain a certain Resulting Speed. (Illustrated by Figure 2).

The motion of the Solar System is a Vortex aiming towards DFD.

Therefore the Resulting Force and the Resulting RR most always be understood based on an overall (Vortex) perspective as explained and illustrated in the chapter 6: “Absolute Motion, Acceleration and RR”.

As long as the Resulting Force (that includes the centripetal force and DFA etc.) acting on Earth is stable, the absolute Dark Flow Speed of the Earth is also stable, and therefore the orbit of the Earth is also stable.

In other words: RR will not lead to orbit collapse (of the planets) in our Solar system, and not cause the Earth to spiralling inwards to the Sun. RR will just work the same way as the Centripetal Force, already does - and contribute to counteract the Centrifugal Force.

Addition Sideward ASAM (Figure 7)

If for example the solar system is also moving more or less perpendicular relative to the DFA axis, we will refer to this as: Additional Sideward Absolute Motion. (Hereafter ASAM). Such motion will cause apsis anomalies. The magnitude of the possible ASAM effect affecting our solar system is unknown.

Orbits B and D (Figure 8)

Objects following orbit B and D will both decelerate due to EDFAs when moving (more or less) north. In addition, the orbit inclination will change, however, these objects will gain back the lost energy when moving south due to EDFA. The result is Apsis anomalies.

Orbit C (Figure 8)

Objects following orbit C will decelerate due to EDFAs when moving north, however, these objects will gain back the lost energy when moving south. The result is Apsis anomalies.

8. Flyby Anomalies, Oumuamua and ISS

1. This image illustrates the centripetal force of a planet (or a star) counteracting the force of DFA

2. Since DFA and RR most of the time is cancelling out each other, - RR (connected with Dark Flow Speed) will be released, as soon as DFA no longer exist (or is cancelled out)

3. Release of RR can only happen upwards, so the release of RR will be impacting a visiting object under the Earth or under a star, and simple push an already upwards moving object faster upwards

4. The reason why RR only causes upwards motion (straight north) is that release of RR is only motion (acceleration) and not a force, hence that phenomena is also not interacting with other forces. Release of RR is therefore quite unique.

The acceleration due to gravity of the Earth (or the Sun) is relative to the force of DFA, - much stronger.

It only requires an equal force, (opposite DFA), to be able to Release Dark Flow related RR, (hereafter RDFRR) on the Dark Flow Axis.

An astronomic object can therefore easy release the full potential RDFRR (on the Dark Flow axis) (even from a large distance). This will force an object (under a planet or star) to accelerate straight upwards.

The reason why Oumuamua was much stronger effected as for example NEAR, is that under the Sun RDFRR, can last several weeks. Oumuamua was under the Sun almost 8 weeks.

The acceleration period (RDFRR) of Oumuamua came from a different direction relative to the expected centripetal force, whereby RDFRR could contribute to Oumuamua’s escape, instead of preventing escape.

RDFRR is not an addition force, but rather we can say; - that a tiny bit of the centripetal force (of a planet or star) is “converted” to a none-force, (motion / acceleration) that only can be released straight north, - or we can say: retracted motion / tension / resistance, - is simply released by counteracting DFA.

Because release of RDFRR not is a force, - this phenomena’s is also not interacting with other forces, and of this reason very surprising weird.

The reason why release of RDFRR often is difficult to discover is, that most of the time it is impossible to distinguish whether a certain motion is caused due to RDFRR or the centripetal force.

NEAR SHOEMAKER only got a “gentle push” lasting minutes, where after the space probe (approaching the earth under the Earth by flyby [18]) vanished. Hence the speed increment anomaly effecting NEAR was only 0,013 meter/s.

Time to escalate an anomaly is therefore what’s makes the difference. This is how unexpected flyby anomalies - and the weird acceleration of Oumuamua, - is caused.

We can now insert (already calculated) acceleration and the (measured) time elapse for such event and test whether this theory is bullet proof.

The acceleration affecting Oumuamua is already calculated by scientist to: (5.01±0.16)×10−6 m/s2 and can be used as an temporary approximation also for the acceleration affected NEAR, - because we shall expect full release of RDFRR both under a planet as well as under a star, there is reason to conclude that the same magnitude acceleration was effecting both object equally..

Not only flyby-anomalies and Oumuamua was affected by the same law of nature, also polar-satellites and ISS are affected, - these periods these objects are ‘down under’,

Both an unexpected acceleration period (as mention above) must be expected, but also (right before the acceleration period take place) an unexpected deceleration period must be expected. These 2 periods will in regular orbits (such as ISS and polar satellites orbits) cancel out each other. The unexpected results (in these cases) are:

1. Orbit eccentricity anomalies, - (difficult to discover because these will look very natural.)

2. Eccentricity instability, - depending on if perigee or apogee is point (more or less) south.

3. Perigee precision anomalies.

RDFRR also plays a very the main role, when it comes to understanding the cause of the Allais Effect.

This will be covered in the second part of this article: Modified Theory of Relativity (MTR) part-II

9. Prediction A

The magnitudes of space probe anomalies depend on true absolute speed.

Based on well-known space probe speed, - (RR) can be calculated as:

RR effecting the 2 mentioned space probes only represent a very weak deceleration most likely not significant enough to extract from the ISS data. However, unexpected time dilation is easily revealed.

ISS-Time Dilation (Special Relativity):

Time dilation is a consequence of absolute motion. If the absolute motion is increasing, the result is: a clock will tick slower. The other way around: if absolute speed is reduced, a clock will tick faster. Therefore, it is interesting to test spacecraft moving more or less on the Dark Flow Axis and in theory periodically increasing and decreasing their absolute speed.

In the following calculation and of simplicity reasons, we assume that the ISS would follow an orbit completely perpendicular relative to ecliptic. However, it is not so simple because also the ASAM effect has a time dilation effect.

During these periods, the ISS is moving from ‘X’ to ‘E’ (Figure 13), the average time dilation due to SR influence will in total only be 50% of the expected amount. At ‘E’, time gained, and loss of time will equalize.

When moving from ‘E’ and to ‘Z’, the clock on board ISS will gradually begin to tick faster, starting right after leaving ‘E’ and culminating at ‘Z’. At ‘Z’, the SR-time-dilation “anomaly” will reach the culmination points that demonstrate the biggest discrepancy between expected time dilation according to the prevailing and modified theory of relativity.

At Z, the Dark Flow speed is reduced by 7660 ms-1 1/sqrt 1-76602/2997924582)-1 which means that time will tick 3.26e-10s. faster according to MTR, and not 3.26e-10 slower according to the Prevailing Theory of Relativity (PTR).

This means that half of such an orbit will have an SR time dilation effect.

But the inclination of the ISS is not aligned with the dark flow axis; it is, however, inclined relative to that axis somewhere between 20° to 25°, and we should therefore only expect an approximate time loss of about 5.0e-8s.

Of course, the same principle applies to all kinds of orbits, and also the Galileo 5 & 6 satellites now dedicated for scientific tests.

10. Prediction B

One ISS orbit takes 5580 second.

Only 25% of an orbit period an orbit can be exposed for RR release.

Only (estimated) 15% of an orbit period will be affected.

This mean: 15% og 55608 seconds = 837 seconds

This period must push / accelerator the ISS upwards.

The experience from Oumuamua, and hence the already calculated unexpected acceleration, - (5.01±0.16)×10−6 m/s2) 19 can be used: 837 seconds multiplied with the above mentioned acceleration = (estimated) = 0.004185 meter

In other word we shall expect: - A southern hemisphere / anarchic- "flyby" anomaly, - at a magnitude much stronger as the magnitude affecting NEAR...

The anomaly will happen from about 270° to 360° ….. (180-360° = ecliptic)

Polar Satellites will have stronger anomalies. Orbit period for example 12 hours (43200 seconds) 15% = 6480 seconds. 6480 second multiplied with (5.01±0.16)×10−6 m/s2) = 0.0324 meter

Off course there will also be other influences:

• EDFA (from 210° to 70°)

• RR (from 90° to 180°)

however minor importance, because these contributions are only related to "addition speed" relative to the sun "at relative rest".

Down under the earth (or the sun) we shall expect weird 2 periods taken place. One accelerating and one decelerating period. This will be true for all Polar satellites, included the ISS some of the Flyby space probes (and Oumuamua). These will cancel out each other and hence difficult to discover. However as already mention in Chapter 8, these eccentricity anomalies are difficult to discover, because these will look like completely naturally orbits.

11. A Thought Experiment will be Necessary

‘A’ live in the basement of a skyscraper, ‘B’ at the top of the same building.

Two photons will travel to B, one is detected, the other reflected to B in the cellar.

This mean the 2 photons have (mainly) followed the same path.

Both A and B have measured the time it took the two photons to travel 13.7 billion years from the very first star to us.

However, as we know, A’s clock (deeper in the gravitational field) is ticking slower than B’s clock.

B would argue that it took the photon one minute longer to reach the Earth than the time A has measured, simply because B’s clock is ticking relatively faster than A’s clock. In reality, the difference is less, but that does not mean anything. The experiment could happen in the future where the distance could be a billion times larger. The point is the same. We accept that speed “c” is the same for both A and B.

11.1. Conclusion

Because A and B both measured the time it took the two photons to reach us, and because both A and B also agree that the speed of the photon must be the same (‘c’), A and B can only conclude that either the distance to the star that emitted the photon is significantly different (which is utopia because the universe is not likely to change shape depending on the observer who observes a process)-or the conclusion can only be that A’s ruler (in the basement) must be longer compared to B’s ruler.

Only in this way can A and B both assert that ‘c’ is the same for both (even though ‘c’ is not comparably the ‘same’).

The modified theory of relativity (MTR) asserts that everything, both time, distance, matter as well as the ruler always stretch proportionally due to relativistic influence which means that the ruler is a proportional variant.

The prevailing theory of relativity does not address whether the ruler is a variant or not. Nevertheless, GR asserts that the path of the photon reaching A and B must be different (which is contradicted by the thought experiment which clearly demonstrates that such a postulate makes no logical sense at all).

12. Perihelion Precession Anomalies

The two different interpretations of the thought experiment (mentioned above) are essentially also according to the (real) cause of the Perihelion Precession Anomaly of Mercury (in the following PPAM).

Again, we will face the same dilemma: GR asserts that PPAM is caused by variation of the relativistic path / orbit that Mercury follows, and hence that gravity not is a force.

However, the MTR asserts that even though it is true that time and distance are relativistic factors of the orbit of Mercury, hence the consequence simply is that the orbit distance (and time) is measured relatively different simply because rulers are relativistic variants and.

One option; is therefore that the cause of the PPAM is off course: distance deformation.

Because the ruler (distances) near the Sun is relatively more stretched compared to further out, the distance to the sun is relatively smaller by perihelion (as expected), and therefore stronger acceleration due to gravity. This sounds the same as the well-known “curvature of space” concept – however MTR do not support the “curvature of space” hypotheses, but rather that gravity is still a force, and that rulers are relativistic variants.

The second option: is that PPAM is caused by: Effective Dark Flow Acceleration, (EDFA), At least the following effects contribute.

To be able to calculate the influence of the EDFA effect that affects the orbit of Mercury when the planet follows the orbit path from “inclination low” to ”inclination peak” (Figure 14), the following equation has to be used; 1m/s2-1m/s2/sqrt(1-v2/c2) = but only to the degree that Mercury moves opposite DFA.

After reaching the “inclination peak”, Mercury moves “downwards” and will have gained back the lost speed when reaching “inclination low” (Figure 14).

To calculate the perihelion precession consequences in further detail, advanced software is required. In addition, also an RR and ASAM influence must be considered.

13. Dark Matter, Black holes & Galaxy Dynamic

Stars of a galaxy that do not follow a fully perpendicular inclined path relative to the DFA axis (Figure 15) will when they move (more or less) north, - lose speed (caused by EDFA). From a local perspective, it will look like kinetic energy is lost, but from an absolute perspective, kinetic energy is temporarily converted to potential gravitational energy, because higher altitude relative to the dark Flow Direction (DFD) is reached.

As soon as the stars move again (more or less) downwards (south), potential energy is again reconverted to kinetic energy, also caused by EDFA. Therefore, EDFA is responsible for the relatively large orbit speed of stars. So-called Dark Matter do not exist.

Galaxies moving at aligned inclination, on the DFA axis, will collapse and can of that reason end up as quasars. Matter is forces inwards. Huge amount of mass can be trapped in the central area of a collapsing galaxies, this can create black holes. However not black holes as we are used to think about these. The cause of black holes is black, is that central space of a galaxy is stretched to such extreme that light converts to infrared electromagnetic waves and radio waves, - simple due to the extreme stretched space environment, that proportional will effect matter and time. There is nothing mysterious about these, and no event horizon either, where light is trapped.

14. A Universe Full of Evidence

Evidence 1. - FGC1287

In the wake of FGC1287 (Figure 17) follows a tail of gas and stars which get lost. The cause of such losses is periodic galaxy collapses due to periods dominated by mainly aligned or completely perpendicular inclination relative to the DFA axis). Such galaxies can end up as ultracompact galaxies or quasars.

During such periods, mass (stars etc.) is forced towards the central area of a galaxy whereby the central mass density increases significantly and therefore causes very fast central orbit speed.

However, when either the orbit inclination of the galaxy is changing or when a part of the inner orbital mass is changing its inclinations, the centrifugal force and the already fast internal orbit speed can cause mass to be ejected from the centre or even formation of ring galaxies. 20.

Evidence 2. - Different Size of Galaxies (Figure 18)

The mass of the 2 illustrated galaxies is the same, but the size is very different.

The cause of the very different sizes is due as explained (right above) in “Evidence1”

Evidence 3. - Mysterious Ring Galaxies

Galaxies periodically dominated by RR and EDFA, due to mainly aligned or completely perpendicular inclination relative to the DFA axis, can collapse and end up as ultracompact galaxies or quasars. Central orbit speed will therefore increase. So soon the orbit inclination is changed enough to prevent EDFA or RR domination it allows the centrifugal force to force peripheral stars further outwards. This is how the peripheral ring of stars is caused (Figure 19).

Sometimes only peripheral stars, and sometimes all stars of such galaxies are forced further outwards.

Because gravity (most of the time) is stronger near the centre due to larger mass density, an inner core of stars is typically not affected enough by the centrifugal force, thereby leaving a dense inner core of stars to remain near the centre (almost) unaffected 21. However, the centrifugal force (and inner speed of stars) can sometimes also outplay the stronger central gravity and also forces these stars outwards and create galaxies without inner ring (Figure 20) 22.

Evidence 4 -Arp. Halton Controversy (Figure 21 & Figure 22)

The principles responsible for FGC1287 (Evidence-1 described above) are the same as the ones responsible for ejection observed by Arp. Halton. 23

Evidence 5 - A surprising trend in galaxy evolution (Susan Kassin, NASA),

A surprising trend in galaxy evolution shows that galaxies continue to increase their kinetic energy (Figure 23) 24.

The cause of that, is the magnitude of DFA is increasing billions of years after the Big Bang (and will most likely continue to do so for a long time).

As mentioned in the introduction, the universal field of gravity is always changing, caused by 2 factors: on the one hand, the dissolving field of gravity from a previous universe, and on the other hand, recreation of the universal field of gravity after a new universe is created.

Because DFA is identical with the acceleration due to gravity of our own universe, it is obvious that the magnitude of DFA is increasing after Big Bang, and hence a variant factor. Therefore, we will see that galaxies gradually increase their energy the older the universe gets.

Evidence 6. - Spooky Alignment of Quasars Across Billions of Light-years

These phenomena are one of the latest discoveries.

The cause of this is already explained in detail above.

So far, we have only discovered that quasars are involved, but galaxies must be expected to show a similar pattern (Figure 24) 25.

Evidence 7. Mysterious dance of dwarf galaxies may force a cosmic rethink

The discovery that many small galaxies throughout the universe do not 'swarm' around larger ones like bees do but 'dance' in orderly disc-shaped orbits is a challenge to our understanding of how the universe formed and evolved. "Everywhere we looked we saw this strangely coherent coordinated motion of dwarf galaxies.

From this we can extrapolate that these circular planes of dancing dwarfs are universal, seen in about 50 percent of galaxies," said Professor Geraint Lewis. "This is a big problem that contradicts our standard cosmological models. It challenges our understanding of how the universe works including the nature of dark matter." Source: 26, 27.

Comment: Peripheral stars of a galaxy take longer to change the inclination compared to the inner stars. Because EFDA is speed-dependent and inner objects of a system are moving faster compared to peripheral objects, the inner and outer change of inclination does not follow each other. In addition, the orbit distance near the periphery is greater whereby a larger distance must be travelled.

Evidence 8. – Unexpected Time Dilation

All motion against any ASAM (RR direction) will cause clocks to tick slower, and any motion opposite any ASAM will cause clocks to tick faster.

There are reasons to believe that we should expect an undiscovered annual as well as diurnal time dilation variation anomaly, even here on Earth. Whenever the absolute motion increases, we should expect slower clicking clocks, and when the absolute speed is reduced, we should expect faster ticking clocks.

The illustration above (Figure 26) is only temporary and not correct: the purpose is only to illustrate ASAM and how signals coming from different motion reference frames (for example the Pioneer space probes) can reveal whether or not ASAM affect us . Further research (including measurement and experiments) is necessary to determinate exactly from which (sideward) direction relativistic effects/variation deviate from our expectations.

Annual and Diurnal time dilation was found in the Pioneer 10 and 11 data (Figure 27) 15, 16, 28.

Evidence 9. Planet X is not necessary

It is believed that the clustering of most of their orbits indicates that they are likely to be influenced by “something massive and very distant”, the proposed Planet X. – The cause of this must to be ASAM 29.

Evidence 10. - Jupiter may have once migrated closer to the Sun.

"It's like Jupiter bowled a strike through the asteroid belt," said Francesca DeMeo, who did much of the mapping as a postdoc in MIT's Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences. "The trickle of asteroids discovered in unexpected locations has turned into a river. We now see that all asteroid types exist in every region of the main belt," researchers wrote in their paper in the Journal Nature. Source 30.

Comment: Periodical, large orbit eccentricity is expected according to the MTR theory.

Evidence 11. - Jupiter's Migration Miracle

The Jupiter atmosphere probe found high levels of argon, krypton, and xenon. 2. This discovery presented a problem: heat drives off these noble gases during planetary formation. Huge quantities of argon, krypton, and xenon in the present Jovian atmosphere indicate that Jupiter formed in a region with temperatures below-406 °F; temperatures that could exist only beyond the orbit of Pluto.

Jupiter’s cold origin means that the solar system’s largest planet must have migrated a long way, starting more than four billion miles from the Sun and ending up just 465 million miles from the Sun. Source 31.

Comment: Periodical orbit collapse is expected according to the MTR theory.

Evidence 12. - Extrasolar Hot Jupiter: The Planet That 'Shouldn’t Exist'

The planet, called WASP-18b, belongs to a now-common class of extrasolar planets known as ‘hot Jupiters’-massive planets that are thought to have formed far from their host stars and migrated inwards over time. WASP-18b is so massive and so close to its star-only about three stellar radii away-that tidal interactions between star and planet should have caused the planet to spiral inwards to its destruction in less than a million years. Source: 32, 33.

Comment: Periodical orbit collapse is expected according to the MTR theory during periods when the orbit inclination of a solar system is more or less aligned to the Dark Flow Direction.

Evidence 13. - Where do the oceans come from?

The study headed by Adam Sarafian of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, found that our seas may have arrived much earlier on our planet than previously thought.

The study pushes back the clock on the origin of Earth's water by hundreds of millions of years to around 4.6 billion years ago when all the worlds of the inner solar system were still forming.

"Some people have argued that any water molecules that were present as the planets were forming would have evaporated or been blown off into space," said study co-author Horst Marschall, a geologist at WHOI. For that reason, he said, scientists thought that "surface water as it exists on our planet today must have come much, much later-hundreds of millions of years later." Source 34.

Comment: The small inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars and the Earth) may very well once have been moon orbiting a giant planet (a hot Jupiter like Wasb-18) and were forced inwards due to the law of nature described above.

The tidal interactions finally pulled the giant down on the Sun. Hundreds of moons may have had the same destiny. The moons orbiting such a giant would finally have had extremely eccentric orbits.

Some moons could have been impacted differently by the tidal force and could have survived thanks to “flyby manoeuvres” (very short perihelion distant) and correct timing-and simply continued to orbit the Sun without their host planet.

So Earth and Venus could once have been icy moons like the moon: Europa orbiting Jupiter. Therefore, not only the water but also the Earth itself could very easily have been created much further out which explains why the water had not evaporated. Furthermore, the Earth could have captured our moon that also once was escaping the destruction of their common mother planet, and one more mystery could be solved.

Evidence 14. - Is Mercury an alien planet?

Mercury’s strange past has always been something of a mystery to scientists.

While the planet appears geologically dead today, astronomers believe it had a violent volcanic history.

Now, a U.S. group has linked this turbulent past to a theory that the planet formed further out in the solar system and later migrated in. Source 35.

Comment: Periodical orbit collapse is expected according to the MTR theory.

Evidence 15. - Gravitational Lensing

Imagine an inner central area of a galaxy or cluster of galaxies divided into 3 successive areas. One area furthest out ‘A’. One area further in ‘B’. And one area even further in ‘C’.

The matter that is in area ‘A’ is stretching the elastic space from all directions.

The matter that lies deeper in the galaxy (area ‘B’) lies ‘behind’ the outer matter (area ‘A’) and thereby affects space that is already somewhat affected (by area ‘A’).

The matter that lies in area ‘B’ and even deeper (in area ‘C’) therefore lies in areas that are becoming more and more deformed as one moves inwards.

In short, Area C has the strongest lensing effect.

The further we get back in time, the stronger an effect we will see. Furthermore, matter can contribute to lensing effect although billions of lightyears away and therefore also varies significantly from place to place. So-called Dark matter is not necessary to explain the large variation.

Using gravitational lensing, a team of scientists believed they have observed dark matter in Abell 520. The dark matter is not behaving as predicted and is inconsistent with the observations of the Bullet Cluster, a colossal collision between two galaxy clusters which is recognized as an example of how dark should behave.

Astronomers using data from NASA’s Hubble Telescope have observed what appears to be a clump of dark matter left behind from a wreck between massive clusters of galaxies. The result could challenge current theories about dark matter that predict that galaxies should be anchored to the invisible substance even during the shock of a collision. Source: 36.

Evidence 16. - Mysterious Ultra-Red Galaxies

May Be Cosmic 'Missing Link'

The four newfound galaxies shine much more brightly in infrared light than in visible wavelengths which is how the infrared-sensitive Spitzer was able to detect them.

The research team still is not sure why they are so strikingly red.

There are three main reasons why a galaxy may appear red, researchers said.

First, it may be extremely dusty. Second, it could contain many old, red stars. Or third, the galaxy may be extremely distant, in which case the expansion of the universe has stretched its light to very long (and very red) wavelengths.

All three of these factors may be in play in the case of the newfound galaxies, researchers said. But they are not sure since much about them remains mysterious.

"We've had to go to extremes to get the models to match our observations," said study lead author Jiasheng Huang, also of the CfA. Source 37

Comment: The tension in the structure of space was extreme 13.7 billion years ago (due to tension caused by the previous universe). Not only time and space were extremely stretched, matter was as well. The redshifted electromagnetic spectrum is therefore evidence revealing the different tension from this period.

Evidence 17. - Mysterious infrared light from space

A research team using the ALMA has detected the faintest millimetre-wave source ever observed. By accumulating millimetre-waves from faint objects like this throughout the Universe, the team finally determined that such objects are 100% responsible for the enigmatic infrared background light filling the Universe. By comparing these to optical and infrared images, the team found that 60% of them are faint galaxies, whereas the rest have no corresponding objects in optical/infrared wavelengths, and their nature is still unknown.

"However, we have no idea what the rest of them are. I speculate that they are galaxies obscured by dust. Considering their darkness, they would be very low-mass galaxies", Masami Ouchi explained passionately. "This means that such small galaxies contain great amounts of dust. That conflicts with our current understanding: small galaxies should contain small amounts of dust. Our results might indicate the existence of many unexpected objects in the distant Universe. We are eager to unmask these new enigmatic sources with future ALMA observations."

Comment: The tension in the structure of space was extreme 13 billion years ago (due to tension caused by the previous universe). Not only time and space were extremely stretched, matter was as well. Some of the infrared background could be caused by emitted light from objects that once existed in the previous universe or from objects much further away that survived the Big Crunch 38.

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In article      View Article
 
[14]  Bjarne Lorenzen The Cause of the Allais Effect Solved https://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=76756.
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[18]  Flyby Anomaly https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flyby_anomaly.
In article      
 
[19]  NON-GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATION IN THE ORBIT OF 1I/2017 U1 (‘Oumuamua) https://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/releases/science_papers/heic1813/heic1813a.pdf.
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[20]  Pinning The Tails On Galaxy Clusters www.universetoday.com/91634/pinning-the-tails-on-galaxy-clusters.
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[21]  A strange ring galaxy https://phys.org/news/2010-08-image-strange-galaxy.html.
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[22]  This Double-Ringed Galaxy Is One of the Rarest Types Ever Seen https://www.space.com/35219-rare-ringed-galaxy-discovery-image.html.
In article      
 
[23]  Halton Arp. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halton_Arp.
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[24]  Astronomers Uncover A Surprising Trend in Galaxy Evolution www.nasa.gov/topics/universe/features/galaxy-evol.html.
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[25]  Spooky Alignment of Quasars Across Billions of Light-years https://www.eso.org/public/news/eso1438/.
In article      
 
[26]  Mysterious dance of dwarf galaxies may force a cosmic rethink https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140721100418.htm.
In article      
 
[27]  Half of Andromeda’s satellite galaxies orbit in a mysterious disk https://arstechnica.com/science/2013/01/half-of-andromedas-satellite-galaxies-orbit-in-a-mysterious-disk/.
In article      
 
[28]  John D. Anderson, Philip A. Laing, Eunice L. Lau, Anthony S. Liu, Michael Martin Nieto, and Slava G. Turyshev. Study of the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11.
In article      
 
[29]  Hunt for Planet 9 reveals extremely distant solar system objects https://astronomynow.com/2016/08/30/hunt-for-planet-9-reveals-extremely-distant-solar-system-objects/.
In article      
 
[30]  Jupiter may have once migrated closer to the Sun http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/jupiter-may-have-once-migrated-closer-to-the-sun-scientists/articleshow/29601555.cms?intenttarget=no.
In article      
 
[31]  Jupiter's Migration Miracle http://www.reasons.org/articles/jupiter-s-migration-miracle.
In article      
 
[32]  Extrasolar Hot Jupiter: The Planet That 'Shouldn’t Exist https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/08/090827132901.htm.
In article      
 
[33]  Astrophysicists puzzle over planet that's too close to its sun http://articles.latimes.com/2009/aug/27/science/sci-planet27.
In article      
 
[34]  Mystery of Earth's Water Origin Solved http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/10/141030-starstruck-earth-water-origin-vesta-science/
In article      
 
[35]  Is Mercury an alien planet? https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2599649/Is-Mercury-migrant-planet- Volcanic-past-suggests-closest-world-sun-formed-OUTSIDE-solar-system.html.
In article      
 
[36]  Dark Matter Core of Abell 520 Differs from Bullet Cluster https://scitechdaily.com/dark-matter-core-of-abell-520-differs-from-bullet-cluster.
In article      
 
[37]  Mysterious Ultra-Red Galaxies May Be Cosmic 'Missing Link https://www.space.com/13797-nasa-spitzer-telescope-red-galaxies-distant-universe.html.
In article      
 
[38]  Mysterious infrared light from space resolved perfectly https://phys.org/news/2016-03-mysterious-infrared-space-perfectly.html.
In article      
 
[39]  Chasing 'Oumuamua https://www.nasa.gov/feature/jpl/chasing-oumuamua.
In article      
 

Published with license by Science and Education Publishing, Copyright © 2018 Bjarne & Linda M. Lorenzen

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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Bjarne & Linda M. Lorenzen. Modified Theory of Relativity (MTR). Frontiers of Astronomy Astrophysics and Cosmology. Vol. 4, No. 1, 2018, pp 32-53. http://pubs.sciepub.com/faac/4/1/4
MLA Style
Lorenzen, Bjarne & Linda M.. "Modified Theory of Relativity (MTR)." Frontiers of Astronomy Astrophysics and Cosmology 4.1 (2018): 32-53.
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Lorenzen, B. &. L. M. (2018). Modified Theory of Relativity (MTR). Frontiers of Astronomy Astrophysics and Cosmology, 4(1), 32-53.
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Lorenzen, Bjarne & Linda M.. "Modified Theory of Relativity (MTR)." Frontiers of Astronomy Astrophysics and Cosmology 4, no. 1 (2018): 32-53.
Share
[1]  Atomic Clock Will Fly to Space Station in 2016: http://www.space.com/26897-pharao-atomic-clock-space-station.html.
In article      
 
[2]  Maurice Allais L'ANISOTROPIE DE L'ESPACE http://ether-wind.narod.ru/Allais_1997/Allais_1997_1.pdf.
In article      
 
[3]  Allais Effect Measurement Listed www.science27.com/allais.
In article      
 
[4]  The "Dark Flow" & Existence of Other Universes--New Claims of Hard Evidence http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2013/06/the-dark- flow-the-existence-of-other-universes-new-claims-of-hard-evidence.html.
In article      
 
[5]  F. Atrio-Barandela, A. Kashlinsky, H. Ebeling , D. J. Fixsen4, D. Kocevski., “Probing the Dark Flow signal in WMAP 9 yr and PLANCK cosmic microwave background maps.” arXiv: 1411.4180v2 [astro-ph. CO] 22 Jul 2015.
In article      View Article
 
[6]  A. Kashlinsky, F. Atrio-Barandela, D. Kocevski, H. Ebeling “A measurement of large-scale peculiar velocities of clusters of galaxies: technical details”.
In article      
 
[7]  A measurement of large-scale peculiar velocities of clusters of galaxies: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/1775888_A_measurement_of_largescale_peculiar _velocities_of_clusters_of_galaxies_Technical_details¨’.
In article      
 
[8]  Yang, Xin-She; Wang, Qian-Shen Gravity Anomaly During the Mohe Total Solar Eclipse and New Constraint on Gravitational Shielding https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225262849_Gravity_Anomaly _During_the_Mohe_Total_Solar_Eclipse_and_New_Constraint_on _Gra vitational_Shielding_Parameter.
In article      
 
[9]  Maurice Allais L'ANISOTROPIE DE L'ESPACE (page 206-212) http://ether-wind.narod.ru/Allais_1997/Allais_1997_1.pdf.
In article      
 
[10]  Jean-Bernard DELOLY-22/04/2016 “Continuation given to Maurice Allais's experimental works State of the situation (2015)” www.fondationmauriceallais.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/situation_allais_2015-trad.pdf.
In article      
 
[11]  D. C. Mishra and M. B. S. Vyaghreswara Rao, “Temporal variation in gravity field during solar eclipse on 24 October 1995,” Current Science, vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 782-783, Jun. 1997.
In article      
 
[12]  T. J. Goodey A.F. Pugach D. Olenici ““CORRELATED ANOMALOUS EFFECTS OBSERVED DURING A SOLAR ECLIPSE”.
In article      
 
[13]  A. F. Pugach1 and D. Olenici2 Observations of Correlated Behavior of Two Light Torsion Balances and a Paraconical Pendulum in Separate Locations during the Solar Eclipse of January 26th, 2009.
In article      View Article
 
[14]  Bjarne Lorenzen The Cause of the Allais Effect Solved https://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=76756.
In article      
 
[15]  Pioneer Anomaly https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_anomaly.
In article      
 
[16]  The Pioneer Anomaly: an inconvenient reality or NASA's 12 year misconception? https://arxiv.org/abs/1307.0537.
In article      
 
[17]  Unsolved Kinematic Anomalies listed: www.science27.com/orbit.
In article      
 
[18]  Flyby Anomaly https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flyby_anomaly.
In article      
 
[19]  NON-GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATION IN THE ORBIT OF 1I/2017 U1 (‘Oumuamua) https://www.spacetelescope.org/static/archives/releases/science_papers/heic1813/heic1813a.pdf.
In article      
 
[20]  Pinning The Tails On Galaxy Clusters www.universetoday.com/91634/pinning-the-tails-on-galaxy-clusters.
In article      
 
[21]  A strange ring galaxy https://phys.org/news/2010-08-image-strange-galaxy.html.
In article      
 
[22]  This Double-Ringed Galaxy Is One of the Rarest Types Ever Seen https://www.space.com/35219-rare-ringed-galaxy-discovery-image.html.
In article      
 
[23]  Halton Arp. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halton_Arp.
In article      
 
[24]  Astronomers Uncover A Surprising Trend in Galaxy Evolution www.nasa.gov/topics/universe/features/galaxy-evol.html.
In article      
 
[25]  Spooky Alignment of Quasars Across Billions of Light-years https://www.eso.org/public/news/eso1438/.
In article      
 
[26]  Mysterious dance of dwarf galaxies may force a cosmic rethink https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140721100418.htm.
In article      
 
[27]  Half of Andromeda’s satellite galaxies orbit in a mysterious disk https://arstechnica.com/science/2013/01/half-of-andromedas-satellite-galaxies-orbit-in-a-mysterious-disk/.
In article      
 
[28]  John D. Anderson, Philip A. Laing, Eunice L. Lau, Anthony S. Liu, Michael Martin Nieto, and Slava G. Turyshev. Study of the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11.
In article      
 
[29]  Hunt for Planet 9 reveals extremely distant solar system objects https://astronomynow.com/2016/08/30/hunt-for-planet-9-reveals-extremely-distant-solar-system-objects/.
In article      
 
[30]  Jupiter may have once migrated closer to the Sun http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/jupiter-may-have-once-migrated-closer-to-the-sun-scientists/articleshow/29601555.cms?intenttarget=no.
In article      
 
[31]  Jupiter's Migration Miracle http://www.reasons.org/articles/jupiter-s-migration-miracle.
In article      
 
[32]  Extrasolar Hot Jupiter: The Planet That 'Shouldn’t Exist https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/08/090827132901.htm.
In article      
 
[33]  Astrophysicists puzzle over planet that's too close to its sun http://articles.latimes.com/2009/aug/27/science/sci-planet27.
In article      
 
[34]  Mystery of Earth's Water Origin Solved http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/10/141030-starstruck-earth-water-origin-vesta-science/
In article      
 
[35]  Is Mercury an alien planet? https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2599649/Is-Mercury-migrant-planet- Volcanic-past-suggests-closest-world-sun-formed-OUTSIDE-solar-system.html.
In article      
 
[36]  Dark Matter Core of Abell 520 Differs from Bullet Cluster https://scitechdaily.com/dark-matter-core-of-abell-520-differs-from-bullet-cluster.
In article      
 
[37]  Mysterious Ultra-Red Galaxies May Be Cosmic 'Missing Link https://www.space.com/13797-nasa-spitzer-telescope-red-galaxies-distant-universe.html.
In article      
 
[38]  Mysterious infrared light from space resolved perfectly https://phys.org/news/2016-03-mysterious-infrared-space-perfectly.html.
In article      
 
[39]  Chasing 'Oumuamua https://www.nasa.gov/feature/jpl/chasing-oumuamua.
In article